species richness

Core Site Grid Quadrat Data for the Net Primary Production Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2013- present)

Abstract: 

Begun in spring 2013, this project is part of a long-term study at the Sevilleta LTER measuring net primary production (NPP) across three distinct ecosystems: creosote-dominant shrubland (Site C), black grama-dominant grassland (Site G), and blue grama-dominant grassland (Site B). Net primary production is a fundamental ecological variable that quantifies rates of carbon consumption and fixation. Estimates of NPP are important in understanding energy flow at a community level as well as spatial and temporal responses to a range of ecological processes.

Above-ground net primary production is the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and and foliage, over time and incoporates growth as well as loss to death and decomposition. To measure this change the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, are sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at permanent 1m x 1m plots within each site. A third sampling at Site C is performed in the winter. The data from these plots is used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV999, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." This biomass data is included in SEV999, "Seasonal Biomass and Seasonal and Annual NPP for Core Grid Research Sites."

Data set ID: 

289

Additional Project roles: 

450
451
452
453

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Sampling Quadrats:

Each sampling grid contains 40 1x1m quadrats in a 5x8 array. However, only 30 quadrats are sampled at each. These are quadrats 1-15 and 26-40. Thus, the middle two rows (i.e., 10 quadrats) are not sampled. Locating the Sampling Quadrats: Three core sites (B, G, and C) contain five rodent trapping and vegetation sampling webs. The vegetation grids are near these webs at each core site. At the blue grama site, the grid is located at the southern end of web 5, between webs 2 and 4. At the creosote site, the grid is east of web 3, near the road. At the black grama site, the grid is just northeast of web 5.

Collecting the Data:

Net primary production data is collected twice each year, spring and fall, for all sites. The Five Points Creosote Core Site is also sampled in winter. Spring measurements are taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals have reached peak biomass. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals have reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. Winter measurements are taken in February before the onset of spring growth.

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection.

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-The cover of forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs is measured as the horizontal area of the plant. If the species is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement if it increases cover. If the species is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecanthaOpuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest cm instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria viviparaSchlerocactus intertextusEchinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground.

Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat.

Creosote Measurements till 2013:

To measure creosote (i.e., Larrea tridenta) break the observations into two categories:

1.)Small, individual clusters of foliage on a branch (i.e., branch systems): Measure the horizontal cover of each live (i.e., green) foliage cluster, ignoring small open spaces (keeping in mind the 15% guideline stated above). Then measure the vertical "height" of each cluster from the top of the foliage to a plane created by extending a line horizontally from the bottom of the foliage. Each individual foliage cluster within a bush is considered a separate observation.

2.) Stems: Measure the length of each stem from the base to the beginning of live (i.e., green) foliage. Calculate the cumulative total of all stem measurements. This value is entered under "height" with the species as "stem" for each quadrat containing creosote. All other variable receive a default entry of "1" for creosote stem measurements. Do not measure dead stems or areas of dead foliage. If in doubt about whether a stem is alive, scrape the stem with your fingernail and check for the presence of green cambium.

Creosote Measurements 2013 and after:

Each creosote is only measured as one total cover. Each quad that contains creosote will have one cover observation for each creosote canopy in quad.

Recording the Data:

Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). Finally, "g" for "grid," along with the site abbreviation, should be added (i.e., gc, gg, gb). The final format for sites B, G, and C should be as follows: npp_core.mm.dd.yy.abgg.xls. File names should be in lowercase.

Data sources: 

sev289_nppgridquadrat_20161214.csv

Additional information: 

Other researchers involved with collecting samples/data: Chandra Tucker (CAT; 04/2014-present), Megan McClung (MAM; 04/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 2013-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2009-06/2013).

Pinon-Juniper (Core Site) Quadrat Data for the Net Primary Production Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2003-present )

Abstract: 

This dataset contains pinon-juniper woodland quadrat data and is part of a long-term study at the Sevilleta LTER measuring net primary production (NPP) across four distinct ecosystems: creosote-dominant shrubland (Site C, est. winter 1999), black grama-dominant grassland (Site G, est. winter 1999), blue grama-dominant grassland (Site B, est. winter 2002), and pinon-juniper woodland (Site P, est. winter 2003). Net primary production is a fundamental ecological variable that quantifies rates of carbon consumption and fixation. Estimates of NPP are important in understanding energy flow at a community level as well as spatial and temporal responses to a range of ecological processes.

