foliage

Biome Transition Along Elevational Gradients in New Mexico (SEON) Study: Flux Tower Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Quadrat Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2011- present)

Abstract: 

The varied topography and large elevation gradients that characterize the arid and semi-arid Southwest create a wide range of climatic conditions - and associated biomes - within relatively short distances. This creates an ideal experimental system in which to study the effects of climate on ecosystems. Such studies are critical givien that the Southwestern U.S. has already experienced changes in climate that have altered precipitation patterns (Mote et al. 2005), and stands to experience dramatic climate change in the coming decades (Seager et al. 2007; Ting et al. 2007). Climate models currently predict an imminent transition to a warmer, more arid climate in the Southwest (Seager et al. 2007; Ting et al. 2007). Thus, high elevation ecosystems, which currently experience relatively cool and mesic climates, will likely resemble their lower elevation counterparts, which experience a hotter and drier climate. In order to predict regional changes in carbon storage, hydrologic partitioning and water resources in response to these potential shifts, it is critical to understand how both temperature and soil moisture affect processes such as evaportranspiration (ET), total carbon uptake through gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), and net ecosystem exchange of carbon, water and energy across elevational gradients.

We are using a sequence of six widespread biomes along an elevational gradient in New Mexico -- ranging from hot, arid ecosystems at low elevations to cool, mesic ecosystems at high elevation to test specific hypotheses related to how climatic controls over ecosystem processes change across this gradient. We have an eddy covariance tower and associated meteorological instruments in each biome which we are using to directly measure the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. This gradient offers us a unique opportunity to test the interactive effects of temperature and soil moisture on ecosystem processes, as temperature decreases and soil moisture increases markedly along the gradient and varies through time within sites.

This dataset examines how different stages of burn affects above-ground biomass production (ANPP) in a mixed desert-grassland. Net primary production is a fundamental ecological variable that quantifies rates of carbon consumption and fixation. Estimates of NPP are important in understanding energy flow at a community level as well as spatial and temporal responses to a range of ecological processes.

Above-ground net primary production is the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and foliage, over time and incorporates growth as well as loss to death and decomposition. To measure this change the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, are sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at permanent 1m x 1m plots. The data from these plots is used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV157, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." This biomass data is included in SEV292, "Flux Tower Seasonal Biomass and Seasonal and Annual NPP Data."

Data set ID: 

253

Core Areas: 

Additional Project roles: 

446
447
448
449

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Above-Ground Net Primary Productivity (ANPP) measurements:

Above-ground net primary production data is collected two times each year, spring, and fall. Spring measurements are taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals have reached peak biomass. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals have reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. 

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit. It is possible to obtain a total percent cover greater than 100% for a given quadrat because vegetative units for different species often overlap.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that can help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs-The cover of forbs is measured as the perimeter of the densest portion of the plant. If the forb is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement. If the forb is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest cm instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria vivipara, Schlerocactus intertextus, Echinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrub and sub-shrubs-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground. Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat.

Recording the Data:

Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). The final format should be as follows: npp_flux.mm.dd.yy.abc.xls. File names should be in lowercase.

Data sources: 

sev253_nppfluxquadrat_20161214.csv

Additional information: 

Other researchers involved with collecting samples/data: Chandra Tucker (CAT; 04/2014-present), Megan McClung (MAM; 04/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 09/2010-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2009-06/2013), Amaris Swann (ALS; 08/2008-present)Data updated 08/18/15: MOSQ changed to MUSQ3; ARPUP6 changed to ARPU9; SPWR changed to SPPO6; DANA changed to DANAN.

Pinon Juniper Net Primary Production Quadrat Data from the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico: 1999-2001

Abstract: 

This three-year study at the Sevilleta LTER was designed to monitor net primary production (NPP) across two distinct ecosystems: pinon/juniper woodland (P) and juniper savannah woodland (J). Net primary production (NPP) is a fundamental ecological variable that measures rates of carbon consumption and fixation. Estimates of NPP are important in understanding energy flow at a community level as well as spatial and temporal responses of the community to a wide range of ecological processes. While measures of both below- and above-ground biomass are important in estimating NPP, this study focused on estimating above-ground biomass production (ANPP).

