plant growth

Extreme Drought in Grassland Ecosystems (EDGE) Net Primary Production Quadrat Data at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2012-present)

Abstract: 

EDGE is located at six grassland sites that encompass a range of ecosystems in the Central US - from desert grasslands to short-, mixed-, and tallgrass prairie. We envision EDGE as a research platform that will not only advance our understanding of patterns and mechanisms of ecosystem sensitivity to climate change, but also will benefit the broader scientific community. Identical infrastructure for manipulating growing season precipitation will be deployed at all sites. Within the relatively large treatment plots (36 m2), we will measure with comparable methods, a broad spectrum of ecological responses particularly related to the interaction between carbon fluxes (NPP, soil respiration) and species response traits, as well as environmental parameters that are critical for the integrated experiment-modeling framework, as well as for site-based analyses. By designing EDGE as a research platform open to the broader scientific community, with subplots in all replicates (n = 180 plots) set-aside for additional studies, and by making data available to the broader ecological community EDGE will have value beyond what we envision here. 

Data set ID: 

297

Core Areas: 

Additional Project roles: 

503

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Study Sites

The six sites were selected to capture the key environmental and ecological gradients of Central US grasslands and represent the major grassland ecosystem types (desert, shortgrass, mixedgrass, and tallgrass) of the region. Site selection criteria included: site characteristics (mean annual precipitation and temperature, dominant vegetation), access and site security, permission to build experimental infrastructure, participation in an existing or future network (e.g., LTER, NEON), and available site support and supporting data (e.g., LTER, USFWS or ARS).

Experimental Treatments and Plots

Our approach will be to impose a significant reduction in growing season precipitation (-66 % of ambient) over a 4-yr period. This is the equivalent of a ca. 50% reduction in annual precipitation because at all sites about 60-75% of annual precipitation falls in the growing season. We will impose this long-term drought either by reducing the size of each rainfall event (event size reduction, E) or by reducing the number of events (delayed rainfall treatment, D).

The control (C) treatment is included for comparison. At each site, the ambient (C) rainfall pattern will be reduced in two ways to impose a severe drought over a 4-yr period.

For the event size reduction treatment (E), each rainfall event will be passively reduced by a fixed proportion. Note that rain event number and the average number of days between events does not differ from ambient treatment.

For the reduced event number (D) treatment, shelters roofs will be removable to permit periods of complete rain exclusion alternating with periods of ambient rainfall inputs. Here, a + 10 mm rule is used to determine when roofs are on or off. When the cumulative precipitation amount in this D treatment falls 10 mm below the E treatment, the roofs are removed until the cumulative precipitation total is 10 mm greater than the E treatment. In this way, total precipitation amounts will be similar at the end of the growing season, but event number will be reduced and the average number of days between events increased, with no change in event size compared to the C treatment.

Plot Setup

At each site, we will establish replicate 6 x 6 m experimental plots (n = 10 per treatment, including the control treatment) in a relatively homogeneous area (similar soils, vegetation, etc.) that is representative of the overall site. Plots will be arrayed such that each treatment will be co-located in a single block (n=10 blocks per site), with each block located at least 5 m apart. 

The blocking will help control for environmental gradients if present. For each site, all plots within a block (including the control) will be located at least 2 m apart and trenched to 1-1.5 m and surrounded by a 6 mil plastic barrier to hydrologically isolate them from the adjacent soil, and each plot will be covered by the rainfall manipulation infrastructure. The 6 x 6 m plot size includes a 0.5 m external buffer to allow access to the plots and minimize edge effects associated with the infrastructure. The resulting 5 x 5 m area will be divided into 4 2.5 x 2.5 m subplots. One subplot will be designated for plant species composition sampling, two will for destructive sampling (ANPP, belowground productivity, soil sampling, etc.), and the fourth set aside for opportunistic studies.

Rainfall Manipulation Infrastructure

We will passively alter rainfall reaching the plots by using a version of a rainfall reduction shelter (Fig. 6) designed by Yahdjian and Sala (2002). Versions of these shelters (ranging from ~2 to 100 m2 ) are being used by the co-PIs at the Sevilleta, Konza Prairie and Shortgrass Steppe LTERs, as well as by many other ecologists, and thus, they are proven technology. The most significant environmental artifacts of these shelters are a 5- 10% reduction in light due to the acrylic Vshaped shingles and a ~ 20 cm edge effect (Yahdjian and Sala 2002). Shelters will consist of a steel frame that supports a roof. To cover the 36 m2 plots, the shelters will be constructed as modular 3 x 3 m units, with four units per plot. The roof of each modular unit will be slanted at 15° toward the edge of the plot, creating a 6 m long peak along the mid-line of the plot, with two lower 6 m long edges with gutters to move rainwater away from the plots. The peaked roof will facilitate run-off of rainfall and access to the plot, and the lower edge will be oriented to the prevailing wind direction to minimize blow-in. Average leaf canopy height varies among the desert/short-, midand tallgrass prairie sites (~0.2 to 0.6 m), and to maintain a consistent roof-to-canopy distance, peak height of the shelters will be 1.3, 1.55 and 1.8 m, with lower edges of the shelters at 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 m, respectively, for the four grassland types. Construction of the shelters will begin in Yr 1 (after pretreatment measurements are taken) and treatments will be operational by the early spring of YR 2. For the ESR treatment, the roof will consist of clear acrylic (high light transmission, low yellowness index, UV transparent) v-shaped shingles arrayed at a density to passively reducing each rainfall event by ~66% (Fig. 6). For the REN treatment, the roof will consist of clear, corrugated polycarbonate (high light transmission, low yellowness index, UV transparent) to completely exclude rainfall. For both treatments, the roofs will be constructed to facilitate easy removal via a clamping system. The REN treatment roofs will then be manually deployed and removed at intermittent intervals (see Fig. 6 for more detail). Ambient plots will have a deer netting roof to achieve an average reduction in light similar to the rainfall reduction roofs.

Plant species composition, species traits, stem density, and light availability

In the subplot designated for species composition, we will establish a permanent 2 x 2 m sampling plots, which will be divided into four 1 x 1m quadrats in which canopy cover of each species will be visually estimated to the nearest 1%. For each site, these measures will be repeated at least twice during the growing season of each year to sample early and late season species. Maximum cover values of each species will be used to determine richness, diversity and dominance and changes in composition, species turnover, and species associations over time. 

Collecting the Data:

Net primary production data is collected twice each year, spring and fall, for both sites. Spring measurements are taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals have reached peak biomass. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals have reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. Winter measurements are taken in February before the onset of spring growth.

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection.

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-The cover of forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs is measured as the horizontal area of the plant. If the species is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement if it increases cover. If the species is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecanthaOpuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest cm instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria viviparaSchlerocactus intertextusEchinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground.

Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat. 

Data sources: 

sev297_edgequadrat_20160815

Additional information: 

Additional Information on the personnel associated with the Data Collection / Data Processing

Nathan Gehres 2014-present; Michell Thomey 2012-2014

Mega-Monsoon Experiment (MegaME) Vegetation Sampling Data from the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2014 - present)

Abstract: 

Shrub encroachment is a global phenomenon. Both the causes and consequences of shrub encroachment vary regionally and globally. In the southwestern US a common native C3 shrub species, creosotebush, has invaded millions of hectares of arid and semi-arid C4-dominated grassland. At the Sevilleta LTER site, it appears that the grassland-shrubland ecotone is relatively stable, but infill by creosotebush continues to occur.  The consequences of shrub encroachment have been and continue to be carefully documented, but the ecological drivers of shrub encroachment in the southwestern US are not well known.

One key factor that may promote shrub encroachment is grazing by domestic livestock. However, multiple environmental drivers have changed over the 150 years during which shrub expansion has occurred through the southwestern US. Temperatures are warmer, atmospheric CO2 has increased, drought and rainy cycles have occurred, and grazing pressure has decreased. From our prior research we know that prolonged drought greatly reduces the abundance of native grasses while having limited impact on the abundance of creosotebush in the grass-shrub ecotone. So once established, creosotebush populations are persistent and resistant to climate cycles. We also know that creosotebush seedlings tend to appear primarily when rainfall during the summer monsoon is well above average. However, high rainfall years also stimulate the growth of the dominant grasses creating a competitive environment that may not favor seedling establishment and survival. The purpose of the Mega-Monsoon Experiment (MegaME) is twofold. First, this experiment will determine if high rainfall years coupled with (simulated) grazing promote the establishment and growth of creosotebush seedlings in the grassland-shrubland ecotone at Sevilleta, thus promoting infill and expansion of creosotebush into native grassland. Second, MegaME will determine if a sequence of wet summer monsoons will promote the establishment and growth of native C4 grasses in areas where creosotebush is now dominant, thus demonstrating that high rainfall and dispersal limitation prevent grassland expansion into creosotebush shrubland. 

Data set ID: 

259

Core Areas: 

Additional Project roles: 

499
500
501
502

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Data Collection 

Vegetation and soil measurements are taken in the spring and fall each year. Spring measurements are taken in May when spring annuals have reached peak biomass for the growing season. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals and all perennial species have reached peak biomass for the growing season, but prior to killing frosts. Vegetation cover is measured to assess growth and survival of grasses and shrubs. Bare soil and litter covers are also measured to monitor substrate changes that occur within the plots.

One meter2 vegetation quadrats are used to measure the cover of all plants present in each m2.   There are 10 quads in each plot, checkered along on side of the plot.  There is a tag on one rebar of each quad with the representative quad number.  


General vegetation measurements 

The cover is recorded for each species of live plant material inside the quadrat.  Vegetation measurements are taken in two layers: a ground level layer that includes all grasses, forbs, sub-shrubs, and a litter and bare soil, and a “shrub” layer that includes the canopy of Larrea tridentata.  The purpose of this approach is to include Larrea canopies, while allowing the cover values of the ground level layer to sum to approximately 100%. The dead plant covers are not included in the measurement, thus the total amount may not equal 100%.  It is assumed that the remaining cover missing from the 100% is a combination of dead plant material.

 The quadrat boundaries are delineated by the 1 m2 PVC-frame placed above the quadrat.   Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string.  The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 % of the total quadrat area or cover.  The cover and height of all individual plants of a species that fall within the 1m2 quadrat are measured.  Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares intercepted by all individual plants of a particular species, and/or partial cover for individual plants < 1%.


Vegetation cover measurements 

Cover measurements are made by summing the live cover values for all individual plants of a given species that fall within an infinite vertical column that is defined by the inside edge of the PVC-frame. This includes vegetation that is rooted outside of the frame but has foliage that extends into the vertical column defined by the PVC-frame.  Again, cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares intercepted by each species.  Do not duplicate overlapping canopies, just record the total canopy cover on a horizontal plane when looking down on the quadrat through the grid.

Larger cover values will vary but the smallest cover value recorded should never be below 0.1%.  When dealing with individual plants that are < 1.00%, round the measurements to an increment of 0.1.  Cover values between 1.00% and 10.00% should be rounded to increments of 1.0, and values > 10.00% are rounded to increments of 5.

Creosote 

Larrea tridentata canopy  is estimated using the portion of the canopy that falls within the quadrat.  The canopy edge is defined by a straight gravity line from the canopy to the ground (i.e. imagine a piece of string with a weight on the end being moved around the canopy edge).  ForLarrea seedlings the code LSEED is used and is a separate measurement from the Larrea canopy measurements. The cover measurement for LSEED is simply a count of individuals, not actual cover, as it is assumed that they would have a cover of < 1.00%.

Grasses 

To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends or more open upper regions of the plant.  Live tissue is frequently mixed with dead tissue in grass clumps. 

Forbs 

The cover of forbs is the perimeter around the densest portion of the plant.    Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season.

Cacti and Yucca 

The cover of cacti and yucca is made by estimating a perimeter around the densest portion of the plant and recorded as a single cover.  For cacti that consist of a cluster of pads or jointed stems (i.e., Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata), estimate an average perimeter around the series of plant parts and record a single coverage measurement.

Vines 

Vine cover (and some forbs) is often convoluted. Rather than attempt to estimate cover directly, take a frequency count of 10X10X10cm cubes that the vine is present in. 

Seedlings 

As with other vegetation measurements, the smallest cover value for seedlings should never be <0.1%.  If the value of a seedling’s cover is less, round up to 0.1%.