Above-ground net primary production is the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and and foliage, over time and incoporates growth as well as loss to death and decomposition. To measure this change the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, are sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at permanent 1m x 1m plots within each site. A third sampling at Site C is performed in the winter. The data from these plots is used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV157, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." This biomass data is included in SEV182, "Seasonal Biomass and Seasonal and Annual NPP for Core Research Sites."

Data set ID: 

278

Core Areas: 

Additional Project roles: 

458
459
460
461

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Locating the Sampling Quadrats:

Site P, the pinon-juniper woodland site (Cerro Montosa), is set-up differently than the other core sites. In order to accommodate the different habitat types, groups of transects (i.e., "plots") were set up along north (N) and south (S) facing slopes as well as along vegas (V) and ridges (R). Transects on the first two plots consist of 40 quads each (10 quadrants for each of four habitat types). Plot one is slightly west of plot three and plot two is slightly west of the weather station. Plot three is located on a wide piedmont, which consists of four transects with five quadrats on each.

Collecting the Data:

Net primary production data is collected twice each year, spring and fall, for all sites. The Five Points Creosote Core Site is also sampled in winter. Spring measurements are taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals have reached peak biomass. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals have reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. Winter measurements are taken in February before the onset of spring growth.

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection.

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-The cover of forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs is measured as the horizontal area of the plant. If the species is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement if it increases cover. If the species is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest cm instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria vivipara, Schlerocactus intertextus, Echinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground.

Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat. 

Creosote Measurements:

To measure creosote (i.e., Larrea tridenta) break the observations into two categories:

1.) Small, individual clusters of foliage on a branch (i.e., branch systems): Measure the horizontal cover of each live (i.e., green) foliage cluster, ignoring small open spaces (keeping in mind the 15% guideline stated above). Then measure the vertical "height" of each cluster from the top of the foliage to a plane created by extending a line horizontally from the bottom of the foliage. Each individual foliage cluster within a bush is considered a separate observation.

2.) Stems: Measure the length of each stem from the base to the beginning of live (i.e., green) foliage. Calculate the cumulative total of all stem measurements. This value is entered under "height" with the species as "stem" for each quadrat containing creosote. All other variable receive a default entry of "1" for creosote stem measurements.

Do not measure dead stems or areas of dead foliage. If in doubt about whether a stem is alive, scrape the stem with your fingernail and check for the presence of green cambium.

Recording the Data:

Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). Finally, the site abbreviation should be added (i.e., c, g, b, p). The final format for sites B, G, and C should be as follows: npp_core.mm.dd.yy.abc.xls. For site P, the file format should be npp_pinj.mm.dd.yy.abc.xls. File names should be in lowercase.

Data sources: 

sev278_npppinjquadrat_20161214.csv

Additional information: 

Other researchers involved with collecting samples/data: Chandra Tucker (CAT; 04/2014-present), Megan McClung (MAM; 04/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 09/2010-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2009-06/2013), Amaris Swann (ALS; 08/2008-01/2013), Maya Kapoor (MLK; 08/2003 - 01/2005, 05/2010 - 03/2011), Terri Koontz (TLK; 02/2000 - 08/2003, 08/2006 - 08/2010), Yang Xia (YX; 01/2005 - 03/2010), Karen Wetherill (KRW; 02/2000 - 08/2009);  Michell Thomey (MLT; 09/2005 - 08/2008), Heather Simpson (HLS; 08/2000 - 08/2002), Chris Roberts (CR; 09/2001- 08/2002), Shana Penington (SBP; 01/2000 - 08/2000), Seth Munson (SMM; 09/2002 - 06/2004), Jay McLeod (JRM; 01/2006 - 08/2006); Caleb Hickman (CRH; 09/2002 - 11/2004), Charity Hall (CLH; 01/2005 -  01/2006), Tessa Edelen (MTE, 08/2004 - 08/2005).

Data updated 08/18/15: MOSQ changed to MUSQ3; ARPUP6 changed to ARPU9; SPWR changed to SPPO6; ambiguous Quercus species resolved by New Mexico Natural Heritage Program and updated.

Burn Study Sites Quadrat Data for the Net Primary Production Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2004-present)

Abstract: 

In 2003, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a prescribed burn over a large part of the northeastern corner of the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge. Following this burn, a study was designed to look at the effect of fire on above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) (i.e., the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and foliage, over time) within three different vegetation types: mixed grass (MG), mixed shrub (MS) and black grama (G). Forty permanent 1m x 1m plots were installed in both burned and unburned (i.e., control) sections of each habitat type. The core black grama site included in SEV129 is used as a G control site for analyses and does not appear in this dataset. The MG control site caught fire unexpectedly in the fall of 2009 and some plots were subsequently moved to the south. For details of how the fire affected plot placement, see Methods below. In spring 2010, sampling of plots 16-25 was discontinued at the MG (burned and control) and G (burned treatment only) sites, reducing the number of sampled plots to 30 at each.

