transpiration

Riparian Evapotranspiration (ET) Study (SEON) from the Middle Rio Grande River Bosque, New Mexico (1999-2011 ): Evapotranspiration Data (ET)

Abstract: 

This study originated with the objective of parameterizing riparian evapotranspiration (ET) in the water budget of the Middle Rio Grande.  We hypothesized that flooding and invasions of non-native species would strongly impact ecosystem water use.  Our objectives were to measure and compare water use of native (Rio Grande cottonwood, Populus deltoides ssp. wizleni) and non-native (saltcedar, Tamarix chinensis & Russian olive, Eleagnus angustifolia) vegetation and to evaluate how water use is affected by climatic variability resulting in high river flows and flooding as well as drought conditions and deep water tables.  Eddy covariance flux towers to measure ET and shallow wells to monitor water tables were instrumented in 1999.  Active sites in their second decade of monitoring include a xeroriparian, non-flooding salt cedar woodland within Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and a dense, monotypic salt cedar stand at Bosque del Apache NWR, which is subject to flood pulses associated with high river flows.

Additional Project roles: 

478
479

Data set ID: 

192

Core Areas: 

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Three-dimensional eddy covariance:  Measures fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and momentum, integrated over an area such as a vegetation canopy.  High frequency measurements are made of vertical wind speed and water vapor, and their covariance over thirty minutes is used to compute latent heat flux, the heat absorbed by evaporation, from the canopy surface.  Latent heat flux (LE) is converted to a direct measurement of evapotranspiration (ET).  Simultaneous, high frequency measurements of temperature are used with vertical wind speed to compute the sensible heat flux (H), the heat transfer due to vertical temperature gradients.  Measuring net radiation (Rn) and ground heat flux (G), allows the energy balance to be calculated (Rn = LE + H + G), providing a self-check for accuracy and closure error.

Sites: Two Rio Grande riparian locations in P. deltoides forests, two in T. chinensis forests.  In each forest type, one of the two sites is prone to flooding from elevated Rio Grande flows, and the other site does not flood.  A fifth site was located in a mix of non-native Eleagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) and native Salix exigua (coyote willow) prone to flooding.

Design:  Eddy covariance systems were mounted on towers in the turbulent surface layer 2-2.5 m above the canopy.  Measurement period was 10 Hz and the covariance period was 30 minutes.  Additional energy fluxes were made at 1 Hz and averaged over 30 minutes.

Water table fluctuations were monitored at the sights with groundwater wells installed ~ 1 m below baseflow water table.  Wells were constructed of 5 cm inner diameter PVC pipe with approximately 1 m screen lengths. Automated pressure transducers were deployed to measure water table elevations at 30-minute intervals.

Precision:  Thirty minute average or total (e.g., precipitation) core data from field instruments and processed field data (thirty minute or daily average or total. Data are programmed for IEEE4 4 byte floating point output (~ 7 digits), but actual precision values are not apparent in the program or in many instrument manuals. 

Missing Data: Direct-from-field data time stamps are excluded if data are missing.

Data sources: 

sev192_bosqueET_20150729.txt

Instrumentation: 

Current Instruments:

Instrument Name: 3-D Sonic Anemometer

Manufacturer: Campbell Scientific, Inc. (Logan, UT)

Model Number: CSAT3


Instrument Name: CO2/H2O Analyzer

Manufacturer: Li-Cor, Inc. (Lincoln, NE)

Model Number: LI-7500


Instrument Name: Net Radiometer

Manufacturer: Kipp & Zonen (Delft, The Netherlands)

Model Number: CNR1


Instrument Name: Barometric Pressure Sensor

Manufacturer: Vaisala (Helsinki, Finland)

Model Number: CS105


Instrument Name: Temperature and Relative Humidity Probe

Manufacturer: Vaisala (Helsinki, Finland)

Model Number: HMP45C


Instrument Name: Wind Sentry (Anemometer and Vane)

Manufacturer: R.M. Young (Traverse City, MI)

Model Number: 03001


Instrument Name: Tipping Bucket Rain Gage

Manufacturer: Texas Electronics, Inc. (Dallas, TX)

Model Number: TE525


Instrument Name: Quantum Sensor (PAR)

Manufacturer: Li-Cor, Inc. (Lincoln, NE)

Model Number: LI-190


Instrument Name: Water Content Reflectometer

Manufacturer: Campbell Scientific, Inc. (Logan, UT)

Model Number: CS616


Instrument Name: Soil Heat Flux Plate

Manufacturer: Radiation and Energy Balance Systems, Inc. (Bellevue, WA)

Model Number: HFT3


Instrument Name: Averaging Soil Thermocouple Probe

Manufacturer: Campbell Scientific, Inc. (Logan, UT)

Model Number: TCAV


Instrument Name: Measurement and Control System (Datalogger)

Manufacturer: Campbell Scientific, Inc. (Logan, UT)

Model Number: CR5000


Instrument Name: Levelogger and Barologger (Water Table)

Manufacturer: Solinst Canada Ltd. (Georgetown, ON, Canada)

Model Number: 3001 LT M10 and 3001 LT M1.5


Instrument Name: Mini-Diver, Cera-Diver, and Baro-Diver (Water Table)

Manufacturer: Van Essen Instruments ((Delft, The Netherlands)

Model Number: DI501, DI701, and DI500


Discontinued Instruments:


Instrument Name: Krypton Hygrometer

Manufacturer: Campbell Scientific, Inc. (Logan, UT)

Model Number: KH2O


Instrument Name: Net Radiometer

Manufacturer: Radiation and Energy Balance Systems, Inc. (Bellevue, WA)