Non-Vegetation cover measurements 

Materials other than vegetation that are measured in the drought plots include soil and litter.  

Soil 

Measure the cover of the area occupied by abiotic substrates.  Cover is quantified by summing the number of 10cm x 10cm squares intercepted by abiotic substrates.  Cover values < 10.00% should be rounded to increments of  and cover values > 10.00% should be recorded in increments of 5.  If there is no soil in the quadrat, record “SOIL” in the species column for that quadrat and record a “0” for cover.

Litter 

Measure the cover of the area occupied by litter, which is unattached dead plant material.  Cover is quantified by summing the number of 10cm x 10cm squares intercepted by abiotic substrates. Cover values < 10.00% should be rounded to increments of 1 and cover values > 10.00% should be recorded in increments of 5.  If there is no litter in the quadrat, record “LITT” in the species column for that quadrat and record a “0” for cover.


Clipping grass at Ecotone Site 

After measurements are taken at the Ecotone Site, grass is clipped down to the soil and removed from half of the quads in each plot. The goal is to assess the impact of competition on successful creosote seedling germination. The following quads, # 2, 4, 6, 7, and 10, get clipped in every plot at the ecotone site.


Water Addition 

The watering schedule varies based on seasonal rainfall. Our goal is to increase average monsoon precipitation (150mm) by 50%, so we shoot for a total of 225mm on the plots during the summer monsoon.

Data sources: 

sev259_megame_20161222.csv

Additional information: 

Additional Information on the personnel associated with the Data Collection:

Stephanie Baker 2014-present

Megan McClung 2014-present

Chandra Tucker 2014-present

Burn Study Sites Quadrat Data for the Net Primary Production Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2004-present)

Abstract: 

In 2003, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a prescribed burn over a large part of the northeastern corner of the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge. Following this burn, a study was designed to look at the effect of fire on above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) (i.e., the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and foliage, over time) within three different vegetation types: mixed grass (MG), mixed shrub (MS) and black grama (G). Forty permanent 1m x 1m plots were installed in both burned and unburned (i.e., control) sections of each habitat type. The core black grama site included in SEV129 is used as a G control site for analyses and does not appear in this dataset. The MG control site caught fire unexpectedly in the fall of 2009 and some plots were subsequently moved to the south. For details of how the fire affected plot placement, see Methods below. In spring 2010, sampling of plots 16-25 was discontinued at the MG (burned and control) and G (burned treatment only) sites, reducing the number of sampled plots to 30 at each.

To measure ANPP (i.e., the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and foliage, over time), the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, are sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at each plot. The data from these plots is used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV157, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." This biomass data is included in SEV185, "Burn Study Sites Seasonal Biomass and Seasonal and Annual NPP Data."

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

156

Additional Project roles: 

438
439
440
441

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev156_nppburnquadrat_20161214.csv

Methods: 

Collecting the Data:

Net primary production data is collected three times each year, winter, spring, and fall, for all burn sites. Spring measurements are taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals have reached peak biomass. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals have reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. Winter measurements are taken in February before the onset of spring growth and only creosote is measured.

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit. It is possible to obtain a total percent cover greater than 100% for a given quadrat because vegetative units for different species often overlap.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that can help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-The cover of forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs is measured as the horizontal area of the plant. If the species is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement if it increases cover. If the species is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest centimeter instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria vivipara, Schlerocactus intertextus, Echinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrub and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground.

Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat.

Creosote Measurements till 2013:

To measure creosote (i.e., Larrea tridenta) break the observations into two categories:

1.) Small, individual clusters of foliage on a branch (i.e., branch systems): Measure the horizontal cover of each live (i.e., green) foliage cluster, ignoring small open spaces (keeping in mind the 15% guideline stated above). Then measure the vertical "height" of each cluster from the top of the foliage to a plane created by extending a line horizontally from the bottom of the foliage. Each individual foliage cluster within a bush is considered a separate observation.

2.) Stems: Measure the length of each stem from the base to the beginning of live (i.e., green) foliage. Calculate the cumulative total of all stem measurements. This value is entered under "height" with the species as "stem" for each quadrat containing creosote. All other variable receive a default entry of "1" for creosote stem measurements.

Do not measure dead stems or areas of dead foliage. If in doubt about whether a stem is alive, scrape the stem with your fingernail and check for the presence of green cambium.

Creosote Measurements 2013 and after:

Each creosote is only measured as one total cover. Each quad that contains creosote will have one cover observation for each creosote canopy in quad.

Recording the Data:

Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). Finally, the site abbreviation should be added (i.e., mg, ms, or g). The final format should be as follows: npp_burn.mm.dd.yy.abc.xls. File names should be in lowercase.

August 2009 Burn:

On August 4, 2009, a lightning-initiated fire began on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge.  The fire reached the Mixed-Grass Unburned plots on August 5, 2009, consuming them in their entirety.  As a result, in the spring of 2010, the Mixed-Grass (MG) unburned plots were moved to a different area within Deep Well, southwest of the Warming site. 

Also, on August 4, 2009, some of the webs and quadrats within the unburned Black Grama (G) site were impacted by the fire.  Thus, webs 2 and 3 were abandoned and extra plots added to areas within webs 1, 4, and 5 that were not burned.  Changes were as follows:

Webs 1, 4, and 5: A plot was added to the northeast to compensate for the loss of all plots at webs 2 and 3.

Web 4: A plot was added to the northwest to compensate for the northern plot, which was burned.

Maintenance: 

01/13/2011-Burn NPP quad data was QA/QC'd and put in Navicat. Matadata updated and compiled from 2004-2010. The mixed-grass unburned plot was moved to the south after the original plot burned unexpectedly in the fire of August 2009. (JMM) 11/28/2009-Burn NPP quad data was QA/QC'd and put in Navicat. Metadata updated and complied from 2004-2009. Mixed-grass unburned data (Fall 2009) was not collected due to unexpected fire at Sevilleta LTER in Aug 2009. (YX) 01/14/09-Metadata updated and compiled from 2004-2008 data. As of 2007, winter measurements are longer being taken. (YX) 12/20/2008-This data was QAQC'd in MySQL. I checked for duplicates and missing quads. (YX)

Additional information: 

Other researchers involved with collecting samples/data: Chandra Tucker (CAT; 04/2014-present), Megan McClung (MAM; 04/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 09/2010-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2010-04/2013), Amaris Swann (ALS; 08/2008-01/2013), Maya Kapoor (MLK; 08/2003-01/2005, 05/2010-03/2011), Terri Koontz (TLK; 02/2000-08/2003, 08/2006-08/2010), Yang Xia (YX; 01/2005-03/2010), Karen Wetherill (KRW; 02/2000-08/2009); Michell Thomey (MLT; 09/2005-08/2008); Seth Munson (SMM; 09/2002-06/2004), Jay McLeod (JRM; 01/2006-08/2006); Caleb Hickman (CRH; 09/2002-11/2004), Charity Hall (CLH; 01/2005-01/2006); Tessa Edelen (MTE, 08/2004-08/2005).Data updated 08/18/15: MOSQ changed to MUSQ3; ARPUP6 changed to ARPU9; SPWR changed to SPPO6; a single entry BOER changed to BOER4.

Snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae) Habitat Vegetation Transect Data from the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1996)

Abstract: 

In 1984, a research project was initiated on a relatively small disturbance patch just south of Deep Well. This disturbance was thought to be the result of an old praire dog town, probably dating back to when a nearby ranch was active, and a lot of old mammal mounds remained in the disturbed area. One of the things that made the disturbance patch particularily noticeable was the lush growth of snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae) within the patch. This prompted the designation of the disturbance patch as the "snakeweed patch" or "gutierrezia patch". In addition, there was an obvious increase in bare ground and a shift in vegetation composition across the patch boundary. The dominant vegetation was not consistent around the boundary, with a marked dominance of black grama on the west side of the plot and a blue/black grama mix on the other three sides. To obtain information on the cause and/or effect of this disturbance, a survey of the soil and vegetation was performed.

In 1996, standard 100 m transects were set up parallel to the original vegetation transects and measured in a manner similar to SEV004 (Plant Line-Intercept Transects).

Data set ID: 

151

Core Areas: 

Additional Project roles: 

187

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Transect set-up - A 100 m measuring tape was affixed to the 0 meter rebar stake (north) and run to the 100 meter (south) end of each of four transects. The tape was stretched as tight as possible to get the straightest line. Windy days were avoided to prevent the tape from billowing.

Recording data - Four crew members worked independently, each doing a 100 m segment simultaneously. Microcassette recorders and standard microcassettes were used to record data. At each 100 m segment, the following sequence was followed: Each species/substrate encountered along the line and the distance at which that species/substrate crossed the tape was recorded. Starting location only was recorded as the ending point was the starting point of the next species/substrate.

Coordinates (NAD27): 

End of

Transect Transect Latitude Longitude

North 0 34 21' 1.2" 106 41' 8.3"W

100 34 20' 57.9"N 106 41' 8.6"W

East 0 34 20' 47.0"N 106 41' 1.6"W

100 34 20' 46.5"N 106 41' 5.4"W

West 0 34 20' 53.7"N 106 41' 16.3"W

100 34 20' 53.7"N 106 41' 12.4"W

GCA 0 34 20' 49.1"N 106 41' 9.2"W

100 34 20' 45.6"N 106 41' 9.2"W


Data sources: 

sev151_snakeweedtransects_01122010

Additional information: 

1996 REU's with assistance from the 1996 Field Crew.

Pinon Juniper Net Primary Production Quadrat Data from the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico: 1999-2001

Abstract: 

This three-year study at the Sevilleta LTER was designed to monitor net primary production (NPP) across two distinct ecosystems: pinon/juniper woodland (P) and juniper savannah woodland (J). Net primary production (NPP) is a fundamental ecological variable that measures rates of carbon consumption and fixation. Estimates of NPP are important in understanding energy flow at a community level as well as spatial and temporal responses of the community to a wide range of ecological processes. While measures of both below- and above-ground biomass are important in estimating NPP, this study focused on estimating above-ground biomass production (ANPP).

To measure ANPP (i.e., the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and foliage, over time), the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, were sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at permanent 1m x 1m plots. The data from these plots was used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV157, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." In addition, volumetric measurements were obtained from permanent plots to build regressions correlating biomass and volume.

Spring measurements were taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals reached peak biomass. Fall measurements were taken in either September or October when summer annuals reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. Winter measurements were taken in February before the onset of spring growth.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

187

Additional Project roles: 

36

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev187_pjnppquadrat_04122010

Methods: 

Collecting the Data:

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). Finally, the site abbreviation should be added (i.e., c, g, b, p). The final format should be as follows: npp.mm.dd.yy.abcg.xls. File names should be in lowercase.

A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection.

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs-The cover of forbs is measured as the perimeter of the densest portion of the plant. If the forb is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement. If the forb is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest cm instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria vivipara, Schlerocactus intertextus, Echinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrub and sub-shrubs-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground.

Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat.

Foliage canopy cover:

Cover and height are recorded for all separate vegetative units that fall within an infinite vertical column that is defined by the inside edge of the PVC-frame. A vegetative unit consists of an individual species with a unique cover and height. This includes vegetation that is rooted outside of the frame but has foliage that extends into the vertical column defined by the PVC-frame.

As mentioned above, cover is quantified by counting the number or fraction of 10 cm x 10 cm squares intercepted by each vegetative unit. It is possible to obtain a total percent cover greater than 100 for a quadrat because vegetative units often overlap (especially in shrubs and succulents). For perennial plants, cover is based only on the vegetative portion of the plant (stem and leaf). For annual plants, cover is based on both vegetative and reproductive (inflorescence) portions of the plant.

If the cover of a vegetative unit is less than 1, the increments used are as follows: 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75. If cover is between 1 and 5, increments of 0.5 are used and, if greater than 5, increments of 1 are used.  Finally, if the cover is greater than 15, the total canopy cover is divided into smaller units and the cover and heights of each observation measured separately. This reduces the size of harvest samples.