To measure ANPP (i.e., the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and foliage, over time), the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, are sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at each plot. The data from these plots is used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV157, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." This biomass data is included in SEV185, "Burn Study Sites Seasonal Biomass and Seasonal and Annual NPP Data."

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

156

Additional Project roles: 

438
439
440
441

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev156_nppburnquadrat_20161214.csv

Methods: 

Collecting the Data:

Net primary production data is collected three times each year, winter, spring, and fall, for all burn sites. Spring measurements are taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals have reached peak biomass. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals have reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. Winter measurements are taken in February before the onset of spring growth and only creosote is measured.

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit. It is possible to obtain a total percent cover greater than 100% for a given quadrat because vegetative units for different species often overlap.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that can help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-The cover of forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs is measured as the horizontal area of the plant. If the species is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement if it increases cover. If the species is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest centimeter instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria vivipara, Schlerocactus intertextus, Echinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrub and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground.

Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat.

Creosote Measurements till 2013:

To measure creosote (i.e., Larrea tridenta) break the observations into two categories:

1.) Small, individual clusters of foliage on a branch (i.e., branch systems): Measure the horizontal cover of each live (i.e., green) foliage cluster, ignoring small open spaces (keeping in mind the 15% guideline stated above). Then measure the vertical "height" of each cluster from the top of the foliage to a plane created by extending a line horizontally from the bottom of the foliage. Each individual foliage cluster within a bush is considered a separate observation.

2.) Stems: Measure the length of each stem from the base to the beginning of live (i.e., green) foliage. Calculate the cumulative total of all stem measurements. This value is entered under "height" with the species as "stem" for each quadrat containing creosote. All other variable receive a default entry of "1" for creosote stem measurements.

Do not measure dead stems or areas of dead foliage. If in doubt about whether a stem is alive, scrape the stem with your fingernail and check for the presence of green cambium.

Creosote Measurements 2013 and after:

Each creosote is only measured as one total cover. Each quad that contains creosote will have one cover observation for each creosote canopy in quad.

Recording the Data:

Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). Finally, the site abbreviation should be added (i.e., mg, ms, or g). The final format should be as follows: npp_burn.mm.dd.yy.abc.xls. File names should be in lowercase.

August 2009 Burn:

On August 4, 2009, a lightning-initiated fire began on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge.  The fire reached the Mixed-Grass Unburned plots on August 5, 2009, consuming them in their entirety.  As a result, in the spring of 2010, the Mixed-Grass (MG) unburned plots were moved to a different area within Deep Well, southwest of the Warming site. 

Also, on August 4, 2009, some of the webs and quadrats within the unburned Black Grama (G) site were impacted by the fire.  Thus, webs 2 and 3 were abandoned and extra plots added to areas within webs 1, 4, and 5 that were not burned.  Changes were as follows:

Webs 1, 4, and 5: A plot was added to the northeast to compensate for the loss of all plots at webs 2 and 3.

Web 4: A plot was added to the northwest to compensate for the northern plot, which was burned.

Maintenance: 

01/13/2011-Burn NPP quad data was QA/QC'd and put in Navicat. Matadata updated and compiled from 2004-2010. The mixed-grass unburned plot was moved to the south after the original plot burned unexpectedly in the fire of August 2009. (JMM) 11/28/2009-Burn NPP quad data was QA/QC'd and put in Navicat. Metadata updated and complied from 2004-2009. Mixed-grass unburned data (Fall 2009) was not collected due to unexpected fire at Sevilleta LTER in Aug 2009. (YX) 01/14/09-Metadata updated and compiled from 2004-2008 data. As of 2007, winter measurements are longer being taken. (YX) 12/20/2008-This data was QAQC'd in MySQL. I checked for duplicates and missing quads. (YX)

Additional information: 

Other researchers involved with collecting samples/data: Chandra Tucker (CAT; 04/2014-present), Megan McClung (MAM; 04/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 09/2010-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2010-04/2013), Amaris Swann (ALS; 08/2008-01/2013), Maya Kapoor (MLK; 08/2003-01/2005, 05/2010-03/2011), Terri Koontz (TLK; 02/2000-08/2003, 08/2006-08/2010), Yang Xia (YX; 01/2005-03/2010), Karen Wetherill (KRW; 02/2000-08/2009); Michell Thomey (MLT; 09/2005-08/2008); Seth Munson (SMM; 09/2002-06/2004), Jay McLeod (JRM; 01/2006-08/2006); Caleb Hickman (CRH; 09/2002-11/2004), Charity Hall (CLH; 01/2005-01/2006); Tessa Edelen (MTE, 08/2004-08/2005).Data updated 08/18/15: MOSQ changed to MUSQ3; ARPUP6 changed to ARPU9; SPWR changed to SPPO6; a single entry BOER changed to BOER4.

