temperature

Warming-El Nino-Nitrogen Deposition Experiment (WENNDEx): Soil Temperature, Moisture, and Carbon Dioxide Data from the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2011 - present)

Abstract: 

Humans are creating significant global environmental change, including shifts in climate, increased nitrogen (N) deposition, and the facilitation of species invasions. A multi-factorial field experiment is being performed in an arid grassland within the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) to simulate increased nighttime temperature, higher N deposition, and heightened El Niño frequency (which increases winter precipitation by an average of 50%). The purpose of the experiment is to better understand the potential effects of environmental drivers on grassland community composition, aboveground net primary production and soil respiration. The focus is on the response of two dominant grasses (Bouteloua gracilis and B eriopoda), in an ecotone near their range margins and thus these species may be particularly susceptible to global environmental change.

It is hypothesized that warmer summer temperatures and increased evaporation will favor growth of black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda), a desert grass, but that increased winter precipitation and/or available nitrogen will favor the growth of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), a shortgrass prairie species. Treatment effects on limiting resources (soil moisture, nitrogen availability, species abundance, and net primary production (NPP) are all being measured to determine the interactive effects of key global change drivers on arid grassland plant community dynamics and ecosystem processes. This dataset shows values of soil moisture, soil temperature, and the CO2 flux of the amount of CO2 that has moved from soil to air.

On 4 August 2009 lightning ignited a ~3300 ha wildfire that burned through the experiment and its surroundings. Because desert grassland fires are patchy, not all of the replicate plots burned in the wildfire. Therefore, seven days after the wildfire was extinguished, the Sevilleta NWR Fire Crew thoroughly burned the remaining plots allowing us to assess experimentally the effects of interactions among multiple global change presses and a pulse disturbance on post-fire grassland dynamics.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

305

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Experimental Design

Our experimental design consists of three fully crossed factors (warming, increased winter precipitation, and N addition) in a completely randomized design, for a total of eight treatment combinations, with five replicates of each treatment combination, for a total of 40 plots. Each plot is 3 x 3.5 m. All plots contain B. eriopoda, B. gracilis and G. sarothrae. Our nighttime warming treatment is imposed using lightweight aluminum fabric shelters (mounted on rollers similar to a window shade) that are drawn across the warming plots each night to trap outgoing longwave radiation. The dataloggers controlling shelter movements are programmed to retract the shelters on nights when wind speeds exceed a threshold value (to prevent damage to shelters) and when rain is detected by a rain gauge or snow is detected by a leaf wetness sensor (to prevent an unintended rainout effect).

Each winter we impose an El Nino-like rainfall regime (50% increase over long-term average for non-El Nino years) using an irrigation system and RO water. El Nino rains are added in 6 experimental storm events that mimic actual El Nino winter-storm event size and frequency. During El Nino years we use ambient rainfall and do not impose experimental rainfall events. For N deposition, we add 2.0 g m-2 y-1 of N in the form of NH4NO3 because NH4 and NO3 contribute approximately equally to N deposition at SNWR (57% NH4 and 43% NO3; Bez et al., 2007). The NH4NO3 is dissolved in 12 liters of deionized water, equivalent to a 1 mm rainfall event, and applied with a backpack sprayer prior to the summer monsoon. Control plots receive the same amount of deionized water.

Soil Measurements

Soil temperature is measured with Campbell Scientific CS107 temperature probes buried at 2 and 8 cm In the soil. Soil volume water content, measured with Campbell Scientific CS616 TDR probes is an integrated measure of soil water availability from 0-15 cm deep in the soil. Soil CO2 is measured with Vaisala GM222 solid state CO2 sensors. For each plot, soil sensors are placed under the canopy of B. eriopoda at three depths: 2, 8, and 16 cm. Measurements are recorded every 15 minutes.