Maintenance: 

January 7, 2008 KRW Data from the P and J sites from 1999 to 2002 were extracted from the ongoing npp database and put in its own table in navicat. Palmtop/pj_npp. NPP data from 1999-2001 was QAQC'd in MySQL. I checked for duplicates and missing quads. These most often happened when a recorder mislabeled a particular quad. I also checked every plant code against the USDA Plants database online at http://plants.usda.gov/. All plant codes that have had nomenclature changes were updated. All previously unknown plants that have since been identified were also updated. All unknown plants that will never be identified were left in the database. All types were corrected. A list of codes not in the USDA list are that are still in the data are as follows NONE = no plants in quad, and UKFO57 = unknowns that will never be identified, UKFO80 = unknown that has not yet been identified. A list of the updates and the reason for the change are in the table below along with comments where identifications were questionable.

Additional information: 

Employee History:Mike Friggens: 1999 to September 2001, Karen Wetherill: February 7, 2000 to August 2009, Terri Koontz: February 2000 to August 2003 and August 2006 to August 2010, Shana Penington: February 2000 to August 2000, Heather Simpson: August 2000 to August 2002, Chris Roberts: September 2001 to August 2002.

Biannnual Creosote Branch Demography Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1989-1993)

Abstract: 

This project was designed to investigate the response of plant growth and reproduction to short- and long-term variation in biotic and abiotic environmental variables. Several perennial taxa, including tree (Juniperus monsperma and Pinus edulis), shrub (Larrea tridentata) and bunch grasses (Oryzopsis hymenoides (now Achnaterum hymenoides) and Sporobolus contractus) species, were monitored at 1-3 sites differing in elevation and topography as well as edaphic variables and annual precipitation. The sites represented optimal or marginal/transitional zones for particular species. Demographic measurements were made biannually, after the 'wet' (fall) and 'dry' (spring) seasons. For tree and shrub species, estimates of growth and reproduction were based on branch demography, with ten branch tips from 10-20 individuals per species per site repeatedly measured from 1989-1993.  For J. monsperma, P. edulis and L. tridentata, vegetative growth (i.e., branch growth) as well as reproduction were monitored. Additional measurements included needle length for P. edulis and leaf production, leaf size and branchlet production for L. tridentata. For grasses, basal diameter, leaf length and reproduction were monitored for 100 individuals per species per site.

This project, SEV026, contains only data on creosote branch demography.  Data on other variables and species is contained in SEV006, SEV024, SEV025, SEV027, and SEV028.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

26

Additional Project roles: 

180
181
182
183
184
185
186

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev026_creosotedemography_20160218.txt

Methods: 

Plant Selection - One hundred Larrea tridentata individuals were selected and numbered. Twenty individuals were randomly selected for measurement.

Branch Selection - Ten branches were numbered consecutively around each shrub to cover all exposures.

Tag Placement - Tags were placed about five centimeters from the tip of the branch at a node where the branch forked. Branches were also marked at that point with a paint pen so each tag could be tied loosely, thereby not restricting vascular flow.

If a tagged branch died the tag was placed on another branch using the same number with a ".1" suffix. For example if branch 4 was found dead, another branch was marked 4.1. If, in subsequent seasons, 4.1 was found dead another branch was marked 4.2.  

Plant Measurement:

1. Branch Length - This is the length from tag to tip of branch. If a tag was loose it was moved back toward the plant until stopped  by a node where two branches diverged. A paint mark indicated this location. If a paint mark was elsewhere then measurement was done from the paint mark and it was noted on the data sheet that the paint mark was not at a branching point.

2. Leaf - This is the number of leaves between tag (or tag mark) and tip of branch. Creosote has compound leaves so two leaflets usually comprised one leaf. If one leaflet was missing the leaf was still counted as one. If leaf status was uncertain, the petiole or point of attachment to the stem was used as verification.

3. Leaf Length1 - This is the length of one leaf on a tagged branch. This measurement was considered to be the length of the blade of one leaflet NOT including the petiole.

4. Leaf Length2 - This is the same measurement as Leaf Length1 performed on a different leaf.

5. Bud - The number of buds between the tag (or tag mark) and the tip of the branch.

6. Flower - The number of flowers between the tag (or tag mark) and the tip of the branch.

7. Fruit - The number of fruits between the tag (or tag mark) and the tip of the branch.

8. Branchlet - The number of branchlets between the tag (or tag mark) and the tip of the branch.

Maintenance: 

I. Condensed log of activity of plant demography data:a. Individual documentations initiatiated 1989; Troy Madduxb. File (combined documentations) 31 August 1990; Troy Madduxc. Abstract (Written by Diane Marshall and Charles Wisdom) put in documentation 31 August 1990; Troy Madduxd. Documentation expanded 2 September 1990; Troy Madduxe. Concatenation of individual documentations iniatiated September 1990, completed 17 December 1990; Michelle Murillof. File expanded into rdb file 17 December 1990; Michelle Murillog. Rdb file checked, and errors eliminated 18 December 1990; Michelle Murilloh. KEYWORDS added 19 December 1990; James Brunti. Random error checking completed 20 December 1990; Michelle Murilloj. File complete and archived 21 December 1990; Michelle Murillo & Greg Shore. Documentation changed to reflect changes in datafile structure; 1 March 91 T. Maddux.II. Detailed log of alterations/modifications of plant demography data: This portion of the log contains details of all alterations and modifications applied to this file by Michelle Murillo. The file demography.dat was initiated in September 1990 by concatenating individual files into the demography.dat file. A generic header was devised to apply to all individual files. The header reads as such:date season site species station plant# branch# #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8and the detailed description of the numbers 1-8 are listed in the documentation section of this file. The individual files were then modified to follow this header, which entailed rearranging of columns (generally the season, site, species, station, plant#, and branch#) and the addition of the date column. As the columns numbered 1-8 did not pertain to all individual files, non-applicables (na) were inserted where necessary. Other alterations included:1. juniper 1989: Sepultura Canyon; addition of na's to presence/absence of male or female cones, depending on sex of tree, i.e. if tree was female then na's were inserted in the male column Goat Draw; same as Sepultura Canyon2. juniper 1990: (Sepultura Canyon site has been discontinued) Goat Draw (season 1); orginal file contained x,y and --'s; which were converted to 0 (absence) and 1 (presence) and appropriate na's were inserted, depending on sex of tree Goat Draw (season 2); orginal file contained +'s for presence of cones; which were converted to 1 (presence) and appropriate na's were inserted depending on sex of tree.NOTE: In 1989 width of branch was measured, and in 1990 this measurement was no longer taken. (The orginal data sheets for 1989-2 are unavailable at the time of archiving, assumption is that this measurement applies to season 2 also). In 1990 the length of branchlet was measured which was not measured in 1989. (See documentation).NOTE: In 1989 (both seasons) the variable, number of branchlets, was not included. In 1990 the variable was added, but measurements of this variable was sporadic, occuring only in a few plants.3. grasses 1989/1990: All sites: addition of na's to branch#Error checking was done as follows: Two files, grasses 1990-season 1, and creosote 1990-season 1, had not been entered at the time of concatenation of individual files, and were therefore entered by Michelle Murillo. These two files were errored checked by Michelle Murillo by visual checking of original data sheets with the files on 18 December 1990. On 17 December 1990, the expand program was applied to the demography.dat file and placed into the demography.rdb file. The rdb file was then checked for various errors, and the elimination of these errors were completed on 18 December 1990. On 19-20 December 1990, random error checking was conducted by using 'Tables for Statistical Data-Analysis'. One hundred and fifty entries were checked and approximiately 45 percent of the numbers were from 1989-season 2, and because the data sheets were unavailable, the entries were not error checked. On 23 December 1990, visual checking with the original data sheets was conducted for an overall check.File initiated June 1991: MLM season 1 entered: MLM season 2 entered: KPM Black Butte, season 2 entered and error checked, 7 Jan 1992: MLM data entry complete 25 October 1991: KPM data error checking completed 8 November 1991: KPM Documentation updated (New people and times added) on 29 Jan 1992 and inserted into data file by Troy Maddux. 1992 log * Put the 1992 data in the data base on 22 Oct 1992 Troy Maddux.THE FOLLOWING IS THE LOG FOR THE SPRING 1992 DEMOGRAPHY DATA: File initiated by Troy Maddux 24 Aug 1992. Goat Draw pied information entered by Michael Bradley and sent to Troy Maddux Wed Aug 19 15:31:03 1992 and these data added to this file by T. Maddux on 15 Oct 1992. Black butte data added to this file 15 Oct 1992. Many SPCO4 plants in plots 2 and 3 of Five Points had no data for the inflorescence # so this was added (it was 0) on 15 Oct 1992 by Troy Maddux. Removed extra '0' from rs spco #531-534 - 16 Oct 1992, T.M. Pulled doc from 1991 demography data to change for 1992 data 16 Oct 1992; T.M. Who and When data were collected was added 20 Oct 1992; T.M.THE FOLLOWING IS THE LOG FOR THE FALL 1992 DEMOGRAPHY DATA: File initiated 16 Sep 1992 by Tiffany Cotlar. Data file from Tiffany Cotlar and a data file from Robin Abell combined; also blank lines removed from both files, this was done by Troy Maddux on 20 Oct 1992.File initiated 16 Sep 1992 by Robin Abell PIED #'s 9,13,23,15,17,36,41,42 by Robin Abell. 16 Sep 1992 JUMO #'s 26,23,24,28,49,5,8,17,13,22,36,41,47,4,15,27,32,46,42 by Robin Abell 16 Sep 1992. LATR2 #'s (Five Points) 2,3,5,26 by Robin Abell 23 Sep 1992. SPCO4 #'s (Station B) 61,92,93,94,95,99,101,103,104,105,108,109 * 109.1,110,110.1,111,112,112.1,122,125,126,127,130,148,149,402 by Robin Abell 23 Sep 1992. LATR2 #'s (Five Points) 90,92,96 by Robin Abell 24 Sep 1992 *LATR2 #'s (Rio Salado) 1,14,17 by Robin Abell 1 Oct 1992 changed typo: juno to jumo; 20 Oct 1992, T.M. added additional field to grass data to make the field # correct 20 Oct 1992, TM. File submitted for archival 22 OCT 1992 - Troy Maddux.File initiated by Troy Maddux 22 Apr 1993 combining data entered by Ursula Bonhage, Roger Stupf, Christian Heierli, Marilyn Altenbach, and Eric Scherff.File initiated by M. Altenbach 22 April 93 , fp LATR2 2, 3, & 5. Data altered to archive format by Troy Maddux - 16 Nov 1993. Data for larrea tridentata (numbers 13, 20, 23, 26, 28, 30, 51, 75, 76, 79, 82, 89, 90, 92, 96) for Five Points.Data entered 29 apr 93 by ubonhage, rstupf data taken by altenbach, bonhage, hierli, scherff, stupf on 20 apr 93 'na' for station. Data for LATR2 numbers 97 and 100 entered by Troy Maddux and error-checked by Troy and Doug Moore on 16 Nov 1993. Data for Rio Salado demography, all 20 LATR2, data collected from 4/22-4/29. From altenbac Wed May 5 12:01:08 1993; initiated by M. Altenbach 3 May 93. Documentation taken from 91-92 archive data set and modified for this data set. 18 Oct 1993, by Troy Maddux. Filled in "Who" and "When" sections from the data sheets - Troy Maddux - 16 Nov 1993. Data entered for Oryzopsis adult measurements--Rio Salado 23 April & 4 May 1993 maps not edited; From escherff Wed May 5 12:27:02 1993 File initiated by E. Scherff on 3 May 1993.1993 FALL DATA File appended by Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on 22 September 1993. Changed "nd" representing "no data" to "na" to be consistent with other data bases. - Troy Maddux - 8 Nov 1993. File for Rio Salado information created by Cynthia Gregoire & Eric Scherff on 24 September 1993. Data collected by Marilyn Altenbach, Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on 21 September 1993 and 22 September 1993. File for Five Points Creosote created by Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on 27 September 1993. Data collected by M. Altenbach, E. Scherff, C. Gregoire, and T. Maddux on 15 September 1993, 16 September 1993, and 20 September 1993. File Rio Salado creosote data created by Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on September 27, 1993. Data collected by Marilyn Altenbach, Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on September 22, 23 & 24 1993. Spring and Fall data put together in Archive File format 17 Nov 1993. by Troy Maddux - also changed nd's and dashes to na's.14 March 1994. Separated the big demography-89-90 file into four parts; grass, pinyon, creosote, and juniper. Rupal Shah went through and separated the file and edited the documentation.28 March 1994. Rupal Shah edited this file and changed the 1989 fp plant # 51 from season 1 to 2. Rupal Shah kept on changing and working on it until 5-4-94.11-april, 1994. The data sheets for plant numbers 96, 97, 100 for season 1, fp, 1991 and plant numbers 2, 3, and 5 for season 2, fp, 1991 are missing. RS. Rupal Shah changed and worked on it until 5-4-94. Changed a couple of uppercase "na"s to lowercase.3/18/98 - Changed species codes to Kartesz codes. K. Taugher - Updated metadata section on plant codes to reflect this new coding scheme. K. Taugher - Added a final line to the dataset of: "{END OF DATA}" K.Taugher - Realigned columns to right justification. K. Taugher.9/23/98 - Added reference for Kartesz. K. Taugher doc.