Ground Arthropod Community Survey in Grassland, Shrubland, and Woodland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1992-2004)

Abstract: 

This data set contains records for the numbers of selected groups of ground-dwelling arthropod species and individuals collected from pitfall traps at 4 sites on the Sevilleta NWR, including creotostebush shrubland, both black and blue grama grasslands, and a pinyon/juniper woodland. Data collections begin in May of 1989, and are represented by subsequent sample collections every 2 months. One site (Goat Draw/Cerro Montosa) was discontinued in 2001, and a new site (Blue Grama) was initiated . Only three sites, creosotebush, black grama, and blue grama were continued between 2001-2004.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

29

Additional Project roles: 

332
333
334
335

Keywords: 

Purpose: 

To monitor the species composition and relative abundance's of select ground dwelling arthropod taxa and trophic groups from principal long-term study sites/environments in relation to climate change and plant production. 

Data sources: 

sev029_arthropop_02162009

Methods: 

Experimental Design

Arthropods have been collected from four subjectively chosen sites on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), representing the following habitat types:  pinyon-juniper (elev. 2195 m), black grama grassland, blue grama grassland, and creosotebush shrubland (elev. ~1400 m for all three). At each of the four sites there were 30 traps arranged in five replicate lines with six traps per line.  Each line was located outside a mammal trapping web, except at Goat Draw, where mammal trapping webs were installed three years after the arthropod traps.  In 1995 Robert Parmenter and Sandra Brantley decided to reduce the number of traps by half.  Comparative statistical tests run with data from 15 traps showed no difference in mean abundances of dominant species compared to tests with 30 traps. The interannual variability is high and it is hoped that the long-term aspect of the monitoring will produce clearer patterns than intensive sampling over a short period has done.  Traps 1, 3 and 5 were left and traps 2, 4 and 6 were removed.  The decision was also made to process samples from only the odd-numbered traps beginning with the 1993 samples. The experimental design was intended to provide data for long-term monitoring of ground arthropods in relation to climate and plant production. The traps within each trap line are subsamples, and data from those should be summed or averaged for a single value per line, per sample period. The lines are intended to serve as replicate samples for each habitat site, however, they were not randomly located. The lines were located to provide a systematic array with trap lines approximately 200 meters from each other on the landscape.

Field Methods

During a collection period the contents of each trap are strained out of the glycol so that it can be reused.  Glycol is replenished as needed to keep the cups about half full.  Arthropods are transferred from the strainers to glass vials containing site labels.  The contents of each trap are stored in a separate vial. Trap condition forms are filled out at the time of collection and kept with the samples. Any traps that are damaged or not functioning are re-set.

Sampling Design

Arthropods are collected in pitfall traps, made of a 15 oz. can (11 cm tall and 7.5 cm in diameter) dug into the ground so that the opening of the can is flush with the ground. A screen apron was fitted around the top of the can to prevent rodent digging. Plastic 10 oz. cups about half-full of propylene glycol (ethylene glycol prior to March 1994) are inserted in the can.  The glycol is a preservative; no live pitfall trapping of arthropods is done.  The traps are covered by raised ceramic lids, 15 cm x 15 cm in size.  The traps remain open all year, and samples are collected everly two months during the week of the 15th day of each months, for the months: February, April, Jun, August, October, and December.During a collection period the contents of each trap are strained out of the glycol so that it can be reused, using standard hand-held metal screen kitchen strainers approximately 3 inches diameter.  Glycol is replenished as needed to keep the cups about half full.  Arthropods are transferred from the strainers to glass vials containing site labels.  The contents of each trap are stored in a separate vial. Trap condition forms are filled out at the time of collection and kept with  the samples.