CO2 fluxes are calculated using the CO2, temperature, and moisture data, along with ancillary variables following the methods of Vargas et al (2012) Global Change Biology

Values of CO2 concentration are corrected for temperature and pressure using the ideal gas law according to the manufacturer (Vaisala). We calculate soil respiration using the flux-gradient method (Vargas et al. 2010) based on Fick’s law of diffusion where the diffusivity of CO2 is corrected for temperature and pressure (Jones 1992) and calculated as a function of soil moisture, porosity and texture (Moldrup et al. 1999).

Data sources: 

sev305_wenndex_soiltemp_moisture_co2_2011
sev305_wenndex_soiltemp_moisture_co2_2012
sev305_wenndex_soiltemp_moisture_co2_2013
sev305_wenndex_soiltemp_moisture_co2_2014
sev305_wenndex_soiltemp_moisture_co2_2015

Instrumentation: 

Instrument Name: Solid State Soil CO2 sensor
Manufacturer: Vaisala
Model Number: GM222

Instrument Name: Temperature Probe
Manufacturer: Campbell Scientific
Model Number: CS107

Instrument Name: Water Content Reflectometer Probe
Manufacturer: Campbell Scientific
Model Number: CS616

Monsoon Rainfall Manipulation Experiment (MRME) Soil Temperature, Moisture and Carbon Dioxide Data from the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2012- present)

Abstract: 

The Monsoon Rainfall Manipulation Experiment (MRME) is designed to understand changes in ecosystem structure and function of a semiarid grassland caused by increased precipitation variability, by altering rainfall pulses, and thus soil moisture, that drive primary productivity, community composition, and ecosystem functioning. The overarching hypothesis being tested is that changes in event size and frequency will alter grassland productivity, ecosystem processes, and plant community dynamics. Treatments include (1) a monthly addition of 20 mm of rain in addition to ambient, and a weekly addition of 5 mm of rain in addition to ambient during the months of July, August and September. It is predicted that changes in event size and variability will alter grassland productivity, ecosystem processes, and plant community dynamics. In particular, we predict that many small events will increase soil CO2 effluxes by stimulating microbial processes but not plant growth, whereas a small number of large events will increase aboveground NPP and soil respiration by providing sufficient deep soil moisture to sustain plant growth for longer periods of time during the summer monsoon.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

304

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Experimental Design

MRME contains three ambient precipitation plots and five replicates of the following treatments: 1) ambient plus a weekly addition of 5 mm rainfall, 2) ambient plus a monthly addition of 20 mm rainfall. Rainfall is added during the monsoon season (July-Sept) by an overhead (7 m) system fitted with sprinkler heads that deliver rainfall quality droplets. At the end of the summer, each treatment has received the same total amount of added precipitation, delivered in different sized events. Each plot (9x14 m) includes subplots (2x2 m) that receive 50 kg N ha-1 y-1. Each year we measure: (1) seasonal (July, August, September, and October) soil N, (2) plant species composition and ANPP, (3) annual belowground production in permanently located root ingrowth cores, and (4) soil temperature, moisture and CO2 fluxes (using in situ solid state CO2 sensors).

Soil Measurements

Soil temperature is measured with Campbell Scientific CS107 temperature probes buried at 2 and 8 cm In the soil. Soil volume water content, measured with Campbell Scientific CS616 TDR probes is an integrated measure of soil water availability from 0-15 cm deep in the soil. Soil CO2 is measured with Vaisala GM222 solid state CO2 sensors. For each plot, soil sensors are placed under the canopy of B. eriopoda at three depths: 2, 8, and 16 cm. Measurements are recorded every 15 minutes.

CO2 fluxes are calculated using the CO2, temperature, and moisture data, along with ancillary variables following the methods of Vargas et al (2012) Global Change Biology

Values of CO2 concentration are corrected for temperature and pressure using the ideal gas law according to the manufacturer (Vaisala). We calculate soil respiration using the flux-gradient method (Vargas et al. 2010) based on Fick’s law of diffusion where the diffusivity of CO2 is corrected for temperature and pressure (Jones 1992) and calculated as a function of soil moisture, porosity and texture (Moldrup et al. 1999).