Model Number: Q-7.1


Instrument Name: Pyranometer

Manufacturer: Kipp & Zonen (Delft, The Netherlands)

Model Number: CM3


Instrument Name: Micrologger

Manufacturer: Campbell Scientific, Inc. (Logan, UT)

Model Number: CR23X


Instrument Name: Submersible Sensor Pressure Transducer (Water Table)

Manufacturer: Electronic Engineering Innovations (Las Cruces, NM)

Model Number: 2.0 (2 m) and 5.0 (4 m)

Quality Assurance: 

a]  Before ET is computed from LE, various standard corrections are applied.  These include: coordinate rotation to align the wind vector with the sonic anemometer, corrections developed from frequency response relationships that incorporate sensor line averaging and separation (Massman corrections), and corrections to account for flux effects on vapor density as opposed to mixing ratio measurements.  Corrections are made in a data analysis (Perl) program.  See Cleverly, et al., Hydrological Processes 20: 3207-3225, 2006 for more detail and references.


b]  On days in which 1-4 of the 30 min LE values are missing, a general linear regression model  between LE and Rn is used to estimate missing data whenever the regression coefficient was significantly different from 0 (i.e. p > 0.5).  ET is not calculated from LE on days that do not match the above criteria.


c]  Other missing data required for derived data values, as well as out of range data are filtered out in data analysis (Perl) programs.


d]  Closure of the energy balance is achieved by adding the measured Bowen Ration (H/LE) components to H and LE.  Closure represents the error introduced when applying the energy balance method to estimate ET: closure = Rn - LE - H - G.  The measured Bowen Ratio, H / LE, is used to parse the closure value into component H and LE values.


e]  Soil water content data are calibrated with soil water content (% vol) values measured from field samples by linear regression in a data analysis (Perl) program.


f]  Well loggers are pressure transducers that measure absolute pressure (barometric plus water column pressures).  An on-site barometric pressure transducer suspended above the water table is calibrated to quantify pressure in units of elevation head, which is subtracted from absolute head to arrive at the actual water level.


g]  Well data are calibrated using periodic manual measurements of water table elevations.

Hydraulic Constraints on Two Life History Stages of Larrea tridentata in a Chihuahuan Desert Creosote Shrubland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2002-2003)

Abstract: 

Maintaining high rates of water loss during times of high resource availability could allow establishing woody desert perennials to grow quickly by allowing them to take advantage of the fleeting but abundant monsoonal moisture typical of warm deserts like the Chihuahuan. However, a plant cannot endlessly increase water loss in order to grow faster --there are hydraulic constraints on rates of water loss. The hydraulic properties of each particular plant xylem and soil microsite, as well as the AR:AL absorbing root area to transpiring leaf area ratio) interact to set limits on rates of water loss. If transpiration rates become too high, cavitation may limit the ability of the xylem to supply water to the leaves. The main objective of this study was to test two hypotheses on a population of Larrea tridentata at the Sevilleta LTER in central New Mexico (1) do small plants grow faster and use water less conservatively than large, and (2) are there differences in the hydraulic constraints on small and large plants. Measurements were made every six weeks in the spring, summer and fall from April 2002 - August 2003. Field measurements of shoot growth, gas exchange and plant and soil water potentials were made to determine growth rates and water use. Measurements of leaf specific conductance determined the ability of the xylem to supply water to the leaves. Excavation findings were used to estimate (AR:AL). Xylem vulnerability curves and soil texture analysis were used to determine the hydraulic properties of the plant xylem and soil. A model determined where the limiting conductance occurred in the plant-soil continuum.

Data set ID: 

154

Core Areas: 

Additional Project roles: 

306
307

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Field Methods:

For gas exchange measurements a LiCor 6400 portable gas exchange system was used. Measurements took place in June, August and September 2002 and May, June, and August 2003. Two measurements were made on each plant at approximately 7-9:30AM and 10-12:30PM. One branch tip was chosen and marked on each 10 small and 10 large plants. The same branch tip was used for measurement throughout the day unless it broke, at which time another branch tip was chosen and marked. Stomatal Ratio was set to one because stomates are present on both sides of the leaf in this species. Because of the small size of the leaves, an energy balance approach was used to calculate the leaf temperature in the chamber.

Chamber temperature and humidity were controlled at ambient and reference CO2 was set to 400ppm. Using natural light plants were clamped into the chamber, oriented in their original direction, chamber conditions were allowed to stabilize. Leaf area was set to one during measurement. Because of the small leaves of the species, a branch tip had to be measured. Measured branch tips were cut and returned to the lab where their leaf area was measured.

A Vista Scan Scanner was used to create an image of the leaves. The bitmap image was then analyzed for number of pixels using Scion Image. A regression equation was developed which converted pixel number into leaf area in cm2.The gas exchange data was then recalculated to adjust for leaf area.

For plant water potential a Scholander Pressure bomb was used to measure branched stem tips consisting of 15-20 leaves and a woody base. Predawn water potential samples were collected between 4AM and 5AM. Midday water potentials were collected between 11AM and 1PM. Samples were placed into a plastic baggie with a moist paper towel during transport. Samples were collected in May, June, August, September and December 2002 as well as January, March, May, June and August 2003.

For whole plant hydraulic conductance measurements large sections of the xylem were measured using a vacuum canister to generate known vacuum pressures. The plant was attached to a water filled container on a balance via tiagon tubing. Changes in weight on the balance, and thus flow rate (mg/s) through the plant were measured by a computer using a program written in Turbo Pascal. Each sample was measured at four or five pressures and the change in flow rate with pressure was calculated as the total hydraulic conductance of all tissues contained in the sample. All samples were immediately placed into a plastic bag with a wet paper towel and transported to the lab where they were measured within 48 hours of collection.