To measure ANPP (i.e., the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and foliage, over time), the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, were sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at permanent 1m x 1m plots. The data from these plots was used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV157, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." In addition, volumetric measurements were obtained from permanent plots to build regressions correlating biomass and volume.

Spring measurements were taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals reached peak biomass. Fall measurements were taken in either September or October when summer annuals reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. Winter measurements were taken in February before the onset of spring growth.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

187

Additional Project roles: 

36

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev187_pjnppquadrat_04122010

Methods: 

Collecting the Data:

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). Finally, the site abbreviation should be added (i.e., c, g, b, p). The final format should be as follows: npp.mm.dd.yy.abcg.xls. File names should be in lowercase.

A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection.

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs-The cover of forbs is measured as the perimeter of the densest portion of the plant. If the forb is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement. If the forb is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest cm instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria vivipara, Schlerocactus intertextus, Echinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrub and sub-shrubs-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground.

Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat.

Foliage canopy cover:

Cover and height are recorded for all separate vegetative units that fall within an infinite vertical column that is defined by the inside edge of the PVC-frame. A vegetative unit consists of an individual species with a unique cover and height. This includes vegetation that is rooted outside of the frame but has foliage that extends into the vertical column defined by the PVC-frame.

As mentioned above, cover is quantified by counting the number or fraction of 10 cm x 10 cm squares intercepted by each vegetative unit. It is possible to obtain a total percent cover greater than 100 for a quadrat because vegetative units often overlap (especially in shrubs and succulents). For perennial plants, cover is based only on the vegetative portion of the plant (stem and leaf). For annual plants, cover is based on both vegetative and reproductive (inflorescence) portions of the plant.

If the cover of a vegetative unit is less than 1, the increments used are as follows: 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75. If cover is between 1 and 5, increments of 0.5 are used and, if greater than 5, increments of 1 are used.  Finally, if the cover is greater than 15, the total canopy cover is divided into smaller units and the cover and heights of each observation measured separately. This reduces the size of harvest samples.

Maintenance: 

January 7, 2008 KRW Data from the P and J sites from 1999 to 2002 were extracted from the ongoing npp database and put in its own table in navicat. Palmtop/pj_npp. NPP data from 1999-2001 was QAQC'd in MySQL. I checked for duplicates and missing quads. These most often happened when a recorder mislabeled a particular quad. I also checked every plant code against the USDA Plants database online at http://plants.usda.gov/. All plant codes that have had nomenclature changes were updated. All previously unknown plants that have since been identified were also updated. All unknown plants that will never be identified were left in the database. All types were corrected. A list of codes not in the USDA list are that are still in the data are as follows NONE = no plants in quad, and UKFO57 = unknowns that will never be identified, UKFO80 = unknown that has not yet been identified. A list of the updates and the reason for the change are in the table below along with comments where identifications were questionable.

Additional information: 

Employee History:Mike Friggens: 1999 to September 2001, Karen Wetherill: February 7, 2000 to August 2009, Terri Koontz: February 2000 to August 2003 and August 2006 to August 2010, Shana Penington: February 2000 to August 2000, Heather Simpson: August 2000 to August 2002, Chris Roberts: September 2001 to August 2002.