Data sources: 

sev304_mrme_soiltemp_moisture_co2_2012
sev304_mrme_soiltemp_moisture_co2_2013
sev304_mrme_soiltemp_moisture_co2_2014
sev304_mrme_soiltemp_moisture_co2_2015

Instrumentation: 

Instrument Name: Solid State Soil CO2 sensor
Manufacturer: Vaisala
Model Number: GM222

Instrument Name: Temperature Probe
Manufacturer: Campbell Scientific
Model Number: CS107

Instrument Name: Water Content Reflectometer Probe
Manufacturer: Campbell Scientific
Model Number: CS616

Additional information: 

Additional Study Area Information

Study Area Name: Monsoon site

Study Area Location: Monsoon site is located just North of the grassland Drought plots

Vegetation: dominated by black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda), and other highly prevalent grasses include Sporabolus contractus, S.cryptandrus, S. lexuosus, Muhlenbergia aernicola and Bouteloua gracilis.

North Coordinate:34.20143
South Coordinate:34.20143
East Coordinate:106.41489
West Coordinate:106.41489

Response of Larrea tridentata to a Natural Extreme Cold Event at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico

Abstract: 

Shrub expansion into grasslands can cause abrupt changes in ecosystem processes. Creosote (Larrea tridentata) is a native shrub in warm, arid deserts of the southwestern US and has taken over C4 grasslands. A limited freeze tolerance is thought to dictate the northern boundary of creosote and the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge occurs near to the northern extent of creosote. Cold temperatures are known to damage creosote. In laboratory trials, temperatures of -25 for 1 hour lead to xylem damaging embolism in nearly 100% of stems and temperatures of -24 C lead to seedling death in the lab. Sevilleta LTER meteorological data from a station located within creosote shrublands indicated a low temperature of -20 C between 1999 and 2010. On February 3, 2011 temperatures hit record lows in central New Mexico, reaching -30 C at shrublands within the SNWR. To address how creosote responds to a natural extreme cold events, plots were established to monitor creosote initial response and regrowth following the cold event. Initial surveys will determine canopy death and subsequent surveys of the same individuals will allow us to determine how creosote responds to record cold temperatures.

Core Areas: 

Additional Project roles: 

45

Data set ID: 

244

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Plots were established at 6 locations across SNWR. Criteria for site selection included the presence of L. tridentata, flat terrain to limit microtopographic impacts, close proximity to existing meteorological stations, and variation in shrub density between sites. At each site, approximately 200 shrubs were evaluated within circular plots (20m in diameter) with the number of plots at each site varying in shrub density. Initial surveys to determine canopy death were conducted in early April 2011. These surveys consisted of tagging each shrub with an unique ID, estimating canopy death, and measuring maximum canopy height, maximum width and the perpendicular width to max width.

Additional information: 

Study Area 1:  

Study Area Name:  South Gate

Study Area Location: Located across the road from the met station located at South Gate.

Bounding Box:  

North Coordinate:  34.42

South Coordinate: 34.19

East Coordinate: -106.513

West Coordinate: -107.08

Study Area 2:  

Study Area Name: Microwave shrubland

Study Area Location: Located near the Microwave tower on the West side of the SNWR. Plots are located 100 to 200 m down the road just East of the tower towards Red Tank. Plots are on the West side of the road.

Bounding Box:  

North Coordinate: 34.42

South Coordinate: 34.19

East Coordinate: -106.518

West Coordinate: -107.08

Study Area 3:  

Study Area Name: BurnX shrubland site

Study Area Location: Located near Met station 52b, established near the burn enclosure (BurnX) Black Grama site.