Additional information: 

The data for the first census (May 1989) were collected by Ann Evans (Asst. Professor/UNM), Troy Maddux (Head Plant Tech/LTER), Sam Loftin (Graduate Student/UNM), Marikay Ramsey (Head Animal Tech/LTER), Joran Viers (Plant Tech/LTER), Michelle Murillo (Plant Tech/LTER), Jennifer Franklin (Plant Tech/LTER), Amy Shortess (Plant Tech/LTER).

The data for the second census (September 1989) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Tech/LTER), Amy Shortess (Plant Tech/LTER), David Keller (Plant Tech/LTER).

1991: The data for the first census (May) were collected by Roger Mongold (Plant Technician), Brad Swanson (Plant Technician), Joran Viers (Plant Technician), Kathleen McGee (Plant Technician), Sam Loftin (Graduate Student Technician), and Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician).

1991: The data for the second census (May) were collected by Jim Stanton (Plant Technician), Susan Prichard (Plant Technician), and Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician).

1992: The data for the first census (Apr-Jun) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician) and the following plant technicians: Marilyn Altenbach, Michael Bradley, Melissa Chavez, Anthony Collier, Julie Knight, Ivan Ortiz, Amanda Persaud, Monica Valdez.

1992: The data for the second census (Aug-Oct) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician), Robin Abell (Plant Technician), and Tiffany Cotlar (Plant Technician).

1993: SPRING CENSUS - Roger Stupf (Volunteer from Switzerland), Ursula Bonhage (Volunteer from Switzerland), Christian Heierli (Volunteer from Switzerland), Marilyn Altenbach (Field Crew Chief), Eric Scherff (Field Tech), Troy Maddux (Vegetation Studies Program Manager).

1993: FALL CENSUS - Cynthia Gregoire (Volunteer from Vermont), Marilyn Altenbach (Field Crew Chief), Eric Scherff (Field Tech).

Creosote Plant Dimension Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1989-2008)

Abstract: 

This project was designed to investigate the response of plant growth and reproduction to short- and long-term variation in biotic and abiotic environmental variables. Several perennial taxa, including tree (Juniperus monsperma and Pinus edulis), shrub (Larrea tridentata) and bunch grasses (Oryzopsis hymenoides (now Achnaterum hymenoides) and Sporobolus contractus) species, were monitored at 1-3 sites differing in elevation and topography as well as edaphic variables and annual precipitation. The sites represented optimal or marginal/transitional zones for particular species. Demographic measurements were made biannually, after the 'wet' (fall) and 'dry' (spring) seasons. For tree and shrub species, estimates of growth and reproduction were based on branch demography, with ten branch tips from 10-20 individuals per species per site repeatedly measured from 1989-1993.  For J. monsperma, P. edulis and L. tridentata, vegetative growth (i.e., branch growth) as well as reproduction were monitored. Additional measurements included needle length for P. edulis and leaf production, leaf size and branchlet production for L. tridentata. For grasses, basal diameter, leaf length and reproduction were monitored for 100 individuals per species per site.

This project, SEV024, contains only data on creosote branch dimensions.  Data on other variables and species is contained in SEV006, SEV025, SEV026, SEV027, and SEV028.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

24

Additional Project roles: 

169
170
171
172
173
174
175

Keywords: 

Purpose: 

The size measurement data were collected to provide a baseline for measuring change in plant size in subsequent years of this project. Creosote demography data will be used in conjunction with data in the larger Sevilleta plant demography and plant physiology databases.

Data sources: 

sev024_creosotedimension_01112010.txt

Methods: 

In 1989, at each of the two demography study sites, Five Points and Rio Salado, 100 creosote (Larrea tridentata) bushes were numbered in five lines of 20. All 200 individuals across the two sites were measured for branch demography. Bushes at both sites were re-measured in 1993. In 1999, bushes at the Five Points site were remeasured; only 81 out of the 100 bushes could be relocated. The locations of each of these 81 individuals were GPS'ed.  Bushes at Five Points were also re-measured in 2003 and 2008.

The three measurements made at each plant were height, large diameter, and small diameter.

HEIGHT - The maximum height of the bush in centimeters.

LARGE DIAMETER - The largest diameter of the shrub crown in centimeters.

SMALL DIAMETER - The smallest diameter of the shrub crown in centimeters.

Maintenance: 

1989 File initiated by Troy Maddux 9 Nov 1992.

Documentation started and data taken from existing file - Troy Maddux 9 Nov 1992.

Documentation outline imported and partially filled in - 18 Feb 1993, Troy Maddux 1993.

Data entered by Karyn Kolman on 9 June 1993.

File initiated and data entered by Doug Moore - Nov 5 1999.

File initiated by Doug Moore 22 Aug 2000.

Documentation started, data taken from existing file and dbf file created - Doug Moore 22 Aug 2000 

Meta data from previous collections modified and added to data by D. Moore Sep 8 2000.

11 Jan 10 -Data from all years combined and QA/QC'd. - For missing data -888 was used. -A. Swann.

23 Feb 11 -1993,fp,LATR2 1,0,113,127,126 changed to 1993,fp,LATR2 100,113,127,126 and 1993,rs,LATR2 1,0,125,150,130 changed to  1993,rs,LATR2 100,125,150,130. -J. Mulhouse

Additional information: 

A field crew operated by Troy Maddux collected the initial data. Troy Maddux and James Brunt were the original data managers.

1999 data were collected by Joy Francis Greg Shore, and Doug Moore. The metadata was created by Doug Moore on 8 Sep 2000.

Biannual Juniper Branch Demography Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1989-1993)

Abstract: 

This project was designed to investigate the response of plant growth and reproduction to short- and long-term variation in biotic and abiotic environmental variables. Several perennial taxa, including tree (Juniperus monsperma and Pinus edulis), shrub (Larrea tridentata) and bunch grasses (Oryzopsis hymenoides (now Achnaterum hymenoides) and Sporobolus contractus) species, were monitored at 1-3 sites differing in elevation and topography as well as edaphic variables and annual precipitation. The sites represented optimal or marginal/transitional zones for particular species. Demographic measurements were made biannually, after the 'wet' (fall) and 'dry' (spring) seasons. For tree and shrub species, estimates of growth and reproduction were based on branch demography, with ten branch tips from 10-20 individuals per species per site repeatedly measured from 1989-1993.  For J. monsperma, P. edulis and L. tridentata, vegetative growth (i.e., branch growth) as well as reproduction were monitored. Additional measurements included needle length for P. edulis and leaf production, leaf size and branchlet production for L. tridentata. For grasses, basal diameter, leaf length and reproduction were monitored for 100 individuals per species per site.

This project, SEV028, contains only data on juniper branch demography.  Data on other variables and species is contained in SEV006, SEV024, SEV025, SEV026, and SEV027.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

28

Additional Project roles: 

145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev028_juniperdemography_02242011

Methods: 

Collection Sites:

1. Goat Draw - This site is located in a small canyon that drains the Los Pinos to the east and is covered by pinyon/juniper woodland with occasional Quercus turbinella, Yucca spp., and Opuntia spp. occurrences. This site contained two study sites, each with 49 labeled trees.

2. Sepultura Canyon - This site is more correctly Sepultura Flats, a gently sloping area just south of the canyon. Trees were marked in two juniper woodland areas: one close to the rim of Sepultura Canyon and another in the hills on the eastern edge of Sepultura Flats. The area between these sites is blue and black grama grassland.

Plant Selection:

Of the 49 numbered trees at each study site, roughly half are on each side (north and south-facing slopes) of the canyon. Half the trees on each side are junipers and half pinons. Ten numbered pinon individuals were randomly selected at each site; five on the north slope and five on the south slope. Random sample numbers were selected to determine which trees were measured.

Branch Selection:

Branches chosen were about 1.5 meters off the ground and numbered 1-10 around the tree to cover all exposures.

Tag Placement:

Tags were placed about six centimeters from the tip of a branch.  Each branch was marked with paint where the tag was attached so the tag could be loose, allowing vascular movement through the branch.

Measurements:

Branch Length - The length of a tagged branch from the tag or paint mark to the tip of the branch.

Branch Width - The widest (right angle to the length) point on a tagged branch.

Female Number - The number of female cones on a branch.

Male - The presence or absence of a male cone. A "1" in the data set indicates the presence of a male cone, whereas a "0" indicates the absence of male cones on the tagged branch.

Maintenance: 