Laboratory Procedures

Specimens are stored in 70 % ethanol. Specimens are brought back to the UNM Museum of Southwestern Biology (MSB) wet lab for processing. Sample sorting, arthropod identification, and data tabulation are performed only by individuals trained as entomologists, or entomologically experienced graduate students trained in arthropod identification specifically for this project.  Individual arthropods are identified to morphospecies and counted.  Classifications generally follow Nomina Insecta Nearctica: a checklist of the insects of North America, Volumes 1-4, however, taxonomic levels above family follow Borror, DeLong and Triplehorn's An Introduction to Entomology, 5th edition.  Higher classification for Orthopteroids follow Arnett, 2000 (per DLC). And classification of Aranae follows Roth's Spider Genera of North America, 2nd and 3rd editions. The species code, number of individuals, site name and date of  collection are entered on a data sheet. After processing, all the samples from one site and date are pooled for long-term storage in sealed jars containing 70% ethanol, at the UNM Biology Field Station, located at the Sevilleta NWR.  Detailed procedures for sorting and identifying the arthropods are available from the Sevilleta data manager (data-use@sevilleta.unm.edu).  Reference collections are maintained at the Sevilleta Field Station and at the UNM Museum of Southwestern Biology Division of Arthropods. Voucher specimens are housed in the UNM MSB Division of Arthropods. 

Ground arthropod species in the following taxonomic groups are collected, counted and identified to morphospecies:-orthopterans, including grasshoppers, field crickets and camel crickets-blattarians, sand cockroaches-mantodeans, only ground mantids-phasmatodeans, walkingsticks-hemipterans, selected taxa only: lygaeids, alydids, one genus of mirid, thyreocorids, cydnids-coleopterans-microcoryphians, bristletails-chilopods-diplopods -isopods-arachnids, including spiders, scorpions, solpugids, uropygids, opiliones.

Specimens are pinned or placed in 70 % ETOH, labeled, and added to the LTER collection or to the UNM Division of Arthropods collection as needed.  If the specimens are not needed they are kept in alcohol storage and housed at the Sevilleta Field Station. See: /sevilleta/export/db/work/insect/specieslists/sevrefcoll for a list of specimens vouchered by the MSB. The focus of the pitfall collections is on the adult stage, but nymphs of orthopteroids and hemipterans and immature stages of arachnids are identified to genus or species if possible.  If not, these groups have species i.d. numbers for nymphal or immature stages. Larval beetles are not counted.  The aleocharine staphylinid species are grouped together under species number Co Sta 001 088.

Maintenance: 

January 2009Combined all data from 1992-2004. QA/QC'd data from 2001-2004 in excel using a filter and checking data line by line. All data were then imported into Navicat using the import wizard.

Data from 1989-1991 were removed and stored elsewhere. Contact data manager for data. --A.Swann

Additional information: 


Additional Information on the Data Collection Period

Field collections are made every even-numberedmonth as close to the 15th as possible. 

This study/data set is a subset of the original larger scale Sevilleta LTER data set #: SEV0029; "Arthropod Populations". The number of arthropod taxa included in this data set ("Sevilleta Ground Arthropods") has been reduced to those taxa that are appropriately sampled by pitfall traps, and those taxa or taxonmic ranks that can be easily identified and tabulated by expert technical staff. The number of study sites also was reduced from seven to four for this data set. Associated data sets include climate data from representative Sevilleta LTER meterological stations, and plant production data from Sevilleta LTER above ground net primary production plots, located on or near the arthropod pitfall trap sites.

Pinon Juniper Net Primary Production Quadrat Data from the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico: 1999-2001

Abstract: 

This three-year study at the Sevilleta LTER was designed to monitor net primary production (NPP) across two distinct ecosystems: pinon/juniper woodland (P) and juniper savannah woodland (J). Net primary production (NPP) is a fundamental ecological variable that measures rates of carbon consumption and fixation. Estimates of NPP are important in understanding energy flow at a community level as well as spatial and temporal responses of the community to a wide range of ecological processes. While measures of both below- and above-ground biomass are important in estimating NPP, this study focused on estimating above-ground biomass production (ANPP).

To measure ANPP (i.e., the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and foliage, over time), the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, were sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at permanent 1m x 1m plots. The data from these plots was used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV157, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." In addition, volumetric measurements were obtained from permanent plots to build regressions correlating biomass and volume.

Spring measurements were taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals reached peak biomass. Fall measurements were taken in either September or October when summer annuals reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. Winter measurements were taken in February before the onset of spring growth.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

187

Additional Project roles: 

36

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev187_pjnppquadrat_04122010

Methods: 

Collecting the Data:

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). Finally, the site abbreviation should be added (i.e., c, g, b, p). The final format should be as follows: npp.mm.dd.yy.abcg.xls. File names should be in lowercase.