Bounding Box:  

North Coordinate:  34.42

South Coordinate: 34.19

East Coordinate: -106.513

West Coordinate: -107.08

Biome Transition Along Elevational Gradients in New Mexico (SEON) AmeriFlux Data (ongoing since 2007)

Abstract: 

The varied topography and large elevation gradients that characterize the arid and semi-arid Southwest create a wide range of climatic conditions - and associated biomes - within relatively short distances. This creates an ideal experimental system in which to study the effects of climate on ecosystems. Such studies are critical givien that the Southwestern U.S. has already experienced changes in climate that have altered precipitation patterns (Mote et al. 2005), and stands to experience dramatic climate change in the coming decades (Seager et al. 2007; Ting et al. 2007). Climate models currently predict an imminent transition to a warmer, more arid climate in the Southwest (Seager et al. 2007; Ting et al. 2007). Thus, high elevation ecosystems, which currently experience relatively cool and mesic climates, will likely resemble their lower elevation counterparts, which experience a hotter and drier climate. In order to predict regional changes in carbon storage, hydrologic partitioning and water resources in response to these potential shifts, it is critical to understand how both temperature and soil moisture affect processes such as evaportranspiration (ET), total carbon uptake through gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), and net ecosystem exchange of carbon, water and energy across elevational gradients.

We are using a sequence of six widespread biomes along an elevational gradient in New Mexico -- ranging from hot, arid ecosystems at low elevations to cool, mesic ecosystems at high elevation to test specific hypotheses related to how climatic controls over ecosystem processes change across this gradient. We have an eddy covariance tower and associated meteorological instruments in each biome which we are using to directly measure the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. This gradient offers us a unique opportunity to test the interactive effects of temperature and soil moisture on ecosystem processes, as temperature decreases and soil moisture increases markedly along the gradient and varies through time within sites.

Data for this project can be found on the website:  http://ameriflux.ornl.gov/

Additional Project roles: 

302

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

254

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev254_sevameriflux_20131211.csv

Methods: 

Data collection follows Ameriflux protocols.  

Allometric Ant Foraging Data from the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2003)

Abstract: 

The allometric ant foraging data was collected to test the allometric ant foraging model proposed by Jun et al. (2003). Key variables are the number of foragers in the colony, the time of an average foraging trip for the colony and the average distance a forager travels to collect a seed. Data on Pogonomyrmex rugosus and Pogonomyrmex maricopa were collected at the Sevilleta.

Data set ID: 

160

Core Areas: 

Keywords: 

Purpose: 

This study was designed to test the predictions of the Jun et al (Evolutionary Ecology Research, 2003) Allometric Ant Foraging Model which predicts longer foraging times in colonies with large population sizes. The primary prediction of the model is that the average time of a foraging trip (Tf) is proportional to the average distance a forager travels (dt), and both of these increase with forager population size (F) by Tf = F^1/3 and dt = F^1/3. Standard regression was then used to determine whether the predicted exponent of 1/3 was rejected when comparing empirical values of Tf , dt and F. The predictions are based on the assumptions that forager travel speed, the density of foragers searching in the landscape and the time spent actively searching (as opposed to travelling) are invariant across colony sizes. These variables were measured to test for statistical differences across colony sizes. Measurements made at the Sevilleta were part of a larger study. Similar data were collected in Portal, AZ, including data on another species, Pogonomyrmex barbatus.

Data sources: 

sev160_alloant_09212005.txt

Methods: 

Field Methods

For each colony in the study, I followed individual foraging ants as they left the nest. Ants initially exhibit 'travel' behavior in which they move relatively directly and quickly away from the nest. When they began the slower, meandering 'search' behavior, I noted the time, and marked the location with a flag. Searching continued until a seed was located, at which point I noted the time, marked the location with a flag, and then noted the time that the ant returned to the nest. Temperature, total distance travelled, travel time and search time were recorded. Data are reported from following 61 foragers in 6 colonies on 11 days. On approximately 6 days, foraging was almost non-existant due to extremely hot and dry conditions, and no data are reported from those days. As a result, the study was continued in July and August 2003 in Portal, AZ where climate conditions were slightly better for Pogonomyrmex. Data on colony size was estimated by multiplying the 'flux' of ants leaving the nest by the average search time of foragers. The flux rate was measured by counting the number of foragers leaving the nest in one minute, then the number returning in the next minute, repeated 3 times for a total of 6 minutes of observations, approximately once per hour during the foraging period.