For large plants an entire stem of the plant was cut at the base. The stems were cut under water at the lab, to about 30cm. For small plants the entire plant was excavated, and any roots larger than about 2mm in diameter were kept intact. Back at the lab, most of the root system was cut off under water, leaving the root collar and the initial un-branched portion of the main root which obviously supplied the entire plant. For both sizes, all green material was removed from the tips of the branches, leaving only woody stems.

The green portion of the plant included all leaves and sometimes large (up to 150mm) branched sections. For root hydraulic conductance measurements root segments +AD4-50cm were cut in the field and transported to the lab wrapped tightly in 3 plastic bags containing wet paper towel. Segments were re-cut underwater and the ends shaved off with a razor blade. They were then placed on a manifold and flow through the segment was measured. Segments were then flushed for 15 minutes with distilled water at 100kPa. Flow was then re-measured. Percent loss of conductivity is calculated as the difference between pre and post flush flow divided by post flush flow and multiplied by 100. Due to time constraints only one flush was performed on each sample. For soil water potential monitoring soil thermocouple psychrometers were placed under 4 large and 4 small plants at 30cm and 45cm below the soil surface. Measurements were made at or around 2AM when temperature gradients were at a minimum. A Campbell datalogger reported millivolt output which was converted to MPa using calibrations determined in the lab. Calibration involved regression of millivolt output against solutions of known salt concentration for each psychrometer.

Data sources: 

sev154_waterpot_07132009

Additional information: 

Additional Information on the personnel associated with the Data Collection / Data Processing Joy Francis, a post-doc with Jim Gosz, was instrumental in setting up this study.

Water Balance Modeling Project at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico: Vegetation Plot Data (1995-1998)

Abstract: 

The water balance vegetation plots were part of a larger water balance monitoring project at the Sevilleta LTER. The plots were designed to measure the percent cover of photosynthetic/transpiring (green) plant species at specific sites where time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes and weather stations were already installed.  In 1995, there were three sites (Field Station, Deep Well and Rio Salado). A 30m x 30m plot was installed at each site, and collection of vegetation data commenced in July 1995. Percent cover (green) and species identities were recorded monthly at a representative sample of 1m square quadrats within each plot.  

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

81

Additional Project roles: 

89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev081_waterbalance_03022011

Methods: 

Study Plots - Each of the three plots was 30m x 30m (900 m squared). Eleven lines and eleven rows of small wooden pegs were placed in an evenly-spaced manner, as shown in the diagram below. Each peg was about 3 meters from the next in the grid. Therefore, the lines and rows were numbered by 3's. For monthly data collection, a one meter square quadrat was placed so that the peg was at the northeast corner. The 0th line and 0th row of pegs served as borders on two sides of the plot and also as anchors for the NE corners of quadrats. The 30th line and 30th row of pegs served only as borders on the other two sides of the plot.

The Field Station (fs) and Deep Well (dw) sites were oriented as in the diagram below. The Rio Salado (rs) plot was a mirror image of this, so that row '0' is on the west side of the plot and rows run from west to east. The lines remained the same, running from north to south.

                                  N

Row
30 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 0
* * * * * * * * * * 0
| * * * * * * * * * * 3
| * * * * * * * * * * 6
| * * * * * * * * * * 9
| * * * * * * * * * * 12 L
W | * * * * * * * * * * 15 i E
| * * * * * * * * * * 18 n
| * * * * * * * * * * 21 e
| * * * * * * * * * * 24
| * * * * * * * * * * 27
|________________________________30

S

Sample frequency and size - Plots were sampled once per month, near the middle of the month, from January through December (in 1995, sampling did not begin until July.).

To obtain accurate estimates of the mean percent green cover of each guild, including annuals, perennials, grasses, forbs, and creosote bush, with the least amount of effort and time, both running means and boot strap analyses were performed. This was originally proposed by Bruce Milne (for detail, see /research//local/plant/src/plantcover/field_methods) and implemented by Yeulong Yang using SAS. The SAS program used to determine the sample size is called "swb_size.sas", located at /research/local/plant/src/plantcover.

Documentation can be found at the beginning of the SAS program. Based on the results of the running mean analyses, a minimum of 60 quads was needed. From that point on, only 60 quads per plot were sampled by the field crew.

Equipment - Equipment included meter quadrat frames, tape recorders, and microcassettes. Quadrat frames were made of 1/2 " PVC and PVC corners, with 10 cm lengths marked using black electrical tape. Each 10 cm square within the quadrat would therefore comprise 1% of the area.

Recording data - The person recording data first placed the quadrat frame on the ground with the NE corner inside of the wooden peg and the SW corner inside of a PVC peg placed as a marker. A brief note was left on the microcasette and a similar introductory statement taped at the beginning of data collection (e.g. "Jan. 18. 1996, Susan Geer, Rio Salado water balance plot").

Only species which had some green were identified. Many times it was hard to tell whether foliage was green. It was easier to determine foliage color when the sun was not directly overhead. Geen foliage was mentally combined and tallyed to the nearest percent. Anytime green foliage occupied less than half of a 10 cm square area (less than 0.5%), it was classified as "trace." If between 0.5% and 1% was occupied, cover was rounded up to 1%. All foliage that was not green at the time of sampling was classified as "litter." The following is an example of what might have been recorded for one quadrat: "Begin quad 0 0. Gutierrezia sarothrae 5, Dalea jamesii 1, Psilotrope tagetina +, litter 45. End quad 0 0".