I. Condensed log of activity of plant demography data: a. Individual documentations iniatiated  1989; Troy Maddux. b. File (combined documentations) 31 August 1990; Troy Maddux. c. Abstract (Written by Diane Marshall and Charles Wisdom) put in documentation 31 August 1990; Troy Maddux. d. Documentation expanded 2 September 1990; Troy Maddux. e. Concatenation of individual documentations iniatiated September 1990, completed 17 December 1990; Michelle Murillo. f. File expanded into rdb file 17 December 1990; Michelle Murillo. g. Rdb file checked, and errors eliminated 18 December 1990; Michelle Murillo. h. KEYWORDS added 19 December 1990; James Brunt.i. Random error checking completed 20 December 1990; Michelle Murillo. j. File complete and archived 21 December 1990; Michelle Murillo & Greg Shore.Documentation changed to reflect changes in datafile structure; 1 March 91 T. Maddux II. Detailed log of  alterations/modifications of plant demography data:This portion of the log contains details of all alterations and modifications applied to this file by Michelle Murillo. The file demography.data was initiated in September 1990 by concatenating individual files into the demography.dat file. A generic header was devised to apply to all individual files. The header reads as such:date season site species station plant# branch# #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8and the detailed description of the numbers 1-8 are listed in the documentation section of this file. The individual files were then modified to follow this header, which entailed rearranging of columns (generally the season, site, species, station, plant#, and branch#) and the addition of the date column. As the columns numbered 1-8 did not pertain to all individual files, non-applicables (na) were inserted where necessary. Other alterations included:1. juniper 1989: Sepultura Canyon; addition of na's to presence/absence of male or female cones, depending on sex of tree, i.e. if tree was female then na's were inserted in the male column. Goat Draw; same as Sepultura Canyon.2. juniper 1990: (Sepultura Canyon site has been discontinued) Goat Draw (season 1); orginal file contained x,y and --'s; which were converted to 0 (absence) and 1 (presence) and appropriate na's were inserted, depending on sex of tree. Goat Draw (season 2); orginal file contained +'s for presence of cones; which were converted to 1 (presence) and appropriate na's were inserted depending on sex of tree.NOTE: In 1989 width of branch was measured, and in 1990 this measurement was no longer taken. ( The orginal data sheets for 1989-2 are unavailable at the time of archiving, assumption is that this measurement applies to season 2 also ). In 1990 the length of branchlet was measured which was not measured in 1989. (See documentation).NOTE: In 1989 (both seasons) the variable, number of branchlets, was not included. In 1990 the variable was added, but measurements of this variable was sporadic, occuring only in a few plants.3. grasses 1989/1990: All sites: addition of na's to branch#.Error checking was done as follows: Two files, grasses 1990-season 1, and creosote 1990-season 1, had not been entered at the time of concatenation of individual files, and were therefore entered by Michelle Murillo. These two files were errored checked by Michelle Murillo by visual checking of original data sheets with the files on 18 December 1990. On 17 December 1990, the expand program was applied to the demography.dat file and placed into the demography.rdb file. The rdb file was then checked for various errors, and the elimination of these errors were completed on 18 December 1990. On 19-20 December 1990, random error checking was conducted by using 'Tables for Statistical Data-Analysis'. One hundred and fifty entries were checked and approximiately 45 percent of the numbers were from 1989-season 2, and because the data sheets were unavailable, the entries were not error checked. On 23 December 1990, visual checking with the original data sheets was conducted for an overall check.File initiated June 1991: MLM season 1 entered: MLM season 2 entered: KPM.Black Butte, season 2 entered and error checked, 7 Jan 1992: MLM.data entry complete 25 October 1991: KPM; data error checking completed 8 November 1991: KPM.Documentation updated (New people and times added) on 29 Jan 1992 and inserted into data file by Troy Maddux. 1992 log Put the 1992 data in the data base on 22 Oct 1992 -Troy Maddux.THE FOLLOWING IS THE LOG FOR THE SPRING 1992 DEMOGRAPHY DATA* File initiated by Troy Maddux 24 Aug 1992.* Goat Draw pied information entered by Michael Bradley and sent to Troy Maddux Wed Aug 19 15:31:03 1992 and these data added to this file by T. Maddux on 15 Oct 1992.* Black butte data added to this file 15 Oct 1992.* Many SPCO4 plants in plots 2 and 3 of Five Points had no data for the inflorescence # so this was added (it was 0) on 15 Oct 1992 by Troy Maddux.* Removed extra '0' from rs spco #531-534 - 16 Oct 1992, T.M.* Pulled \doc from 1991 demography data to change for 1992 data 16 Oct 1992; T.M.* Who and When data were collected was added 20 Oct 1992; T.M.THE FOLLOWING IS THE LOG FOR THE FALL 1992 DEMOGRAPHY DATA *File initiated 16 Sep 1992 by Tiffany Cotlar*Data file from Tiffany Cotlar and a data file from Robin Abell combined; also blank lines removed from both files, this was done by Troy Maddux on 20 Oct 1992.*File initiated 16 Sep 1992 by Robin Abell*PIED #'s 9,13,23,15,17,36,41,42 by Robin Abell 16 Sep 1992*JUMO #'s 26,23,24,28,49,5,8,17,13,22,36,41,47,4,15,27,32,46,42 by Robin Abell 16 Sep 1992*LATR2 #'s (Five Points) 2,3,5,26 by Robin Abell 23 Sep 1992*SPCO4 #'s (Station B) 61,92,93,94,95,99,101,103,104,105,108,109,109.1,110,110.1,111,112,112.1,122,125,126,127,130,148,149,402 by Robin Abell 23 Sep 1992*LATR2 #'s (Five Points) 90,92,96 by Robin Abell 24 Sep 1992*LATR2#'s (Rio Salado) 1,14,17 by Robin Abell 1 Oct 1992*changed typo: juno to jumo; 20 Oct 1992, T.M.*added additional field to grass data to make the field # correct 20 Oct 1992, TM.File submitted for archival 22 OCT 1992 - Troy MadduxFile initiated by Troy Maddux 22 Apr 1993 combining data entered by Ursula Bonhage, Roger Stupf, Christian Heierli, Marilyn Altenbach, and Eric Scherff.*data entered for:Black Butte Oryzopsis by Roger Stupf and Christian Heierli, on 21 April 1993.* data entered for: grass plots A,B,C for five Points (4/20/93) by Eric Scherff on 21 April 93.* data file for: five points Sporobolus data - five points grass plot "c" initiated by M. Altenbach 22 April 93 , fp LATR2 2, 3, & 5* Data altered to archive format by Troy Maddux - 16 Nov 1993.* Documentation taken from 91-92 archive data set and modified for this data set. 18 Oct 1993, by Troy Maddux.* Filled in "Who" and "When" sections from the data sheets - Troy Maddux - 16 Nov 1993.Data entered for Oryzopsis adult measurements--Rio Salado 23 April & 4 May 1993 maps not edited; From escherff Wed May 5 12:27:02 1993.File initiated by E. Scherff on 3 May 1993Data for Sporobolus adult measurements at Rio Salado data entered for 23 April & 4 May 1993 maps not editedFile initiated by E. Scherff on 3 May 1993 From escherff Wed May 5 12:17:39 19931993 FALL DATA File for Black Butte orhy data created by Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on September 21, 1993. Data collected by Marilyn Altenbach and Eric Scherff on September 14, 1993. File for Five Points Sporobolus information created by Cynthia Gregoire & Eric Scherff on 21 September 1993. Data collected by Marilyn Altenbach & Eric Scherff on 14 September 1993 and 15 September 1993. File appended by Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on 22 September 1993 Changed "nd" representing "no data" to "na" to be consistent with other data bases. - Troy Maddux - 8 Nov 1993.File for Rio Salado information created by Cynthia Gregoire & Eric Scherff on 24 September 1993 Data collected by Marilyn Altenbach, Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on 21 September 1993 and 22 September 1993.Different fall plant data put together into single archive file by Troy Maddux on 8 Nov 1993.Spring and Fall data put together in Archive File format 17 Nov 1993. by Troy Maddux - also changed nd's and dashes to na's. 9 Dec 1993 - Demography file contained all species - all but the grass information only was taken from this file by Troy Maddux.14 March 1994. Separated the big demography-89-90 file into four parts; grass, pinyon, creosote, and juniper. Rupal Shah went through and separated the file and edited the documentation.* Changed >1 to 1 in the data - Troy Maddux 3 Jan 1995.11/12/98 - Changed species codes to Kartesz. K. Taugher - Changed species codes in metadata to Kartesz. K. Taugher - Added Kartesz code description and reference to metadata. K. Taugher.- Added final line of "{END OF DATA}" to dataset. K. Taugher- Added my name and email address under "WHO COLLECTED THE DATA - Kartesz code conversion Data Manager" should any questions arise. K. Taugher- Realigned columns to right justification. K. Taugher

Additional information: 

1989 and 1990: The data for the first census (May) were collected by Ann Evans (Asst. Professor/UNM), Troy Maddux (Head Plant Tech/LTER), Sam Loftin (Graduate student/UNM), Marikay Ramsey (Head Animal Tech/LTER), Joran Viers (Plant Tech/LTER), Michelle Murillo (Plant Tech/LTER), Jennifer Franklin (Plant Tech/LTER), Amy Shortess (Plant Tech/LTER). The data for the second census (September) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Tech/LTER), Amy Shortess (Plant Tech/LTER), David Keller (Plant Tech/LTER).

1991: The data for the first census (May) were collected by Roger Mongold (Plant Technician), Brad Swanson (Plant Technician), Joran Viers (Plant Technician), Kathleen McGee (Plant Technician), Sam Loftin (Graduate Student Technician), and Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician). The data for the second census (May) were collected by JimStanton (Plant Technician), Susan Prichard (Plant Technician), and Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician).

1992: The data for the first census (Apr-Jun) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician) and the following plant technicians: Marilyn Altenbach, Michael Bradley, Melissa Chavez, Anthony Collier, Julie Knight, Ivan Ortiz, Amanda Persaud, Monica Valdez. The data for the second census (Aug-Oct) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician), Robin Abell (Plant Technician), and Tiffany Cotlar (Plant Technician).1993: SPRING CENSUS - Roger Stupf (Volunteer from Switzerland), Ursula Bonhage(Volunteer from Switzerland), Christian Heierli (Volunteer from Switzerland), Marilyn Altenbach (Field Crew Chief), Eric Scherff (Field Tech), Troy Maddux (Vegetation Studies Program Manager). FALL CENSUS - Cynthia Gregoire (Volunteer from Vermont), Marilyn Altenbach (Field Crew Chief), Eric Scherff (Field Tech). Kartesz code conversion Data Management - Kimberly Taugher (Head Plant Technician, Sevilleta LTER).

1993: SPRING CENSUS - Roger Stupf (Volunteer from Switzerland), Ursula Bonhage (Volunteer from Switzerland), Christian Heierli (Volunteer from Switzerland), Marilyn Altenbach (Field Crew Chief), Eric Scherff (Field Tech), Troy Maddux (Vegetation Studies Program Manager). FALL CENSUS - Cynthia Gregoire (Volunteer from Vermont), Marilyn Altenbach (Field Crew Chief), Eric Scherff (Field Tech).

Deep Well Burn Line-Intercept Vegetation Transects at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1995-2009)

Abstract: 

A natural burn occurred in the Deep Well area of McKenzie Flats in June, 1995, following which studies were initiated to evaluate the effect of fire on plant species composition and the spatial and temporal dynamics of regrowth. The burn area was approximately 24 hectares, forming a swath about 200 m wide from the initial lightning-ignition source. The fire moved in a westward direction from the ignition point, leaving a relatively straight border along the southern boundary and an irregular edge along the northern boundary. The fire was extinguished naturally.

One week after the burn, four 100 m line-intercept transects were established along the southern boundary of the burn.  Transects were installed perpendicular to the burn, so that 50 m lay inside the burned area and 50 m outside, in unburned grassland. The first transect (nearest the road) was placed 100 m from the west end of the burn and identified as Transect A. The remaining transects (B,C,D) were located at 200 m intervals from Transect A.  Rebar was placed at 0 m, 50 m, and 100 m and these points recorded with a GPS unit. 

Initial measurements were made in October, 1995. In subsequent years, measurements have been made in late May and late September to evaluate the response of "cool season" and "warm season" plant species.  Another fire occurred on June 24, 2001. This burn only affected the unburned southern end of one transect. A prescribed burn in 2003 did not affect the transects.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

84

Additional Project roles: 

355
356
357
358

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev084_dwburntransect_02182010

Methods: 

Transect Preparation - A 100 m measuring tape was affixed to the 0 meter rebar stake (north) and run to the 100 meter (south) end of each transect. The tape was stretched as tight as possible to get the straightest line. Windy days were avoided to prevent the tape from billowing.

Recording Data - Four crew members worked independently, each doing a 100 m segment simultaneously. Microcassette recorders and standard microcassettes were used to record data. At each 100 m segment, the following sequence was followed: Each species/substrate encountered along the line and the distance at which that species/substrate crossed the tape was recorded. Starting location only was recorded as the ending point was the starting point of the next species/substrate.

August 2009 Burn - On August 4, 2009, a lightning-initiated fire began on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge. By August 5, 2009, this fire had reached the Deep Well line-intercept transects.  While there was some minor patchiness, essentially, the fire burned evenly across the transects.

Maintenance: 

Aug.1, 2008: Changes to the data: This dataset (SEV084) includes all deep well burn line intercept transect data files. The data in this file has been rigorously QAQCed. All plant codes have been updated to current kartez codes as listed on the USDA Plants Database found at http://plants.usda.gov/ Questionable identifications and obvious mistakes were updated to the best of my (Karen Wetherill) ability. Old codes are maintained in the database and can be obtained by contacting the data manager. Old meta data and individual year data can be found in /export/db/local/htdocs/data/archive/plant/transect/data_oldformat, but this data has NOT been vigorously QAQCed and contains errors. See the Sevilleta data manager for data and metadata in this old format.Missing data: 1995 meter 40-50 for transect C Notes: - Kristin Vanderbilt -Transect D was more patchily burned than the other transects. Where the comment "2001 BURN STARTS HERE" was inserted represents the location of the first burned plant encountered. Other burned plants in this transect are noted with a "BURNED" comment.26 March 2009. Data are no longer stored in the folder:/export/db/local/htdocs/data/archive/plant/transect/data_oldformat. Instead, current and old data files can be found here: /export/db/local/htdocs/data/archive/plant/dwburntransect. Data have been rigorously qa/qced. For years previous to 2000 the variable condition in not a reliable measurement. For 2000 and subsequent seasons and years the condition measurement is consistent. Copied start into original-entry column so that data are formattted the same with two decimal points for year 1995-2004. 1998 data have overlapping measurements. These are currently still being corrected. TK

Additional information: 

Principle investigator: 1995-2002: Gosz, Jim; 2003-2008: Collins, Scott; 2009: Koontz, Terri. 2010-Present: Moore, Douglas.

Data Manager: 1995-1997: Taugher, Kimberly; 1998-2001: Vanderbilt, Kristin; 2002-2003: Seth Munson; 2004-2008: Karen Wetherill; 2009: Terri Koontz; 2010-Present: Kristin Vanderbilt.