Sampling Design

Plot size is 50 x50 m.

Additional information: 

Additional Study Area Information

Study Area Name: McKenzie Flats

Study Area Location: The northeast section of the Sevilleta, stretching from Black Butte south to the canyon and east to the Los Pinos. McKenzie Flats, between black Butte, 5 Points, Palo Duro Canyon, and the old McKenzie headquarters ranch building site.

Elevation: 1615 m

Vegetation: The terrain was generally mixed-species desert grassland, dominated by black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda), blue grama grass (B. gracilis), sand muhly (Muhlenbergia arenicola), various drop seeds and sacatons (Sporobolus spp.), purple three-awn (Aristida purpurea), and burrow grass (Scleropogon brevifolia). Shrubs were common in Five Points area; these were creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) and snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae).

Soils: Turney Series: fine-loamy, mixed, thermic Typic Calciorthids. Berino Series: fine-loamy, mixed, thermic Typic Haplargids.

Hydrology: Surface water only during rain events, no arroyos. Run on plain for Los Pinos Mountains.

Landform: McKenzie Flats is a broad, nearly flat grassland plain between the Los Pinos Mountains and the breaks on the east side of the Rio Grande.

Geology: Deep (20,000 ft) alluvial and eolian deposits.

Climate: Long-term mean annual precipitation is 243 mm, about 60% of which occurs during the summer. Long-term mean monthly temperatures for January and July are 1.5°C and 25.1°C, respectively.

Site history: McKenzie Flats encompasses an area of approximately 50 square miles. McKenzie Flats was one of the primary livestock grazing areas of the Sevilleta NWR. Cattle have been excluded from the site since 1974-76.

North Coordinate:34.3592
South Coordinate:34.3592
East Coordinate:-106.691
West Coordinate:-106.691

Additional Metadata

Data are reported from 11 collection dates, primarily in June 2003. A number of incomplete foraging trips are not reported. Many of the data here were taken on days in which foraging activity appeared subdued, probably due to hot and dry conditions. Additional data of a similar nature were collected in Portal AZ in July and August 2003, and are available upon request from melaniem@unm.edu.

 

Sierra Ladrones Study Basin (SLSB) Sediment Micro Climate Research in Watersheds at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1992-1995)

Abstract: 

To support the hydrology studies in the Sierra Ladrones Study Basin, a network of moisture potential sensors and temperature sensors wereinstalled in the stream-channel sediments and adjacent soils atvarious locations up thru the watersheds in 1992. Two rain gaugeswere also added up through the watershed gradient to complement therain gauge on the weather station (Met43) at the base of the watershedto provide a better measure of moisture inputs to these watersheds.This file contains data for 1992 to 1994.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

47

Additional Project roles: 

219
220
221
222
223

Keywords: 

Purpose: 

To monitor temperature and moisture of stream sediments and adjacent soils up the gradient of a series of small watersheds in the Sierra Ladrones.

Data sources: 

sev047_sedimentmicroclimate_20160307.csv

Methods: 

Sampling Design: 

An array of soil moisture potential gypsum blocks were placed in the channel sediments up thru the set of small watersheds.  The number of sensors used and design of the placement of sensors was different at each site. All probes were initially buried at 20 cm but this depth must surely have changed with time and stream flow. Temperature probes were buried at the same time and the same depth as the gypsum blocks. Tipping bucket rain gauges were installed at sites 23 and 25 to complement the gauge at the Red Tank (Met43) Weather Station 

Measurement Techniques: 

Automated dataloggers with attached soil moisture potential and temperature sensors.

Analytical Procedures: 

Probes were measured every 30 sec and summary data output at the hour.  Precipitation was output at 1-min intervals during precipitation events.

Instrumentation: 

Manufacturer: Campbell Scientific Inc.

Components:

CR10 Datalogger

Tecktronx 1502B

Cable Tester Multiplexer SDMX50

TDR probe 30 cm

Maintenance: 

Aug 14, 1992 - Corrected watershed programs.  Found problems w/ soil moisture on 23 and 25 on sensors 3 and 4.  Also fixed precipitation program on all dataloggers. Changed out 4th temp sensor because it had been reading too high.