Consistency of estimates - To ensure that cover estimates were always made in the same way, the crew leader served as the standard. Before gathering data, each group of plant crew members had a training session in which the crew leader demonstrated collection of percent cover for green foliage only.  The crew did about 10 quadrats as a group, and then members all gathered data independently for another set of quadrats. A crew member estimating cover differently would recieve extra training and practice. Data were compared to detect differences between crew members in September.

The SAS program used to estimate the differences among crew members is called PerDiff.sas, located at /research/local/plant/src/plantcover. Based on the results of such analyses, differences in percent cover were mainly due to site and guild and there were no significant differences among the crew members. A brief documentation can be found at the beginning of the PerDiff.sas program.

Data entry - Data were entered by each crew member using dictaphones to transcribe the microcassttes directly to the computer. The dictaphones were equipped with footpedals and headphones. Therefore, hands were free for data entry. Data were entered using the "emacs" text editor. Each entry line consisted of line, row, plant or litter code, and percent cover.

Codes - Sevilleta plant codes for 1995 (Appendix B) were used, as well as the code "LITT" for litter. The definition of litter for this particular data set is simply non-green organic matter. This non-green organic matter is often part of a plant that is green as well. In fact, during the winter months only a few plants had green foliage on them. Here is an example of data entered from one quadrat at line 0, row 0: 0 0 GUSA2 5

0 0 DAJA 1

0 0 PSTAT +

0 0 LITT 45.

Lineup program - Data for each site were compiled by the crew leader. Date and site were added to all entries, and spacing standardized, using a program called "lineup." After compiling data for a site, the following command was entered: >lineup filename yyyymmdd si > tempfile in which "filename" was the name of the file, "yyyy" was the full year, "mm" was a two number code for month, "dd" the date, "si" a two letter code for location, and "tempfile" a temporary file to hold the modified data. After scanning for errors, the data for each site was appended to the file "water_balance_1995."

Maintenance: 

08/08/95 - File created. JWB
09/01/95 - Searched and replaced the following:
ATCA2 = atca, crna = chna, daji = daja, euph = eupho, euph? = eupho
gipi = gapi, hij = hija, hopdr = hodr, hifi = hyfi, saki = saka
spcp = spco, spha = sphae, spor = sporo, spsp = sporo, stepha =
stpa. S. Geer.
09/11/95 - Corrected a few typing errors, such as row=5,or line=14.
Yang.
***Have added data once per month, July to Dec. 15 December 1995. S. Geer.***

1/22/96 - File created. S. Geer
Note: Aristida purpurea var. longiseta changed from arlo to arpul 5/96.
C.Buxbaum.

1/3/97 - Data for May, 1996 Rio Salado entered. K. Taugher
- Data for May, 1996 Field Station entered. K. Taugher
- Data for June, 1996 Rio Salado entered. K. Taugher
- Data for June, 1996 Field Station entered. K. Taugher
1/6/97 - Data for July, 1996, all sites, entered. K. Taugher
1/7/97 - Data for August, 1996, all sites, entered. K. Taugher
- Data for Sept., 1996, all sites, entered. K. Taugher
- Data for Oct. 1996, Field Station entered. K. Taugher
- Data for Oct. 1996, Rio Salado entered. K. Taugher
1/8/97 - Data for Dec. 1996, all sites, entered. K. Taugher
1/10/97 - Species codes changed to Kartez. K. Taugher
1/22/97 - Changed sphae to Sphae for 19950813 dw 27 3. K. Taugher
- Changed entries that read UNK {grass seedling} to GRASS {seedling}.
(to be more specific). K. Taugher
- Corrected entries that in the process of changing species codes to
Kartez with the "global replacement" command, some codes carried
an extra character. For example arpup was changed to ARPUP6 but in
some cases, ARPUP6 was replaced as ARPUP6 6. I'm not sure why this
happened, but those entries were cleaned up. K. Taugher
2/19/97 - Added Nov and Dec data. K. Taugher
- Realigned columns. K. Taugher
3/12/97 - Changed sedo to SEFLF. K. Taugher
- Changed gaco to GACO5 for Feb. fs plot 3.0. K. Taugher
5/12/97 - Fixed records that had comment fields (i.e., {.*}) inline with
data line, by simply moving comment field to next line below
data line.
Added .dbf extension to file name.
Changed row number from 14 to 24 for the following entries.
19960717 dw 21 24 ARPUP6 6
19960717 dw 21 24 CADR6 1
19960717 dw 21 24 BOER4 12
19960717 dw 21 24 LITT 10
Added missing "}" on comment line. G. Shore.

05/27/97 - Fixed records whose number of columns did not equal the headline
columns for entries:

19960915 fs 3 0 CHNA2 2 1
Changed to : fs 3 0 CHNA2 1
19960915 fs 24 18 CHNA2 2 1
Changed to: fs 24 18 CHNA2 1
19960916 rs 6 24 GUSA2 2 1
Changed to: rs 6 24 GUSA2 1
19960916 rs 24 9 CADR6 6 1
Changed to: rs 24 9 CADR6 1

Changes were made as indicated above as most likely the numerical value
in the Kartez code was somehow carried over/repeated into the next column.
K. Taugher

05/27/97 - Made changes to "UNK" entries when {comments} gave information
which put the "UNK" into a guild. I changed "UNK" to either "FORB" "shrub"
etc...