A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection.

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs-The cover of forbs is measured as the perimeter of the densest portion of the plant. If the forb is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement. If the forb is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest cm instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria vivipara, Schlerocactus intertextus, Echinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrub and sub-shrubs-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground.

Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat.

Foliage canopy cover:

Cover and height are recorded for all separate vegetative units that fall within an infinite vertical column that is defined by the inside edge of the PVC-frame. A vegetative unit consists of an individual species with a unique cover and height. This includes vegetation that is rooted outside of the frame but has foliage that extends into the vertical column defined by the PVC-frame.

As mentioned above, cover is quantified by counting the number or fraction of 10 cm x 10 cm squares intercepted by each vegetative unit. It is possible to obtain a total percent cover greater than 100 for a quadrat because vegetative units often overlap (especially in shrubs and succulents). For perennial plants, cover is based only on the vegetative portion of the plant (stem and leaf). For annual plants, cover is based on both vegetative and reproductive (inflorescence) portions of the plant.

If the cover of a vegetative unit is less than 1, the increments used are as follows: 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75. If cover is between 1 and 5, increments of 0.5 are used and, if greater than 5, increments of 1 are used.  Finally, if the cover is greater than 15, the total canopy cover is divided into smaller units and the cover and heights of each observation measured separately. This reduces the size of harvest samples.

Maintenance: 

January 7, 2008 KRW Data from the P and J sites from 1999 to 2002 were extracted from the ongoing npp database and put in its own table in navicat. Palmtop/pj_npp. NPP data from 1999-2001 was QAQC'd in MySQL. I checked for duplicates and missing quads. These most often happened when a recorder mislabeled a particular quad. I also checked every plant code against the USDA Plants database online at http://plants.usda.gov/. All plant codes that have had nomenclature changes were updated. All previously unknown plants that have since been identified were also updated. All unknown plants that will never be identified were left in the database. All types were corrected. A list of codes not in the USDA list are that are still in the data are as follows NONE = no plants in quad, and UKFO57 = unknowns that will never be identified, UKFO80 = unknown that has not yet been identified. A list of the updates and the reason for the change are in the table below along with comments where identifications were questionable.

Additional information: 

Employee History:Mike Friggens: 1999 to September 2001, Karen Wetherill: February 7, 2000 to August 2009, Terri Koontz: February 2000 to August 2003 and August 2006 to August 2010, Shana Penington: February 2000 to August 2000, Heather Simpson: August 2000 to August 2002, Chris Roberts: September 2001 to August 2002.

Nitrogen Fertilization Experiment (NFert): Net Primary Production Quadrat Data at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2004-present)

Abstract: 

This dataset is part of a long-term study at the Sevilleta LTER, begun in spring 2004, which examines how fertilization affects above-ground biomass production (ANPP) in a mixed desert-grassland. Net primary production is a fundamental ecological variable that quantifies rates of carbon consumption and fixation. Estimates of NPP are important in understanding energy flow at a community level as well as spatial and temporal responses to a range of ecological processes.

Above-ground net primary production is the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and foliage, over time and incorporates growth as well as loss to death and decomposition. To measure this change the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, are sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at permanent 1m x 1m plots. The data from these plots is used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV157, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." This biomass data is included in SEV186, "Nitrogen Fertilization Experiment (NFert): Seasonal Biomass and Seasonal and Annual NPP Data."

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

155

Additional Project roles: 

442
443
444
445

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev155_nppfertquadrat_20170621

Methods: 

Study Design:

Twenty 10m X 5m plots were established in December 2005. Ten plots are fertilized; ten are unfertilized. Fertilizer is applied twice yearly (spring and fall) as granular NH4NO3 at the rate of 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1.  Within each plot are four sampled quadrats (n=80).  Quadrats are adjacent and numbered from south (1) to north (4) starting at the southeastern corner of each plot.

Collecting the Data:

Net primary production data is collected twice each year: spring and fall. Spring measurements are taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals have reached peak biomass. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals have reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts.

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit. It is possible to obtain a total percent cover greater than 100% for a given quadrat because vegetative units for different species often overlap.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs-The cover of forbs is measured as the perimeter of the densest portion of the plant. If the forb is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement. If the forb is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest cm instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria vivipara, Schlerocactus intertextus, Echinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrub and sub-shrubs-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground. Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat.

Recording the Data:

Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). Finally, the site abbreviation should be added (i.e., c, g, b, p). The final format should be as follows: npp_fert.mm.dd.yy.abc.xls. File names should be in lowercase.