Effects of Multiple Resource Additions on Community and Ecosystem Processes: NutNet NPP Quadrat Sampling at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2007-present)

Abstract: 

Two of the most pervasive human impacts on ecosystems are alteration of global nutrient budgets and changes in the abundance and identity of consumers. Fossil fuel combustion and agricultural fertilization have doubled and quintupled, respectively, global pools of nitrogen and phosphorus relative to pre-industrial levels. In spite of the global impacts of these human activities, there have been no globally coordinated experiments to quantify the general impacts on ecological systems. This experiment seeks to determine how nutrient availability controls plant biomass, diversity, and species composition in a desert grassland. This has important implications for understanding how future atmospheric deposition of nutrients (N, S, Ca, K) might affect community and ecosystem-level responses. This study is part of a larger coordinated research network that includes more than 40 grassland sites around the world. By using a standardized experimental setup that is consistent across all study sites, we are addressing the questions of whether diversity and productivity are co-limited by multiple nutrients and if so, whether these trends are predictable on a global scale.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

231

Additional Project roles: 

466
467
468

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Methods: 

Nutrient addition treatments and sampling sites are located in an area of desert grassland dominated by black grama, Bouteloua eriopoda. The experimental design is completely randomized with 8 treatments replicated 5 times each.  The nutrients added include N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), and K (potassium plus other nutrients). Treatments are: +N+P+K, +N+P, +N+K, +N, +P+K, +P, +K, and control (no nutrients added).  Treatments were randomly assigned to 40-25 m2 plots with 1m separating each plot. Response variables measured include: plant community composition; percent ground cover of live perennial grasses, herbaceous dicots, shrubs, cactus, litter, and bare ground; aboveground net primary production; light availability, and several soil parameters (moisture, organic matter content, pH, P, field available nitrogen (NO3-N and NH4-N), potentially mineralizable N).

This experiment was initiated in May 2007 with one year of pre-treatment data and 3 years of post-treatment data collected thus far.  Nutrients are applied annually at the beginning of the growing season starting in 2008.  Plant community composition, percent cover of individual plant species, and aboveground net primary production will continue to be monitored semiannually (spring and fall) in a permanently marked 1m2 subplot in each plot. Soil will be collected each year and will be shipped to collaborators for analyses.

Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Measurements                               

Collecting the Data:

Net primary production data is collected twice each year, spring and fall. Spring measurements are taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals have reached peak biomass. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals have reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. Winter measurements are taken in February before the onset of spring growth.

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection.

In 2013, percent cover of litter and bare soil were added for each quadrat.

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs-The cover of forbs is measured as the perimeter of the densest portion of the plant. If the forb is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement. If the forb is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata) measure the average length and width of each pad instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria vivipara, Schlerocactus intertextus, Echinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrub and sub-shrubs-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground.

Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat.

Recording the Data:

Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). Finally, the site abbreviation should be added (i.e., c, g, b, p). The final format should be as follows: npp.mm.dd.yy.abcg.xls. File names should be in lowercase.


Data sources: 

sev231_nppnutnetquadrat_20161215.csv

Quality Assurance: 

All data were QA/QC'd by use of filters in Excel and imported into MySQL.

Additional information: 

Additional Information on the Data Collection Period

Species composition and net primary production was sampled semiannually (spring and fall) in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Soil was sampled and analyzed in the fall in 2007 and 2008. Plots were fertilized annually starting in 2008.

In August 2009, a wildfire burned all 40 of the NutNet plots causing no Fall 2009 vegetation measurements.

Special Codes for Vegetation Ids:

SPORSP- Unknown Sporobolus

SPSP- Unknown Sphaeralcea

UNKFO- Unknown Forb

On 08/20/2015, the following taxonomic changes were made to the data: ARPUP6 was changed to ARPU9, OECAC2 was changed to OECA10, SPWR was changed to SPPO6

Core Site Phenology Study from the Chihuahaun Desert Grassland and Shrubland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2000- present)

Abstract: 