July 31, 1992 - Repaired damage at 23.

Jul 28, 1992 - Repaired damage at 22

Jul.21, 1992 - Storm washed out sensors at 22 and 23

Apr. 17, 1992 - Completed installation of dataloggers.  Added 22 at Abeja, Venado Added upper temp and soil moisture sensors at 23; Added precip gages at 23 and 25.  D.M.

Mar. 17, 1992 - Installed dataloggers at watersheds.  Installed 21 (Above Red Tank),23 (Abeja Seep), 24 (Junction Ensenal and Yucca), 25 (Top of Ensenal).  D.M.

Oct 22, 1993 -  Sta 23 st3 and sm3 displaced -replaced;   Sta 21 st1 indicates probe less deep; Sta 24 st2 indicates probe more shallow; GPS'd in all data loggers and probes - also traced center of channel         on trip up and trip down.

07 Oct 1993. - Began dbf for Watershed data

Aug. 30, 1993 - FLOOD!!!!!!  1.85-2.00" of precip at about 1800.

May 11, 1993 - Replaced gypsum soil moisture blocks at Abaja seep - sm2, sm3, sm4, blocks were all eaten away. Reinstalled new ones at almost the same spot as the old.  2nd is only 15-17 cm deep 3rd only about 17 cm as well.  4th (side seep) was moved a little further away from the seep so that it was actually at 20 cm.  All 3 are set on top of bedrock and can't be expected to last more than a year if seeps keep flowing.  No surface standing water but some of the sediments are still slightly damp.

April 7,1993 - Replaced 2 of the soil moisture probes that had been chewed through by a deviant rodent sm1 and sm2.

Aug 5, 1994  D.M.

25     Found all analog grounds and grounds disconnected- Not sure how long this been the case.  SM4 had all wires disconnected; Reattached - nothing reading still but very dry. 

23     Precipitation leads loose - had been pulled loose - tail of P1 still in datalogger slot.  

June 24, 1994

21     Temperature probe on the far side of the channel was pointing upward towards the surface of the soil.  Depth was on the order of 10-15 cm.  Soil Moisture block exposed, located probe and reburied the temp probe in the same vicinity.

23    Soil moisture probes at locations 2 (among willows) and 4 (side seep) were located and discovered to be deteriorated.  These were removed and new probes were placed and buried.  All cables at the pole were retaped to discourage rodent activity.  

24    The temp probe on the right hand channel (Yucca) was closer to the surface than normal due to erosion of that channel.  Depth was about 15 cm.  We reset both probes to 20 cm and verified the decreasing         soil temp.  At the time of departure, both temp probes were reading similar temps.

file created 12/15/1998 - D.M.

Mar 8, 1995 - Removed 24 datalogger to use for TDR - sensors still in place. Removed precip gauge at 23

Feb 2, 1995 - Removed datalogger @ 21 to use with TDR - sensors still in place

Additional information: 

Additional Information on the Data Collection Period

Bowen Ratio Evapotranspiration Data at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1996-1999)

Abstract: 

This file contains data collected from 1996-1999 at a Bowen ratio tower adjacent to the Deep Well Meteorological Station at Deep Well (Station 40). The Bowen ratio method employs a method of measuring the temperature and vapor pressure gradient over a vegetation canopy to quantify evapotranspiration from that canopy.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

79

Additional Project roles: 

87
88

Keywords: 

Purpose: 

The data was collected to identify the daily patterns of evapotranspiration from the surrounding area.

Data sources: 

sev079__climatebowen_1996-1999_20120105.txt

Methods: 

Measurement Techniques:

The Bowen ratio method measures the gradient of temperature and moisture above a typical canopy. In conjunction with measuring incoming net radiation, this method can partition the energy into soil heating, atmospheric heating (specific heat) and evaporation as latent heat.