19960915 fs 3 0 UNK {shrub}
**changed to** 19960915 fs 3 0 SHRUB

19961015 dw 12 6 UNK {forb seedling}
**changed to** 19961015 dw 12 6 FORB

19961015 dw 12 15 UNK {forb}
**changed to ** 19961015 dw12 15 FORB

19961015 dw 15 15 UNK {forb}
**changed to** 19961015 dw 15 15 FORB

19961015 dw 15 18 UNK {forb}
**changed to** 19961015 dw 15 18 FORB

19961015 dw 0 6 UNK {Fabaceae forb}
**changed to 19961015 dw 0 6 FORB

K. Taugher

6/30/97 - Changed ARDI5+ to ARDI5 with a cover value of + for entry
19970716 rs 6 12. K. Taugher

6/30/97 - Changed sphae to Sphae for all August entries. K. Taugher
6/30/97 - Data were added for Aug. Field Station plots #: 0 3, 0 6, 0 9, 0 12, 0 15, 0 18, 0 24,
3 0, 3 3, 3 12, 3 15, 6 3, 6 9 , 6 18, 6 21, 9 0, 9 12, 9 15, 9 21, 9 27 as it was previously missing. K. Taugher

6/30/97 - Changed "DACS4" entries to "DASC4". K Taugher

6/30/97 - Changed "HOGL" entries to "HOGL2". K Taugher
Changed "CAJA" entries to "CAJA6". K. Taugher
Changed "Euho" entry to "Eupho". K. Taugher
Changed "ARCO" entry to "ATCO". K. Taugher
Changed "ATPUP6" entry to "ARPUP6". K. Taugher
Changed "LTIT" entry to "LITT". K. Taugher

1/21/97 - Changed species codes to Kartez.
- Changed solan to Solan for entries:
199509?? rs 6 16, 6 21, 6 18, 3 6, 3 9, 3 15, 0 18
- Changed unkwo to UNK for 19951016 fs 0 12
- Changed saki to SAKA for 19950729 dw 18 12
- Changed euph to Eupho in various places
- Changed eupho to Eupho in various places
- Changed unkno to UNK in various places
- Changed daji to DAJA for 19950724 dw 0 3
- Changed spor to Sporo in various places
- Changed linum to Linum for 19950919 rs 3 18, 0 18
- Changed ???1 to UNK for 19950719 rs 6 12
- Changed penst to Penst for 19950814 dw 0 0
- Changed arist to Arist for 19950919 rs 12 9
- Changed hopdr to CADR6 (formerly hodr) for 19950724 dw 15 21
- Changed gipu to GAPU for 19950814 dw 24 0
- Changed hifi to HYFIC for 19950714 fs 9 18
- Changed stepa to STPA4 for 19950813 rs 18 9
- Changed Spaer to Sphae in various places
- Changed crna to CHNA2 for 19950714 fs 15 9, 3 15
- Cleaned up \log section to make it easier to read (i.e. without
changing any information, I entered the date first, followed
by the action performed on that date). K. Taugher

05/12/97 - Fixed records that had comment fields (i.e., {.*}) inline with
data line by simply moving comment field to next line below
data line.
Removed blank lines at end of file.
Added .dbf extension to file name.
G. Shore.

05/12/97 - Added extra column width to species code field.
Realigned columns.
G. Shore.

06/30/97 - Changed ASNU to ASNU4 and arlo to ARPUL K. Taugher
- Changed spsp codes to Sporo (as indicated by comment made
09/1/95) K. Taugher
- Changed thlo to THLO. K. Taugher
- Changed buer to BOER4, gaura to Gaura, latr to LATR2,
lit to LITT, saki to SAKA, solan to Solan, spsu to SPHA,
forb1 to FORB with a comment of {FORB#1}, forb2 to FORB
with a comment of {FORB#2}, forb3 to FORB with a comment
of {FORB#3}, spta to STPA4. K. Taugher