Field Crew 1995: Geer, Susan; Gosz, Jim; Romero, Ray; 1996: Taugher, Kimberly; Belden, Lisa; Payne, Jennifer; Monteith, Nancy; Newingham, Beth; Oldehoeft, Kim; Sexton, Jason; 1997: Taugher, Kimberly; Campbell, Mariel; Conn, Rachel; Kuehner, John; Helm, Amy; Kendall, John; 1998: Kuehner, John; Frasier, Jason; Korbe, Nicole; Kroll, AJ; Hayes, Betty; Hersch, Erika.

Employee History for 2000 to 2009: Mike Friggens 1999 to September 2001; Karen Wetherill February 7, 2000 to August 2009; Terri Koontz February 2000 to August 2003 August 2006 to August 2010; Shana Penington February 2000 to August 2000; Heather Simpson August 2000 to August 2002; Chris Roberts September 2001 to August 2002; Caleb Hickman September 9, 2002 to November 15, 2004; Seth Munson September 9, 2002 to June 2004; Maya Kapoor August 9, 2003 to January 21, 2005; Tessa Edelen August 15, 2004 to August 15, 2005; Charity Hall January 31, 2005 to January 3, 2006; Yang Xia January 31, 2005 to August 2009; Michell Thomey September 3, 2005 to August 2008; Jay McLeod January 2006 to August 2006; Amaris Swann August 25, 2008 to November 2009; John Mulhouse August 24, 2009 to November 2009.

Plant Phenology Monitoring Transects at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1991-1995)

Abstract: 

This study was designed to monitor the occurrence of various phenological events of plant species at seven research sites on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (i.e., Black Butte, Goat Draw, Five Points, Deep Well, Rio Salado, Sepultura Canyon and Los Pinos foothills watershed (Red Tank/222)).  The phenological events monitored included germination, vegetative growth, budding (flowers), flowering, fruiting, dormancy, senescence, and death.  All transects were placed close to Sevilleta LTER meteorological stations, allowing the coupling of biotic and abiotic data to detect relationships between climate and phenology.  

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

48

Additional Project roles: 

70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev048_phenology_20130412.txt

Methods: 

DATA COLLECTION - The data were collected once each week during the summer months, namely June, July and August. During the rest of the year, the data are collected at least once each month. This data set contains data collected between the periods of April 4, 1991 and August 24, 1995.  Ideally all sites were sampled on the one day.

STUDY SITES -

BLACK BUTTE - This site is located just inside the gate south of Black Butte.  The site is a sandy grassland, characterized by Oryzopsis hymenoides, Sporobolus giganteus, Sporobolus flexuosus, and Bouteloua eriopoda, occasional shrubs include Gutierrezia sarothrae, Yucca glauca, and Dalea scoparia.  Herbs include Senecio douglasii, Baileyi multiradiata, and Sphaeralcea spp.

DEEP WELL - The Deep Well site is west of the missile range road, between the road and the Deep Well meteorological station. This is a grassland site with shortgrass prairie species such as blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) and grasses with a more southern affinity such as black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda). Other grasses found at the site include dropseeds (Sporobolus spp.) and threeawns (Aristida spp.). Shrubs are uncommon but those that occur include Yucca glauca, Ephedra torreyi, and four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescens). Herbaceous plants include Plantago purshii, Hymenopappus filifolius, and globe mallows (Sphaeralcea spp.).

FIVE POINTS - The Five Points site is just east of the Five Points intersection and just north of the road. The site is dominated by creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), especially at the southern end of the transects.  The transects get grassier toward the north. The herbaceous plants include Hoffmanseggia drepanocarpa, Haplopappus spinulosus, and Solanum eleagnifolium.  The grasses include black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda), burrograss (Scleropogon
brevifolius), Threeawns (Aristida spp.) and ring muhly (Muhlenbergia
torreyi).

GOAT DRAW - This is a pinyon/juniper site in the Los Pinos mountains. Transect #1 ran across rocky hillslopes and through two rocky washes. Transect #2 ran along a gravelly stream bed. Transect #1 was covered with pinyon (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) trees and shrubs that included beargrass (Nolina microcarpa), feather dalea (Dalea formosa), shrub live oak (Quercus turbinella), and brown-spined prickly pear (Opuntia phaeacantha).Grasses in the area include hairy grama (Bouteloua hirsuta), bottlebrush squirreltail (Sitanion hystrix), and side-oats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula). The second transect has shrubs that include cane cholla (Opuntia imbricata) and four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) and many herbs such as Verbena wrightii, Erodium cicutarium, and Lesquerella ovalifolia.

RIO SALADO - This is a very sandy site. The predominate grasses are Oryzopsis hymenoides, Hilaria jamesii, and Sporobolus flexuosus. The shrubs include four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), mesquite (Prosopis glandulosus), indigo bush (Dalea scoparia), Penstemon ambiguus and creosote bush (Larrea tridentata). The herbaceous vegetation includes Cassia bauhinioides, Thelesperma megapotamicum, and Zinnia grandiflora.

SEPULTURA CANYON - The Sepultura Canyon site is at the base of the canyon in the Los Pinos mountains.  The transects cross one of the side channels that drain the canyon.  The substrate is alluvial and often disturbed in the channel by water or on the banks by rodent activity. The shelves above the bank have grama grasses mixed with shrubs such as prickly pear and cholla (Opuntia spp.) and juniper trees.

WATERSHED (RED TANK/222) - The transects in this site criss-cross a gravelly ephemeral stream bed in the foothills of the Sierra Ladrone Mountains. The woody vegetation in this stream bed includes juniper (Juniperus monosperma), Brickellia californica, Apache plume (Fallugia paradoxa). On the hills are Junipers and shrubs such as cane cholla (Opuntia imbricata), beargrass (Nolina microcarpa), and Oreganillo (Aloysia wrightii). The herbs in the wash include Lesquerella ovalifolia, and Mirabilis multiflora. The grasses found at this site include three-awn (Aristida sp.), fluff-grass Erioneuron pulchellum, and four species of grama grass (Bouteloua spp.).

TRANSECT DESCRIPTION - Black Butte, Deep Well, and Five Points each had three transects. Transects were 100 meters long, about 20 meters apart, and had a roughly a north/south azimuth. The transects were situated to capture the vegetation that dominated and characterized each site. Sepultura Canyon had four transects, each running from the shelf above the stream channel, across the channel to the other shelf. These transects were 50 meters long and situated to capture the diversity of plants in the wash, up the banks, and on the shelf.

HOW DATA WERE COLLECTED - The phenological data were collected by looking at the plants contained within the 50 x 1 meter transect (marked with rebar and sometimes string) and writing down the plant code (See Codes Used) if it was not already on the data sheet and circling the letter for the appropriate phenological condition. There is a description of each condition in the Variable Description and Definition. Abiotic data such as weather conditions and temperature was not taken as these data could be obtained from the LTER meteorlogical data set.

*******SAMPLE DATA SHEET********

PHENOLOGY RIO SALADO I DATE_________________

WORKERS___________________________ PRECIPITATION________

SOIL TEMP SURF______ .5m_____ TIME_____________________

CODE |
------------------------------------------------------------
ARDI5    |P/G V B FL FR M S D NP
------------------------------------------------------------
ARPUP6  |P/G V B FL FR M S D NP
------------------------------------------------------------
ATCA2    |P/G V B FL FR M S D NP
------------------------------------------------------------
Key:                      

p/g = perennating or germinating
v = vegetating
b = budding
fl = flowering
fr = fruiting
m = dispersing
s = senescing
d = dead
np = not present

Descriptions of these are in the section below.

VARIABLE DESCRIPTIONS AND DEFINITIONS - Definitions (Numbers in parenthesis indicate length of field):

DATE (8) - the date consists of the year, the month, and the date, in that order, transcribed numerically. e.g. 20 Apr 1991 = 19910420 There is a list of ranges in the "When" section above.

SITE (2) - The site codes are:

bb = Black Butte

dw = Deep Well

fp = Five Points

gd = Goat Draw

rs = Rio Salado

sc = Sepultura Canyon

ws = Watershed (Red Tank/222)

TRANSECT (1) - the transects are numbered 1 through 3 going from the western most transect to the eastern most transect. The Sepultura site from 1991 contains four transects.

SPECIES_CODE (6) - The codes used for plants in this study follow the Kartesz abbreviation standard (Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A Synonymized  Checklist of the  Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Timber Press,  Oregon). This is a four-, five-, or six-letter case-sesitive code that represents the plant species in that record. The Kartesz codes are in all capital letters and can be found in the species  codes list in this documentation section.

If for any variety of reasons the individual could not be keyed to the species level (e.g. wrong phenological period and plant was not flowering, plant had been grazed, plant is a seedling and too young to identify, etc.) then a hierarchical naming scheme was employed, becoming more and more broad. For example, if the plant could not be identified to species, then in many cases it was identified to genus, if not to genus, then at least the family was known. Finally, the lifeform classification (e.g. tree,shrub,forb, etc.) could have been used. Note that in the case of unknown grasses, the lifeform of GRASS need not have been used because a narrower classification of family (i.e. Poaceae) may have been utilized.

As there were no codes for "family" or "genus" specifically outlined by Kartesz, the Sevilleta LTER utilized its own hierarchical naming scheme which was as follows: If only the genus (or sometimes the family) was
known, then the code given was the first five letters of the genus (or family)  with only the first letter being capitalized (e.g. Aristida genus = Arist Fabaceae family = Fabac). Species that remained unknown (and could not be keyed to even a family) were listed as UNK (all capitals) or as the appropriate lifeform (e.g. SHRUB, FORB, etc.).                                                                                     

A comprehensive code list for all plant species found on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge and utilized by the Sevilleta Long-Term Ecological Research Project, can be found on the Sevilleta Information Management System (SIMS) in /export/db/local/plant/lib/species_kartesz_codes_.lst.

The following fields represented the phenological condition of the plant species being 
observed. A "y" in one of these fields indicated that the plant species was in that
particular condition (described below). A "n" indicated that the plant species did not
match the description of phenological condition at that particular time and place.

GERMINATING/PERENNATING (1) - coming up out of the ground, from a seed or a perennial part
VEGETATING (1) - alive with no reproductive structures, not beginning or ending its life
BUDDING (1) - had flower buds, pre-anthesis
FLOWERING (1) - had flowers at anthesis
FRUITING (1) - had fruits, after flowering but before dehiscence and/or dispersal
DISPERSING (1) - fruits and/or seeds were dispersing from the plant
DORMANT (1) - plant not vegetating or dead
SENESCING (1) - plant was dying
DEAD (1) - plant was dead
NOT PRESENT (1) - plant was gone, for whatever reason.                                  

If an "x" was entered under either the category of either perennating or dormant, it indicated that when the data was collected, these two categories were not yet devised. Any comments appearing in the text were bracketed and moved to the line directly below where they originally appeared.

Maintenance: 

*File initiated 23 Oct 1991 by Troy Maddux Data added 9 Dec 1991 by Troy Maddux.

*Line 2329 - added missing terminal '}'. G.S.

*Line 4800 - deleted blank line and changed lagr to hagr. G.S

*Line 4911 - deleted blank line. G.S.

*Data from 24 Jan 1992 entered by Troy Maddux on 30 Jan 1992; also changed black butte "comp 1" to mali, and sepultura boba* to anba.

*Data from 24 Jan 1992 entered by Troy Maddux on 3 Feb 1992.

*26 Feb 1992 - Changed comp1 in Sepultura Canyon to kuch (Kuhnia chlorolepis).

*27 Feb 1992 - changed mali in Sepultura Canyon that was mistakenly changed from comp1 was changed to kuch. T.M.

*23 Mar 1992 - Data from 5 Mar 1992 entered by Kathleen McGee

*27 Mar 1992 - ar.. changed to aris (For Aristida) at Deep Well ar.. changed to arlu at Sepultura Canyon. unk1 at Sepultura Canyon changed to kuch August 1992 - All data from June 1992 to aug 1992 has been entered and error checked by mchavez. Entire file (All data prior to Aug 92) has been compared to data sheets and corrections were made.