Maintenance: 

1/12/2011 - Quad data for spring and fall 2010 QA/QC'd and put in Navicat. Metadata updated and compiled for 2010. (JM) 11/28/2009 - Quad data QA/QC'd and put in Navicat. Metadata updated and compiled for 2006 -2009. (YX) 1/06/09 - Metadata updated and compiled for 2006, 2007, 2008. (YX) 01/06/09 - As of 2007, winter measurement is no longer being taken. (YX) 12/10/2008 - NPP data from 2004-2008 was QAQC'd in MySQL. I checked for duplicates and missing quads. (YX) 1/12/2006 - Meta data compiled for 2005.  5/16/2005 - Season 3, Plot 11 data didn't distinguish between quads 3 and 4. Original data were checked and this error was corrected. -KLV

Additional information: 

Other researchers involved with collecting samples/data: Chandra Tucker (CAT; 04/2014-present), Megan McClung (MAM; 04/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 09/2010-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2010-06/2013), Amaris Swann (ALS; 08/2008-01/2013), Maya Kapoor (MLK; 08/2003 - 01/2005, 05/2010-03/2011), Terri Koontz (TLK; 02/2000-08/2003, 08/2006-08/2010), Yang Xia (YX; 01/2005-03/2010), Karen Wetherill (KRW; 02/2000-08/2009); Michell Thomey (MLT; 09/2005-08/2008); Seth Munson (SMM; 09/2002-06/2004), Jay McLeod (JRM; 01/2006-08/2006); Caleb Hickman (CRH; 09/2002-11/2004), Charity Hall (CLH; 01/2005-01/2006).Data updated 08/18/15: ARPUP6 changed to ARPU9; MOSQ changed to MUSQ3; SPWR changed to SPPO6.

Snakeweed Patch Vegetation Quad Data at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, NM (1984, 1996)

Abstract: 

In 1984, a research project was initiated on a relatively small disturbance patch just south of Deep Well. This disturbance was thought to be the result of an old praire dog town, probably dating back to when a nearby ranch was active, and a lot of old mammal mounds remained in the disturbed area. One of the things that made the disturbance patch particularily noticeable was the lush growth of snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae) within the patch. This prompted the designation of the disturbance patch as the "snakeweed patch" or "Gutierrezia patch." In addition, there was an obvious increase in bare ground and a shift in vegetation composition across the patch boundary. The dominant vegetation was not consistent around the boundary, with a marked dominance of black grama on the west side of the plot and a blue/black grama mix on the other three sides. To obtain information on the cause and/or effect of this disturbance, a survey of the soil and vegetation was performed. This database contains information collected during the vegetation monitoring that was done on the plot in 1984, as well as a follow-up measurement done in 1996.  By 1996, virtually all of the snakeweed had died due to a dry period.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

233

Additional Project roles: 

106

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev233_snakeweedquad_01132010

Methods: 

Measurements - Plant measurements were made along a 100 m transect that ran parallel to the soil collection transect. A 1 m2 quadrat was positioned at 10 m intervals along the 100 m transect with half (i.e., 50 cm) of the quadrat on either side of each 10 m point and the frame positioned to the north or east of the transect. The percent cover of each species was visually estimated and recorded.

Maintenance: 

12/10/00 (DM) File created.1/13/2010 (DM) Metadata was updated and compiled.

Additional information: 

Deep Well Burn Line-Intercept Vegetation Transects at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1995-2009)

Abstract: 

A natural burn occurred in the Deep Well area of McKenzie Flats in June, 1995, following which studies were initiated to evaluate the effect of fire on plant species composition and the spatial and temporal dynamics of regrowth. The burn area was approximately 24 hectares, forming a swath about 200 m wide from the initial lightning-ignition source. The fire moved in a westward direction from the ignition point, leaving a relatively straight border along the southern boundary and an irregular edge along the northern boundary. The fire was extinguished naturally.

One week after the burn, four 100 m line-intercept transects were established along the southern boundary of the burn.  Transects were installed perpendicular to the burn, so that 50 m lay inside the burned area and 50 m outside, in unburned grassland. The first transect (nearest the road) was placed 100 m from the west end of the burn and identified as Transect A. The remaining transects (B,C,D) were located at 200 m intervals from Transect A.  Rebar was placed at 0 m, 50 m, and 100 m and these points recorded with a GPS unit. 