07/03/97 - Changed "herb" entry to "FORB" (for consistency). K. Taugher
- Changed "huja" entries to "HIJA". K. Taugher.
02/15/97 - Date file created. K. Taugher
09/05/97 - Aligned columns to right justification. K. Taugher
- Imported data for months May, June, July. K. Taugher
09/09/97 - Began error-checking for missing plots. K. Taugher
- Added {}'s around comments for may dw entry that were
previously missing. K. Taugher
- Changed "CADR6+" entry for dw may plot 6 15 to CADR6 +.
K. Taugher
- GUSA2 entry for fs June plot 3 18 had no cover value. In order
to leave GUSA2 represented, I added a cover value of "+".
I attempted to leave the species and/or guild member but not
add much cover (which could potentially artificially increase
the true cover value). Same was done for "GRASS" entry
for July at fs plot 21 3. K. Taugher
- Changed cover value from "=" to "+" for GUSA2 in July at
rs plot 0 0 . K. Taugher
- Changed "LIT" entry for Jan. dw plot 9 6 to "LITT". K. Taugher
and for dw Feb. plot 24 9 . K. Taugher
- Changed "ATC0" to "ATCO" (changed a zero to an O) for Mar.
fs plot 21 15. K. Taugher
- Changed "ARPUP" entry to "ARPUP6" for May rs plot 27 24.
and "ARPU6" entry to "ARPUP6" for May rs plot 27 24. K. Taugher
09/10/97 - Changed "DNANA" entry for dw May plot 6 6 to "DANAN". K. Taugher
- Changed "ERPU4" entries to "ERPU8" for May rs plots 9 0,
6 24, and 6 27. K. Taugher
- Changed various "EUPHO" entries to "Eupho", "SPHAE" entries to
"Sphae" , "SPORO" to "Sporo" and "LINUM" to "Linum" to be
consistent with naming/coding protocol. K. Taugher
- Changed various "GUSA" entries to "GUSA2". K. Taugher
- Changed "HELIA" entry for May fs plot 9 0 to "Helia" to be
consistent with naming/coding protocol (NOTE: this is most
likely HEPE, Helianthus petiolaris). K. Taugher
- Changed "Euphoy" entry to "Eupho" for July rs plot 24 0 .
K. Taugher
- Changed "SPCO" entry to "SPCO4" for Jul dw plot 18 24. K. Taugher
- Changed "OPPO" entry to "OPPOP" for Jul rs plot 15 9 . K. Taugher
09/11/97 - Changed "DAJA6" entry to "DAJA" for Jul dw plot 6 12
and for Jul dw plot 27 27. K. Taugher
- Changed various July entries from "HELIA" to "Helia". K. Taugher
- Changed "MELE" entry to "MELE2" for Jult fs plot 21 3. K. Taugher
- Changed "MEPU" entries to "MEPU3" for July fs plots 15 27
and 18 24. K. Taugher
- Changed "DALEA" entry to "Dalea" for July dw plot 18 24. K.Taugher
- Changed incorrect plot # for June rs from 24 26 to 24 27.K.Taugher
- Changed various entries of "ERPUP8" to "ERPU8". K. Taugher
- Changed "CAJA" entry for June dw plot 27 0 to "CAJA6". K. Taugher
- Changed "HIFIC" entries to "HYFIC" for June fs plots:
0 3, 0 6, and 9 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "SPCO2" entry to "SPCO4" for June dw plot 9 0 . K.Taugher
- Added 11 plots of data for June for fs site that were missing.
K. Taugher
09/12/97 - Added data for June dw that were missing. K. Taugher
- Realigned columns to right justification (again). K.Taugher
- Changed June dw plot entry from "12 O" to "12 0" (i.e.
from the letter O to the number zero (0). K. Taugher
- Changed June dw plot 12 0 entry from "CADR2" to "CADR6"
K. Taugher
- Changed other various "MEPU" entries to "MEPU3" for May. K.Taugher
- Changed "CRCR" entry for May fs plot 21 18 to "CRCR3". K.Taugher
- Changed "DALEA" entry for May dw plot 18 24 to "Dalea". K. Taugher
- Changed "GAC05" entry for May fs plot 0 0 to "GACO5" (a zero
was substituted for the O). K. Taugher
- Changed "HIFIC" entries to "HYFIC" for May dw plot 18 15 and
May rs plot 18 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "DAJA6" entry for Feb dw plot 12 6 to "DAJA". K. Taugher
09/18/97 - Added missing dw data for R. Conn for May. K. Taugher
- Changed various entries for May rs site: Changed "EUPHO" entries
to "Eupho", "LINUM" to "Linum", "SPHAE" to "Sphae", and
"SPORO" to "Sporo" to conform to naming/coding protocol. K. Taugher
- Added missing fs data for July for K. Taugher. K. Taugher
- Added August data. K. Taugher
09/29/97 - Added September data. K. Taugher
- Moved comments from along the righthand side of entry to
the following line. K. Taugher
10/13/97 - Made the following corrections to the data for Sept:
- Changed "EUPUP" to "ERPU8" in various places.
- Changed "GUSA" to "GUSA2" in various places.
- Changed "CEDR6" to "CADR6" in various places.
- Changed "ARPUP" to "ARPUP6" in various places.
- Changed "ERPU" to "ERPU8" in various places.
- Changed "CRCIJJ" to "CRCIJ" for fs 21 27.
- Changed "CRCIR" to "CRCIJ" for fs 21 9 .
- Changed "DIWI" to "DIWI2" for fs 21 12.
- Changed "ERPU2" to "ERPU8" for dw 12 0.
- Changed "ARDI" to "ARDI5" for rs 21 6.
- Changed "ARPO" to "ARPUP6" for rs 21 9.
- Changed "BOGR" to "BOGR2" for fs 21 9.
- Changed "BUER4" to "BOER4" for dw 21 18.
- Changed "BUGR" to "BOGR2" for fs 18 0.
- Changed "CHER6" to "CHER2" for dw 12 24.
- Changed "CRCI" to "CRCIJ" FOR FS 18 9.
- K. TAUGHER
12/12/97 - Imported data for April. K. Taugher
- Added a space between species code and % cover entry for
19970418 fs 3 15 STPA4+. K. Taugher
- Added missing % cover entry for 19970418 dw 12 0 LITT 15.
K. Taugher
- Corrected date entry for X19970922 fs 18 0 EUPU +
to "19970922" as an "X" must have been added in error. K. Taugher
- Changed "ARUP6" to "ARPUP6" for 19970418 rs 6 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "ATCA" to "ATCA2" for 19970418 rs 0 15. K. Taugher
- Changed "CHNA" to "CHNA2" for 19970418 fs 3 15 and
19970418 fs 24 24. K. Taugher
12/15/97 - Changed "PSSC" to "PSSC6" for 19970922 fs 15 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "PSSC" to "PSSC6" for 19970922 fs 18 24. K. Taugher
- Changed "SCBR" to "SCBR2" for 19970923 dw 21 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "MAPI" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 18 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "MAPI" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 18 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "MAPI" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 18 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "MAPI" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 21 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "MIP1C" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 18 0. K. Taugher
- Changed "GUSA24" to "GUSA2" for 19970923 dw 21 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "STPA" to "STPA4" for 19970922 fs 18 9. K. Taugher
- Changed "Forb" to "FORB" for 19970923 rs 21 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "Forb" to "FORB" for 19970923 rs 27 0. K. Taugher
- Changed "Euphor" to "Eupho" for 19970923 rs 9 15. K. Taugher
- Changed "HIFIC" to "HYFIC" for 19970923 dw 9 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 15 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 0. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 9. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 24. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 21 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 21 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 24 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 27 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 27 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "HEPE" to "HEPEP" for 19970923 dw 27 0. K. Taugher
- Changed "HEPE" to "HEPEP" for 19970922 fs 18 27. K.Taugher
- Changed "Spor" to "Sporo" for 19970923 dw 6 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "Spor" to "Sporo" for 19970923 dw 6 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "THFI" to "HYFIC" for 19970922 fs 18 6. K. Taugher
- Added missing data for Sept. fs. K. Taugher
- Changed "DASC42" with no cover value to "DASC4" with a
cover value of "2". K. Taugher
- Changed "DIXI2" to "DIWI2" for 19970922 fs 6 6. K. Taugher
1/9/97 - Added October data. K. Taugher
- Adjusted positioning of comments to correspond with correct
entry. K. Taugher
- Changed brackets on comments from "]" to "}" for
19971016 dw 15 15 FORB + K. Taugher
and for 19971016 dw 18 6 Sporo 1. K. Taugher
- Changed plot # for 19971016 rs 0 18 CHSE7 + to read "0 18"
from "O 18" (i.e. from a letter O to a zero). K. Taugher
- Added a space between species code and cover value for
19971016 fs 21 6 STPA4 +....It previously read:
19971016 fs 21 6 STPA4+. K. Taugher
- Changed species code from "ARPUP8" to the correct code of
"ARPUP6" with a "query-replace" for entries :
19971016 rs 0 0, 0 3, 0 6, 0 12, 0 15, 0 18, 0 27, 3 21,
19971016 rs 3 18, 3 15. K. Taugher
- Changed species code from "ATCA" to the correct code o
"ATCA2" with a "query-replace" for entries:
19971016 rs 0 15, 0 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "CARD6" to "CADR6" for 19971016 dw 21 3. K. Taugher
- Changed "CEDR6" to "CADR6" for 19971016 rs 3 3. K.Taugher
- Changed "CHNA" to "CHNA2" for 19971016 fs 24 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "DAJA6" to "DAJA" with a "query-replace" for entries:
19971016 dw 0 0 , 0 3, 0 6, 3 0, 3 12, 12 9, 12 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "EPRU8" to "ERPU8" for 19971016 fs 21 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "ERPUP" to "ERPU8" for 19971016 fs 3 3. K. Taugher
- Changed "Euphor" to "Eupho" for 19971016 rs 0 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "ZIGR2" to "ZIGR" for 19971016 fs 0 27, 15 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "STPA2" to "STPA4" for 19971016 fs 3 18, 3 3. K. Taugher
- Changed "Guara" to "Gaura" for 19971016 dw 18 15. K. Taugher
- Changed "LIAS" to "LIAUA" for 19971016 rs 21 0. K. Taugher
1/14/97 - Added December data. K. Taugher
1/21/97 - Added November data. K. Taugher
- Justified columns to right justification. K. Taugher