*21 September 1992- 19910718 dw1 lagr changed to hagr, 19920730 acta changed to atca, haplo to hasp. Melissa Chavez

*24 September 1992- cactu changed to nein at five points, anpa changed to anba, bopu to bocu, opmi to opim, vidi to vide at Selputura Canyon; Arei changed to arfi, epfe to eufe, hify to hyfi, lair to liar, lyfi to lyhi to hyfi at Rio Salado; b... changed to amch?, eptu to epto, saar to saab at Five Points; choy changed to opim, quta and quto to qutu at Water Sheds, de.. changed to deob, doja to daja, gape to gapi at Deep Well; erdo changed to erpu, li.. to liar, lu.. to luki, so.. to soel at Black Butte; leou changed to leov, rhdr to rhtr at Goat Draw. by Melissa Chavez

*29 September 1992- rocr changed to kocr at Sepultura Canyon by Melissa Chavez.

*1 October 1992- comp2 at Black Butte changed to semu. M.C.

*2 October 1992- comp at Water Sheds changed to kuch, Unknown "looks like woody gusa" to ardr.

*5 October 1992- ar.. at Sepultura changed to arlu, erio to erab, tr.. to trdu, unk2 and unk3 to chco; ar.. at Deep Well changed to aris (aristida), plpa to plpu, dona and doja to daja; op.. and oppp at Five Points changed to oppo, unk1 to spdi; wogu at Watersheds changed to ardr. comp1 at Black Butte changed to mali.

*13 October 1992- at Goat Draw, ?mus and mus? changed to thwr, yellow comp at Goat Draw changed to chvi2, at Five Points, euph?* and euph?2 changed to erue, euph?4 at Sepultura changed to euex, oe..2 at Black Butte to oeal, opco at Five Points to oppo. Mchavez

*14 October 1992- Seed2 @ Black Butte changed to pean, unknown comp at Water Sheds changed to kuch, boba* at Five Points to boba, boaba at Sepultura changed to anba, boerh at Five Points changed to amch?, eugh at Sepultura to euph? for un- known euph?orbia, euph?? at Deep Well changed to eure, ?nyct at Five Points to amch?, ?see1 at Black Butte with hoffmansegia notes have been changed to hodr, sp..1 changed to spha? unknown Sphaeralcea, seedj at Black Butte to hodr, uklg1 and unlg1 changed to dale? for unknown dalea (both at Black Butte), ?fes is now ?fest for unknown festuca, ecja at Water Sheds changed to ectr, euph? at Rio Salado to eufe, hoff at Deep well to hodr, lepi at watersheds is now lemo, life at Sepultura changed to lefe, seed3 at Black Butte changed to daja, seed4 at Deep Well to daja, gimu at Five Points to ipmu.

*20 October 1992- oe.. at Deep well changed to oeal, pars at Goat Draw to vewr, phys (physalis) at Water Shed transect to phhe, pltr at Sepultura changed to potr, subr at Five Points changed to scbr, unk1 at Black Butte changed to saka, diwi, and mali according to the individual notes, those without notes were left unchanged. ?eig at Water Sheds changed to vewr, unk2 at Deep Well changed to span.

*This file sent from Melissa Chavez to Troy Maddux on 28 Oct 1992. Data was compiled from different files and typos were corrected by Melissa Chavez. Melissa updated documentation from file received from Troy Maddux.

* File changed to rdb to check columns - blank spaces removed from ends of lines and species code fields that ran into germination fields were seperated. - 4 Nov 1992 - Troy Maddux.

* Changed all euph?(anything else) to euph(anything else) 4 Nov 1992 - Troy Maddux.

* Changed remaining "cedo" plant codes to "sedo"; also changed "vewr" to "bape" at goat draw transect #1 on 11 Nov 1992 by Troy Maddux.

June 1993 Maureen Hatch changed "199101029" to "19911029" for the first entry of 1991. A "y" in the "not present" column was changed to a "n" for the following entries: 19930512 gd 2 saka 19910708 bb 2 soel 19910708 bb 2 seed2 19911125 fp 3 hasp 19910718 dw 2 psta.

M. Hatch added April and May entries for 1993 and checked them with R. Shah. M. Hatch also added columns for dormant and perennating for files before 93 and converted {dormant} comments to "y" in the "dormant" column. Data from April 15, 16, and 19 1993 was entered by on June 9,13 1993 and data from April 29, 1993 was entered on June 14, 1993 by Amy Shaw. Data for February 25, 1993 was entered by Rupal Shah on March 4, 1993 and was checked by Rupal Shah on March 15, 1993. Data for March 18, 1993 was entered by Troy Maddux on March 19 and 22. Data collected on March 25, 1993 was entered by Melissa Chavez on March 28, 1993 and the in the far left hand column for this data set, the month and date were reversed in order. For data collected on April 7 and 8 was entered by both Roger Stupf and E. Scherff on April 16, 1993. Data entered by Amy Shaw on May 27 and 28,1993 for the data set taken on 21 of May 1993. To compile data taken at similiar times, the dates for data taken on 2/2(for dw 1) and 2/4 was recorded as 2/4; for data taken on 2/23 (for rs 2) and 2/25 was recorded as 2/25; and for data collected on 4/7 and 4/8 ( gd 1, 2 and ws 1,2,3 ) was recorded as 4/7.

*Maureen Hatch entered data for June 23 and July 1, 1993 on July 8,1993.
Rupal Shah entered data on 7-16-92
Rupal Shah checking data on 7-19-93.
Rupal Shah checking data on 7-21-93.
Rupal Shah checking data on 7-23-93.

Data entered by Rupal Shah on 9-14-93.
Data entered by Rupal Shah on 9-15-93.
Data entered by Rupal Shah on 11-1-93.
Data entered by Rupal Shah on 11-8-93.
Data entered by Rupal Shah on 11-9-93.
Data entered by Rupal Shah on 11-12-93.
Data checked by Rupal Shah on 11-17-93.
Data checked by Rupal Shah on 11-28-93.

data entered by Rupal Shah on Sept 29 1993.
data entered by Rupal Shah on October 8, 1993.

data entered by M. Valdez on 7-15-92
data entered by M. Valdez on 7-16-92

19910503 data entered 10 aug 92 mchavez
entered by mchavez on 20 july 1992

Data from April 15, 16, and 19 1993 was entered by on June 9,13 1993 and data from April 29, 1993 was entered on June 14, 1993 by Amy Shaw. Data for February 25, 1993 was entered by Rupal Shah on March 4, 1993 and was checked by Rupal Shah on March 15, 1993. Data for March 18, 1993 was entered by Troy Maddux on March 19 and 22. Data collected on March 25, 1993 was entered by Melissa Chavez on March 28, 1993 and the in the far left hand column for this data set, the month and date were reversed in order. For data collected on April 7 and 8 was entered by both Roger Stupf and E. Scherff on April 16, 1993. Data entered by Amy Shaw on May 27 and 28,1993 for the data set taken on 21 of May 1993. To compile data taken at similiar times, the dates for data taken on 2/2(for dw 1) and 2/4 was recorded as 2/4; for data taken on 2/23 (for rs 2) and 2/25 was recorded as 2/25; and for data collected on 4/7 and 4/8 ( gd 1, 2 and ws 1,2,3 ) was recorded as 4/7.

Today is Jan. 4th 1994. I separated all the phenology data into three  separate files. The first file,"allstuff91-92" contains data from the very begining of the project, 4-4-91, to 5-26-92 when the sites were changed. The second file,"allstuff92", contains data for the remainder of the 1992 year. Finally, this file,"allstuff93", contains all the data for the 1993  year. The logs for all three files is contained within this one. I am Rupal Shah, and if you have any questions, come to me for answers.

24 Feb 1993 - began updating the documentation to correspond to the Sevilleta LTER data manager's guide to documentation. Made into an rdb file and checked, all collumns projected out and made sure the data were o.k.

There once was a huge file containing all of the phenology data ever collected, but Rupal Shah separated it into three parts. This is the first part. It contains the original sites of fp,sc, bb, and dw. The logs for this data is contained in the "allstuff93" file. The log for this file corresponds to dates from the begining of the project which is 4-4-91 to the point when the sites were changed, 5-26-92. Today is Jan. 4th 1994, and I separated everything in the last week of December. So, all the data for 1991,1992,and 1993 are contained within these three files.

On Jan 21 1994 at 8:45am, Melissa Chavez began to revise the doccumentation to fit the guidelines given in "Data Tech's Manual for documenting"

25 Jan 1994: added data set code and title section worked on when and how section. Added Varialbe description and definitions. - melissa chavez

Rio Salado phenology data for transect 1 & 3

entered by M Altenbach, 26 May 1994; checked 27 May 1994

Rio Salado 2 entered by jbocock 5/25/94. Error checked 5/25/94.
Jbocock entered watershed 3 on 5/25/94. collected on 5/24/94,
syanoff 052594 entered data from 052494 goat draw 2 phenology
checked 052694 SLY MJA
crew- Bocock, Chavez, Altenbach, Hoban, Maddux, Yanoff; changed ernu to
erdi; changed fest to trel
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rio Salado collected on 2 Jun 1994 but entered as 1 Jun 1994

Data from Deep well site not collected on 2 jun 1994.

Rio Salado data from 02 Jun 1994 entered on 06 Jun 1994 by Melissa Chavez
error checked 13 June 1994 by maltenbach & jbocock

Entered by MJ Altenbach, 6 June 1994,
Goat Draw Phenology for 1 June 1994

S Yanoff, 060994
phenology goat draw 2, data collected 060194
error checked 13 June 1994 maltenbach, jbocock
Workers:J Bocock, M Altenbach, M Chavez, S Yanoff
Only trel was recorded but trmu may be present.
erdi may be ernu, this cannot be determined until later in season.
Several species were not recorded on data sheet but were recorded 060794.
spae is sphaelralcea sp. with dissected leaves and spwr2 is probably
spwr or spfe.

S Yanoff, 060794
phenology Watershed 1, 2 and 3, data collected 060194
J Bocock, G Dellorusso, M Chavez, S Yanoff
Error checked by maltenbach, jbocock 13 June 1994
ws 1: erdi may be ernu, this cannot be determined until later this season.
ws 3: oeco identification is not certain, oeco may be cham.
note: cham is chamaesaracha sp.
quto was recorded budding on 060794 but was not recorded 060194, therefore it is recorded budding below.
If no "y"s were recorded on the data sheet for a plant, it was entered as all
"n"s but means no data.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
rs1 collected by: syanoff, mchavez 6/7/94
rs2 collected by: jbocock, maltenbach 6/7/94
rs3 collected by: syanoff, mchavez 6/7/94
entered by: mchavez
error checked by: maltenbach, jbocock

gd1 collected by: mchavez, maltenbach 6/7/94
entered by: mchavez
error checked by: jbocock, maltenbach
gd2 collected by: syanoff, jbocock, maltenbach, mchavez, phoban, tmaddux 6/7/94
entered by: maltenbach
error checked by: syanoff, maltenbach

dw1 collected by: tmaddux, phoban 6/6/94
dw2 collected by: tmaddux, phoban 6/6/94
dw3 collected by: tmaddux, phoban 6/6/94
entered by: mchavez
error checked by: maltenbach, jbocock

ws1 collected by: syanoff, maltenbach
ws2 collected by: jbocock, mchavez
ws3 collected by: jbocock, mchavez
entered by: maltenbach
error checked by: syanoff, maltenbach

The month is first in the date after the year. ?asbr collected, when confirmed change to asbr or whatever it is. ?muto needs to be confirmed also and then changed if need be.

erdi may be ernu, this cannot be determined until later in season, all erigeron plants with similar undissected leaves entered as erdi. Only trel was recorded here but trmu may be present, low and tall tridens species apparently present. Several species were recorded present 0601 but not recorded present 0607. must9 is vegetating wavy-leaf mustard with remnant flower stalks which may previously have been recorded as must 1 or must2. ?must is a vegetating mustard? with oblanceolate pubescent leaves- may be draba or lesquerella species. spae is Sphaeralcea sp. with dissected leaves, spwr2 has nondissected leaves and is probably spwr or spfe. There may be 2 eriogonum species- one with remnant or budding inflorescences and one smaller and possibly annual. ?herb is not remembered by workers.

entered by M Altenbach, 13,14 June 1994
watershed phenology data collected 7 June 1994
error checked 14 June 94 by M Altenbach & S Yanoff
replace comp w/ ?kuch on data sheet
add erdi to datasheet
when no "y"s were entered for a plant on the data sheet, all "n"s were entered
on the computer. This equals no data.