Plant phenology or life-history pattern changes seasonally as plants grow, mature, flower, and produce fruit and seeds. Plant phenology follows seasonal patterns, yet annual variation may occur due to annual differences in the timing of rainfall and ambient temperature shifts. Foliage growth and fruit and seed production are important aspects of plant population dynamics and food resource availability for animals. The purpose of this study is to assess plant phenology patterns across a series of biotic communities that represent an environmental moisture gradient. These communites include: Chihuhuan Desert creosotebush shrubland, Chihuahuan Desert black grama grassland, and blue grama grassland. Plant phenology is recorded for all plant species across 4 replicate 200 m transects at each of the 3 habitat sites. Plant phenology measurements are taken once every month from February through October. The first ten individuals of each plant species encountered along each transect are assessed for life-history status. Data recorded include the status of leaves, flowers and fruit. Leaves are recorded as new, old, brown or absent. Reproductive status is recorded as absent, buds, flowers, fruits or both fruits and flowers. Data from the site P and J were only collected in 2000 and 2001 and are included in this data set.

Core Areas: 

Additional Project roles: 

271
272
273
274

Data set ID: 

137

Keywords: 

Purpose: 

The purpose of this study is to assess plant phenology patterns across a series of biotic communities that represent an environmental moisture gradient.

Data sources: 

sev137_phenologycore_20170203.csv

Methods: 

Locating the Transects:

Phenological conditions are recorded along four permanently marked 200 m x 2 m wide transects at each of the core study sites. The transects are located within four of the five rodent trapping webs. All five transects were originally measured, but in 2003 the least diverse transect at each site was dropped. Each web consists of twelve 100 m transects radiating as spokes from a central rebar stake marked #145. As measured from the center stake, the first four stakes within a ray are positioned at 5 m intervals and the remaining eight at 10 m intervals along a given transect. Plant phenology is recorded along two of these 100 m transects, the transect that extends due north from the central stake and the transect that extends due south from the central stake. The stakes that extend due north are marked 1-12 where stake #1 is closest to the center stake. The stakes that extend due south are marked 73-84 where stake #73 is closest to center. 

Collecting the Data:

Each transect is sampled by one technician. Measurements are started from the northern (stake #12) end of each transect. The technician walks in a straight line from one stake to the next surveying a 1 m wide area on each side of the line until the opposite end of the transect is reached. As a transect is walked, phenological conditions are recorded for each species that occurs along the transect. The phenological condition of the first 10 individuals of each species is recorded. After the conditions of ten individuals have been recorded no more observations are made for that particular species even though more may be encountered. Conversely, for rare species only a few individuals may be encountered so there will be less than 10 observations.

Because measurements are taken on separate individuals, it is important to note that many plants have clonal growth forms. This can be seen in some grasses that occur as a clump of overlapping vegetation. In this case each clump is treated as a single individual. This is also true for some cactus and yucca species that appear as a cluster of many individual heads.

Determining Phenological Conditions:

1. New green foliage (N)

This category refers to a plant that is producing new vegetative tissue. The production of new vegetative tissue can be characterized in several ways depending on the species. In many herbaceous plants, new vegetative growth will be indicated by the presence of immature leaves or stems. In herbaceous plants this growth generally appears near the tips of shoots and also at axillary buds.

For species that have a rosette growth form (yucca, some herbaceous plants), the center of the rosette is examined for the presence of immature leaves.

In cacti, the spines are modified leaves and do not readily indicate new vegetative growth so cacti are examined for production of new stems. For example, in Opuntia spp., the presence of a new stem/pad represents new green foliage as each stem-joint represents a season's growth. Cacti that exhibit a cylindrical growth form are more difficult to classify. Cacti with tuberculate stems (Mammilaria spp.) are examined for new tubercules which can often be seen in the center of the head. More problematic are the ribbed cacti where the growth of one season is continuous with that of the preceding season.  While these species may be producing new growth it is extremely difficult to identify and thus they are usually categorized as old green foliage.

2. Old green foliage (O)

This category refers to a plant that is not producing new vegetative tissue but exhibits only mature green foliage.  

3. Brown leaves (B)

This category refers to a plant that has only brown leaves and is used to indicate a period of senescence or decline.  