09/14/98 - Date file created. K. Taugher
- Documentation section imported from 1997 file. K. Taugher
- Collection dates added to March, May, June, July, August
and data for those months imported to this file. K. Taugher
- Changed percent cover entries of "0.5" to "+" for the following
data:
For July: rs 15 27 CHLA10 rs 15 24 ARPUP6
rs 18 0 SOEL rs 21 9 DIWI2 rs 21 3 MELE2
dw 15 3 MAPIP dw 15 24 HYFIC dw 18 12 Sphae
fs 15 9 MAPIP fs 15 18 MAPIP fs 18 24 CRCIC
fs 18 21 GUSA2 fs 18 15 DANAN fs 18 9 SPFL2
fs 18 0 BAABA fs 18 0 HYFIC fs 18 0 DANAN
fs 18 0 MELE2 fs 21 3 ZIGR fs 21 3 MELE2
fs 21 9 STPA4 fs 21 9 BAABA fs 21 12 HIJA
fs 21 12 CRCIC fs 21 12 MAPIP fs 21 21 SPFL2

For August: rs 6 9 SOEL rs 6 9 Sporo
rs 6 0 MELE2 rs 9 18 CHAL11 rs 12 24 LIAUA
dw 6 0 CADR6 dw 6 9 Sporo dw 6 12 CHER2
dw 9 18 ERPU8 dw 12 3 CADR6 dw 12 6 GAPI
dw 12 9 DANAN dw 12 21 CADR6 fs 6 0 GACO5
fs 6 12 BAABA fs 6 12 MAPIP fs 9 18 MAPIP
fs 9 9 SPFL2 fs 12 6 PSTAT fs 12 6 ARPUP6
fs 12 24 Poace K. Taugher

- Made the following changes to percent cover entries as only integers
are suitable data:
For July: dw 21 3 ARPUP6 1.5 to 2
dw 21 9 MAPIP 2.5 to 3 fs 15 24 MAPIP 1.5 to 2
fs 21 3 MAPIP 1.5 to 2