Initial measurements were made in October, 1995. In subsequent years, measurements have been made in late May and late September to evaluate the response of "cool season" and "warm season" plant species.  Another fire occurred on June 24, 2001. This burn only affected the unburned southern end of one transect. A prescribed burn in 2003 did not affect the transects.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

84

Additional Project roles: 

355
356
357
358

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev084_dwburntransect_02182010

Methods: 

Transect Preparation - A 100 m measuring tape was affixed to the 0 meter rebar stake (north) and run to the 100 meter (south) end of each transect. The tape was stretched as tight as possible to get the straightest line. Windy days were avoided to prevent the tape from billowing.

Recording Data - Four crew members worked independently, each doing a 100 m segment simultaneously. Microcassette recorders and standard microcassettes were used to record data. At each 100 m segment, the following sequence was followed: Each species/substrate encountered along the line and the distance at which that species/substrate crossed the tape was recorded. Starting location only was recorded as the ending point was the starting point of the next species/substrate.

August 2009 Burn - On August 4, 2009, a lightning-initiated fire began on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge. By August 5, 2009, this fire had reached the Deep Well line-intercept transects.  While there was some minor patchiness, essentially, the fire burned evenly across the transects.

Maintenance: 

Aug.1, 2008: Changes to the data: This dataset (SEV084) includes all deep well burn line intercept transect data files. The data in this file has been rigorously QAQCed. All plant codes have been updated to current kartez codes as listed on the USDA Plants Database found at http://plants.usda.gov/ Questionable identifications and obvious mistakes were updated to the best of my (Karen Wetherill) ability. Old codes are maintained in the database and can be obtained by contacting the data manager. Old meta data and individual year data can be found in /export/db/local/htdocs/data/archive/plant/transect/data_oldformat, but this data has NOT been vigorously QAQCed and contains errors. See the Sevilleta data manager for data and metadata in this old format.Missing data: 1995 meter 40-50 for transect C Notes: - Kristin Vanderbilt -Transect D was more patchily burned than the other transects. Where the comment "2001 BURN STARTS HERE" was inserted represents the location of the first burned plant encountered. Other burned plants in this transect are noted with a "BURNED" comment.26 March 2009. Data are no longer stored in the folder:/export/db/local/htdocs/data/archive/plant/transect/data_oldformat. Instead, current and old data files can be found here: /export/db/local/htdocs/data/archive/plant/dwburntransect. Data have been rigorously qa/qced. For years previous to 2000 the variable condition in not a reliable measurement. For 2000 and subsequent seasons and years the condition measurement is consistent. Copied start into original-entry column so that data are formattted the same with two decimal points for year 1995-2004. 1998 data have overlapping measurements. These are currently still being corrected. TK

Additional information: 

Principle investigator: 1995-2002: Gosz, Jim; 2003-2008: Collins, Scott; 2009: Koontz, Terri. 2010-Present: Moore, Douglas.

Data Manager: 1995-1997: Taugher, Kimberly; 1998-2001: Vanderbilt, Kristin; 2002-2003: Seth Munson; 2004-2008: Karen Wetherill; 2009: Terri Koontz; 2010-Present: Kristin Vanderbilt.

Field Crew 1995: Geer, Susan; Gosz, Jim; Romero, Ray; 1996: Taugher, Kimberly; Belden, Lisa; Payne, Jennifer; Monteith, Nancy; Newingham, Beth; Oldehoeft, Kim; Sexton, Jason; 1997: Taugher, Kimberly; Campbell, Mariel; Conn, Rachel; Kuehner, John; Helm, Amy; Kendall, John; 1998: Kuehner, John; Frasier, Jason; Korbe, Nicole; Kroll, AJ; Hayes, Betty; Hersch, Erika.

Employee History for 2000 to 2009: Mike Friggens 1999 to September 2001; Karen Wetherill February 7, 2000 to August 2009; Terri Koontz February 2000 to August 2003 August 2006 to August 2010; Shana Penington February 2000 to August 2000; Heather Simpson August 2000 to August 2002; Chris Roberts September 2001 to August 2002; Caleb Hickman September 9, 2002 to November 15, 2004; Seth Munson September 9, 2002 to June 2004; Maya Kapoor August 9, 2003 to January 21, 2005; Tessa Edelen August 15, 2004 to August 15, 2005; Charity Hall January 31, 2005 to January 3, 2006; Yang Xia January 31, 2005 to August 2009; Michell Thomey September 3, 2005 to August 2008; Jay McLeod January 2006 to August 2006; Amaris Swann August 25, 2008 to November 2009; John Mulhouse August 24, 2009 to November 2009.

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