A Bowen ratio station includes a 3 m tower on which is mounted most of the following sampling equipment: an enclosure, which houses a datalogger, and a gas flow system which directs air from upper and lower arms of the station to the cooled mirror hygrometer. On the tripod are upper and lower arms with mountings for thin wire thermocouples and intakes for air samples. A set of 4 temperature probes are buried in the top 10 cm of the soil with readings taken at 2 and 8 cm. One pair of probes is located under a clump of grass while a second is in unvegetated soil. Two soil heat flux plates are buried at a depth of 10 cm, again one under vegetation and one in the open. A net radiometer is mounted on a pipe about 1 m above the soil surface.  A wind sentry, which includes both an anemometer and wine vane, is mounted at a height of 3 m. 

Instrumentation: 

Manufacturer: Campbell Scientific Inc.

Components: 21X Data logger

Net Radiometer

Fine Wire Thermocouples

Hygrometer

Soil Heat Flux plates

Averaging soil temperature thermocouple probe

Wind Sentry set

Model Number: na

Reference Manuals: na

Modifications and Adjustments: na

Maintenance: 

April 28 1997 Started Bowen Station

No data day 224 1340 to day 227 1240

No data day 245 1300 to day 252 1100

No data day 267 1240 to day 274 1120

Oct 17 1997 Bowen Station turned off

Additional information: 

When the Samples/Data were Collected:

The data were collected spring, summer, and fall of each year when the instrument was operating properly. For 1996 the period of collection was Julian day 1 (Jan 1) through 183. For 1997 the period of collection was Julian day 118 (Apr 27) through 290 (Oct 17) with some missing periods due to equipment problems - see mainentance log. For 1998 the period of collection was Julian day 84 (Mar 25) through 274 (Oct 1). For 1999 the period of collection was Julian day 99 (Apr 9) through 123 (May 3) and day 147 (May 27) through day 315 (Nov 11). Data were measured over 20 minute periods and means, totals, and instantaneous readings were output at the hour, 20 min. and 40 min. past the hour for the preceeding 20 minutes.

Where the Data were Collected:

Sevilleta LTER Project Area Description

McKenzie Flats, Deep Well Meteorological Site

Latitude 34.3586 Longitude -106.6911

Study Area Description:

The study area is about halfway between Black Butte and Five Points. It is about 200 m west of the road site

Location Description:

The area around the station can be classified as desert grassland, dominated by black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) and blue grama grass (B. gracilis), with lesser amonts of various drop seeds and sacatons (Sporobolus spp.), purple three-awn (Aristida purpurea), and Pleuraphis jamesii. The sub-shrub snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae) is common during wet years and there are a few creosote bushes (Larrea tridentata) and four-wing salt bushes (Atriplex canescens) in the vicinity.

Descriptors Soil:

Berino Series: The soils in the Berino series are classified as fine-loamy, mixed, thermic Typic Haplargids. These form well drained, moderately permeable soils formed in alluvial and eolian material. They are on bajadas, plains, and broad fan terraces.

Slope/Aspect: Approximately 1-2%, westerly aspect.

Vegetation Community: Mixed-species desert grassland.

Terrain/Physiography: McKenzie Flats is a broad, nearly flat grassland plain between the Los Pinos Mountains and the breaks on the east side of the Rio Grande.

Geology/Lithology: Deep (20,000 ft) alluvial and eolian deposits. Caliche layer varies between 10 cm to 1 m in depth.

Hydrology - surface/groundwater: Surface water is present only during rainfall events (particularly summer thunderstorms). Area is considered a "run-on" plain for watersheds of the Los Pinos Mountains. No major arroyos are present on the study area, although Palo Duro Canyon borders the southern part of the study area.

Size: McKenzie Flats encompasses an area of approximately 50 square miles.

Elevation: 1600 m (5249 ft)

Climate (general): The McKenzie Flats area of the Sevilleta NWR has one of the LTER weather stations located in the central part of the flats. This is the Deep Well station. For climate details and data, consult the Sevilleta Meteorology databases. 

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