For August: rs 6 12 GUSA2 1.5 to 2
rs 6 0 GUSA2 1.5 to 2 rs 9 12 ARPUP6 2.5 to 3
rs 12 9 Sphae 1.5 to 2 rs 12 6 LIAUA 1.5 to 2
rs 12 3 ARPUP6 2.5 to 3 dw 6 27 ERPU8 1.5 to 2
dw 9 3 MAPIP 1.5 to 2 dw 12 3 DAJA 1.5 to 2
dw 12 9 PSTAT 1.5 to 2 fs 12 9 DANAN 2.5 to 3
fs 12 21 MAPIP 1.5 to 2 fs 12 21 DANAN 1.5 to 2
K. Taugher
- Moved various comments to their appropriate lines (i.e. each comment
should occupy its own line immediately following the data it
refers to). K. Taugher
- Removed comments of "unknown Sphaeralcea" from entries of "Sphae"
as these comments are redundant and unnecessary. Comments removed
from the following entries:
For June: rs 0 6, rs 0 9, rs 0 18, rs 3 15, rs 3 18, rs 6 3
and fs 3 24
- Removed comments of "unknown Sporobolus" from entries of "Sporo"
as these comments are redundant and unnecessary. Comments removed
from the following entries:
For June: rs 0 21, rs 3 27, fs 3 6.
- Removed comment of "unknown Fabaceae" from entry of "Fabac"
as this comment is redundant and unnecessary. Comment removed
from: June dw 0 9.
K. Taugher
3/31/99 - Added data for Jan, Feb. and April. K. Taugher
- Changed codes of "GUA2" for January entries of rs 0 9 and
rs 0 18 to "GUSA2" and changed code of "GUAS2" for entry of Jan.
dw 0 21 and dw 6 21 to "GUSA2". K. Taugher
- Changed code of "GRASS SP" for July rs 9 3 to "GRASS". k. Taugher
4/1/99 - Changed code of "ERPUP8" to "ERPU8" for Mar fs 6 21. K. Taugher
- Changed code of "DAJA6" to "DAJA" for Feb dw 12 6. K. Taugher
- Changed the following codes for the month of May:
dw 0 24 Sprae to "Sphae"
dw 18 3 OECEC to "OECEC2"
dw 0 9 LUPIN to "Lupin"
fs 3 24 HIFIC to "HYFIC"
dw 6 9 ERPU9 TO "ERPU8"
fs 15 6 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 9 9 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 9 6 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 9 3 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 9 0 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 6 27 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
rs 18 21 ERP8 TO "ERPU8"
dw 15 3 CYCAF TO "CYACF"
rs 15 24 ATCA TO "ATCA2"
- Changed the following codes for the month of June:
fs 27 27 PSSC to "PSSC6"
4/2/99 - Changed the following codes for the month of July:
dw 9 0 ARIST to "Arist"
rs 9 12 ARIST to "Arist"
rs 9 15 ARIST to "Arist"
rs 15 18 ARPUP8 to "ARPUP6"
rs 18 12 ARPUP to "ARPUP6"
dw 24 15 Forb to "FORB"
fs 15 3 PSSC to "PSSC6"
fs 15 27 PSSC to "PSSC6"
rs 18 9 PSSC to "PSSC6"
rs 9 6 SPHAE to "Sphae"
rs 9 12 SPHAE to "Sphae"
rs 12 9 SPHAE to "Sphae"
dw 9 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 6 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 12 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 15 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 18 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 21 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 12 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 12 9 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 12 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 15 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 6 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 12 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 15 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 18 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 24 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 6 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 9 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 24 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 15 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 6 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 12 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 15 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 18 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 18 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 6 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 9 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 24 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 15 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
K. Taugher
-Changed the following codes for August:
rs 12 24 ARPU6 to "ARPUP6"
fs 3 27 Asclep to "FORB" {Asclepias}
- Added 15 quads to rs data for June as these were missing. K.T.

2/15/00 - Added some standard metadata, and corrected year references. G.Shore.




Additional information: 

Sampling Dates:

1995, Jul 14, 19, 24: fs, rs, dw
1995, Aug 13, 14: fs, rs & dw
1995, Sep 18, 19: fs, rs & dw
1995, Oct 16: all
1995, Nov 17: all
1995, Dec 15: all

Jan: 1/18/96 fs, rs, dw.
Feb: 2/14/96 rs; 2/19/96 dw, fs.
Mar: 3/14/96 dw, rs; 3/15/96 fs.
Apr: 4/17/96 fs, rs; 4/16/96 dw.
May: 5/16/96 dw, rs; 5/15/96 rs.
Jun: 6/13/96 rs, dw; 6/12/96 fs.
Jul: 7/16/96 rs; 7/17/96 dw; 7/18/96 fs.
Aug: 8/12/96 rs; 8/13/96 dw; 8/14/96 fs.
Sept: 9/15/96 fs; 9/16/96 rs; 9/18/96 dw.
Oct: 10/14/96 rs; 10/15/96 fs;
Nov
Dec: 12/16/96 fs, rs, dw.

Jan: 1/20/97 fs, rs, dw.
Feb: 2/12/97 rs, dw, fs.
Mar: 3/17/97 dw, rs, fs.
Apr: 4/18/97 fs, rs, dw.
May: 5/25/97 dw, rs, fs.
Jun: 6/19/97 rs, dw; 6/23/96 fs.
Jul: 7/16/97 rs, dw, fs.
Aug: 8/04/97 rs, dw, fs.
Sept: 9/22/97 fs; 9/23/96 rs, dw.
Oct: 10/16/97 rs, fs, dw.
Nov: 11/17/97 fs, dw, rs.
Dec: 12/17/97 fs, rs, dw.

Jan: 1/10/98 fs, rs, dw.
Feb: 2/15/98 rs, dw, fs.
Mar: 3/25/98 dw, rs, fs.
Apr: 4/11/98 fs, rs, dw.
May: 5/17/98 dw, rs, fs.
Jun: 6/16/98 rs, dw, fs.
Jul: 7/13/96 rs, dw, fs.
Aug: 8/17/98 rs, dw, fs.



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