dw
6 Jun 1994 by Melissa Chavez, error checked 13 Jun 1994 by maltenbach &jbocock
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Rio Salado, Water Sheds from 14 Jun 1994 entered on 15 Jun 1994 by Melissa
Chavez
rs1 collected by: syanoff, jbocock
rs2 collected by: maltenbach, mchavez
rs3 collected by: maltenbach, mchavez
entered by: mchavez 6/15/94
error checked by: maltenbach, jbocock 6/20/94

dw1 collected by: maltenbach, jbocock
dw2 collected by: mchavez
dw3 collected by: syanoff
entered by : jbocock 6/16/94
error checked by: maltenbach, jbocock 6/20/94

gd1 collected by: maltenbach, mchavez.
gd2 collected by: jbocock, syanoff
entered by: jbocock 6/15/94
error checked by: maltenbach, jbocock 6/20/94
'fest' needs to be struck from the data sheet for gd1, was found to be 'trel'

ws1 collected by: maltenbach, jbocock
ws2 collected by: syanoff, mchavez
ws3 collected by: syanoff, mchavez
entered by: mchavez 6/15/94
error checked by: maltenbach, jbocock 6/20/94
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
watershed 1 collected by: M Altenbach on 28 June 1994
watershed 2 collected by: M Chavez on 28 June 1994
watershed 3 collected by: J Bocock on 28 June 1994
entered by: M Altenbach on 28 June 1994
error-checked 6/29/94 by: jbocock, syanoff

rio salado 1 collected by: M Chavez on 28 June 1994
rio salado 2 collected by: M Altenbach, J Bocock on 28 June 1994
rio salado 3 collected by: S Yanoff on 28 June 1994
entered by: M Altenbach on 28 June 1994,,
error-checked 6/29/94 by: jbocock, syanoff

Goat Draw 1 collected by Marilyn Altenbach and Melissa Chavez
Goat Draw 2 collected by Sly, Mja, Mac, and Jmb

Deep well 3 collected by Mac
deep well 2 collected by Mja
deep well 1 collected by Jmb

Goat Draw and Deep well from 28 Jun 1994 entered by Melissa Chavez on 28 Jun
1994.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
phenology for deep well for july 6th entered by Michael East
Date entered july 7,1994
phenology for watershed for july 6th entered by Michael East
Date entered july 7,1994

gd1 collected 07/06/94 by: mchavez, jbocock, meast
entered 07/07/94 by: syanoff
error checked 06/14/94 by:

gd2 collected 07/06/94 by: syanoff
entered 07/07/94 by: syanoff
error checked 06/14/94 by:

rs 1 collected 07/06/94 by: mchavez, jbocock
entered 07/07/94 by: jbocock
error checked 07/07/94 by:

rs2 collected 07/06/94 by: mchavez, jbocock
entered 07/07/94 by: jbocock
error checked 07/07/94 by:

rs3 collected 07/06/94 by: syanoff, meast
entered 07/07/94 by: jbocock
error checked 07/07/94 by:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
ws1 collected 07/13/94 by: meast, syanoff
ws2 collected 07/13/94 by: mchavez, jbocock
ws3 collected 07/13/94 by: mchavez, jbocock
entered 07/14/94 by: jbocock
error checked 07/14/94 by:

rs1 collected 07/13/94: mchavez and meast
rs3 collected 07/13/94: jbocock and s yanoff
rs3 collected 07/13/94: mchavez and meast
entered 07/14/94 by: mchavez
error checked 07/14/94 by:

gd1 collected 07/06/94 by: mchavez, meast
entered 07/07/94 by: meast
gd2 collected 07/06/94 by: tmaddux
entered 07/07/94 by: jbocock
error checked 07/14/94 by:

dw1 collected 07/13/94 by: jbocock
dw2 collected 07/13/94 by: mchavez, meast
dw3 collected 07/13/94 by: syanoff
entered 07/13/94 by: meast
error checked 07/14/94 by:
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
rs1 collected 07/20/94:jbocock
rs3 collected 07/20/94: mchavez, meast
rs3 collected 07/20/94: mchavez, meast
entered 07/21/94 by: jbocock
error checked 07/21/94 by: jbocock, meast

gd1 collected 07/20/94 by: mchavez
gd2 collected 07/20/94 by: mchavez, jbocock, meast
entered 07/21/94 by: jbocock
error checked 07/21/94 by: jbocock, meast

ws1 collected 07/20/94 by:m.chavez
ws2 collected 07/20/94 by:j.bocock
ws3 collected 07/20/94 by:m.east
entered 07/21/94 by: m.east
error checked 07/14/94 by: jbocock, meast

dw1 collected 07/20/94 by:j.bocock
dw2 collected 07/20/94 by:m.chavez
dw3 collected 07/20/94 by:m.east
entered 07/21/94 by:m.east
error checked 07/14/94 by:jbocock, meast
---------------------------------------------------------------------
ws1 collected 08/03/94 by: meast, syanoff
ws2 collected 08/03/94 by: meast, syanoff
ws3 collected 08/03/94 by: meast, syanoff
entered 08/03/94 by: jbocock
error checked 08/04/94 by: meast, jbocock

rs1 collected 08/03/94 by: meast, syanoff
rs3 collected 08/03/94 by: meast, syanoff
rs3 collected 08/03/94 by: meast, syanoff
entered 08/03/94 by: jbocock
error checked 08/04/94 by: meast, jbocock

gd1 collected 08/03/94 by: meast, syanoff
gd2 collected 08/03/94 by: meast, syanoff
entered 08/03/94 by: jbocock
error checked 08/04/94 by: meast, jbocock

dw1 collected 08/03/94 by: meast, syanoff
dw2 collected 08/03/94 by: meast, syanoff
dw3 collected 08/03/94 by: meast, syanoff
entered 08/03/94 by: jbocock
error checked 08/04/94 by: meast, jbocock

gd1 collected 07/27/94 by: mchavez, jbocock
entered 07/27/94 by: syanoff
error checked 07/27/94 by: meast, syanoff

gd2 collected 07/27/94 by: meast, syanoff
entered 07/27/94 by: syanoff
error checked 07/27/94 by: meast, syanoff

?chen on gd2 is probably a chenopodiaceae family species
?spwr2 and ?spco2 changed to spwr2 and spco2 to maintain 5 letter codes
even though these IDs are uncertain
rs1 collected 07/27/94 by: meast, syanoff
entered 07/27/94 by: syanoff
error checked 07/27/94 by: meast, syanoff

rs2 collected 07/27/94 by: meast, syanoff
entered 07/27/94 by: syanoff
error checked 07/27/94 by: meast, syanoff

rs3 collected 07/27/94 by: meast, syanoff
entered 07/07/94 by: syanoff
error checked 07/27/94 by: meast, syanoff

ws1 collected 07/27/94 by:s.yanoff
ws2 collected 07/27/94 by:j.bocock/m.east
ws3 collected 07/27/94 by:m.chavez
entered 07/27/94 by:m.east
error checked 07/28/94 by:meast/syanoff

dw1 collected 07/27/94 by:j.bocock/m.east
dw2 collected 07/27/94 by:m.chavez
dw3 collected 07/27/94 by:s.yanoff
entered 07/27/94 by:m.east
error checked 07/14/94 by:meast/syanoff

gd1 collected 08/10/94 by:m.chavez
gd2 collected 08/10/94 by:m.east/j.bocock
entered 08/12/94 by:s.yanoff
error checked 08/12/94 by:

dw1 collected 08/10/94 by:j.bocock
dw2 collected 08/10/94 by:m.chavez
dw3 collected 08/10/94 by:m.east
entered 08/12/94 by:s.yanoff
error checked 07/14/94 by:

ws1 collected 08/10/94 by:m.chavez
ws2 collected 08/10/94 by:j.bocock
ws3 collected 08/10/94 by:m.east
entered 08/12/94 by:s.yanoff
error checked 08/12/94 by:

rs1 collected 08/10/94 by:m.chavez
rs2 collected 08/10/94 by:j.bocock
rs3 collected 08/10/94 by:m.east
entered 08/12/94 by:s.yanoff
error checked 08/12/94 by:

daja of previous transects is dana
dw123: spco2, spdi, spfe

File archived 29 November 1995; James W. Brunt

File started, 5 February 1996 ; jwb

Data entered by ? for "day" "month" "year" on this date.

10/10/98 - Imported species code changes to dataset. K. Taugher
- Updated documentation section to reflect Kartesz changes
- Added an additional space to 'species code' field to allow for longer Kartesz codes. K. Taugher
- Added information on Kartesz codes (and reference) to the SPECIES section. K. Taugher
- Added new Kartesz SPECIES CODE LIST. K. Taugher
- Removed a column of "2"'s from the dataset. These were added as an artifact of the sas code conversion program used for the transect datasets which was also used to convert the plant species codes in this dataset (see CODE CONVERSION in the documentation section below for a discussion of the code conversion process). This column was not a part of this dataset and was removed. K. Taugher
- Changed the field positions in the 'VARIABLE DESCRIPTIONS AND DEFINITIONS' section to reflect the current positions. As Kartesz codes may be up to 6 characters in length, an additional field position was added to the "code" column which then changed all the field positions that followed. K. Taugher
- Realigned data columns to right justification. K. Taugher
- Added Kartesz code conversion details including step by step details of how the conversion was done. K. Taugher
- Added name to section on "WHO IS INVOLVED WITH THE DATA" under "Kartesz code conversion data management" along with my email address should any questions arise. K. Taugher
- Continued and finished QA/QC. K. Taugher

11/12/98 - Changed species codes to Kartesz. K. Taugher
- Added a final line of "{END OF DATA}" to dataset. K. Taugher
- Changed code of "?mus" with a comment of "{tall clumpy muhly}" to a code of "Muhle" to conform to coding protocol. K. Taugher
- Made the following changes in species codes throughout the dataset:
- "?gras" changed to "Poace"
- "?erio" changed to "Eriog"
- "spha" changed to "Sphae"
- "mach" changed to "Macha"
- "ment" changed to "Mentz"
- "spor" changed to "Sporo"
- "trid" changed to "Tride"
- "?lot" changed to "Lotus"
- "?must" changed to "Brass"
- "euph" changed to "Eupho"
- "trel" with a comment of {tridens} changed to "Tride"
- "?che" changed to "Cheno"
- "phys" changed to "Physa"
- "cham" changed to "Chama"
- "vian" changed to "VIAM"
- "ipom" changed to "Ipomo"
- "viga" changed to "Vigar"
- "?er." changed to "Eriog"

- Removed a line of data that had all information EXCEPT species code for entry at 19951019 gd 2. K. Taugher

11/14/98 - Imported metadata used for the previous year's phenology study.
- Added a space to the species code field to accomodate the longer Kartesz codes. K. Taugher
- Aligned columns to right justification. K. Taugher
- Finished QA/QC. K. Taugher

Following line of data corrected. The final n was missing.

19940607 ws 3 OPPHP n n n y n n n n n n n
--Kristin Vanderbilt, Feb. 5, 2001

02/05/01 - Two lines of data which were dated 1992 and delimited by lines saying ********************TEST DATA were deleted. K. Vanderbilt.

Additional information: 

The following is list of the dates on which data were collected.


4 April 1991 14 August 1991
18 April 1991 23 August 1991
3 May 1991 9 September 1991
8 May 1991 19 September 1991
16 May 1991 14 October 1991
23 May 1991 29 October 1991
30 May 1991 25 November 1991
11 June 1991 24 January 1992
20 June 1991 5 March 1992
27 June 1991 26 March 1992
8 July 1991 26 May 1992
18 July 1991

26 June 1992 7 August 1992
2 July 1992 14 August 1992
13 July 1992 20 August 1992
17 July 1992 11 September 1992
23 July 1992 1 October 1992
30 July 1992
30 July 1992

4 February 1993 12 May 1993
25 February 1993 21 May 1993
18 March 1993 10 June 1993
25 March 1993 23 June 1993
7 April 1993 1 July 1993
19 April 1993 26 August 1993
29 April 1993 16 September 1993

24 May 1994
2 Jun 1994
7 Jun 1994
14 Jun 1994
28 Jun 1994
6 Jul 1994
13 Jul 1994
20 Jul 1994

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