4. No leaves (Z)

This category is similar to the above category.  It is meant to capture a period of senescence or decline and refers to a plant that has subsequently dropped its leaves. It only applies to growth forms that drop their leaves during a period of dormancy or senescence. This category is not used for plants such as Ephedra spp. that normally do not have leaves.

Determining Phenological Conditions:

1. New flowers (FL)

This category refers to the presence of flowers at anthesis (open flowers). For many species the petals are large and showy making this condition easy to identify. In species with small or reduced flowers, this condition represents the presence of key reproductive structures such as stamens and/or carpels.   

2. New fruit (FR)

This category refers to the presence of a ripened ovary that contains seed. Open fruits that do not contain seed are not categorized as fruiting.  Open fruits that do contain seed belong in this category.               

3. Fruits and Flowers (FF)

This category indicates that both fruit and flowers are present.

4. No Fruits or Flowers (Z)

This category indicates that neither fruits or flowers are present.

5. Flower buds (B)

This category indicates that only closed flower buds are present.

QAQC: 

Each month, the data is QAQCd for typos and incorrect plant codes. To do this in Excel, place the cursor in the first cell of the actual data, not the headings. Go to Data/Filter and select auto filter. Each list formed should fit the parameters listed above. The plant list and the unknown plant list should be updated regularly. Check all errors against the paper data. Be sure that the numbers at the end of the kartez codes are correct. In most cases, all errors can be fixed at this time.

At the end of every year, compile all the data into one file for the year. Check to make sure no data is missing or duplicated. Also, each year, all the previous years data should be updated using the unknown plant list to replace former unknowns with their proper kartez code. At this point all compiled, yearly data sets should be re-archived, replacing the old data sets. Meta data should be maintained with every data set.

Recording the Data:

For each transect, the following is recorded:   

1. Recorder- Recorder's initials and also the initials of anyone helping take measurements on that particular transect.  

2. The date (month, day, year)  

3. The site (B, G, C, J, P)

B = Blue grama grassland

G = Five-Points grassland

C = Five-Points creosote

J = Juniper Savanna

P = Pinon-Juniper woodland 

4. The web (1,2,3,4,5) 

5. The page number (1/3, 2/3, 3/3)

The species code for all the species occurring along the transect is recorded. Then the phenological conditions of the individual plants in the area are recorded in the Fol and Flw columns of the data sheet. The Fol column is for status codes reflecting the condition of a plant's foliage and the Flw column is for codes reflecting the reproductive status of the plant. The status codes are as follows:

Foliage codes:

N = new green foliage

O = old green foliage only

B = brown leaves only

Z = no leaves

Reproductive codes:

FL = new flower

FR = new fruits

FF = new fruits and flowers

Z = no fruits or flowers

B  = Only buds present

BFL = Buds and flowers

BFR = Buds and fruits

Instrumentation: 

The phenology data is taken with paper and pencil.

Maintenance: 

12/2/2008

For both 2007 and 2008, individual monthly files were checked for errors and compiled in pc_field/phenology. These were uploaded into navicat. Then all the data was exported and put on line with this updated meta data and EML.

2/8/2007

Phenology data from 2001-2006 was taken out of flat files and imported into MySQL. Once in the database, I checked for duplicates. These most often happened when a recorder had already taken data for a particular species and accidentally started a new row for data for that species. In these instances, no data was deleted, but the observation numbers were made consecutive. Therefore, they end up with more than 10 observations per web. In no case was this more than 20. The other reason I found duplicates was in years where certain recorders collected separate data for seedlings and adults. In these cases, no data was thrown away and againg the observation number was made consecutive and there also can be up to 20 observations per web for these species. Always in this case the comment "SEEDLING" was added to the relevant observations. I also checked every plant code against the USDA Plants database online at http://plants.usda.gov/ All plant codes that have had nomenclature changes were updated. All previously unknown plants that have since been identified were also updated. All unknown plants that will never be identified were dropped from the database. All typos were corrected. The original code was stored in the database under the collumn title OLD_SPECIES, but is not available online.

Quality Assurance: 

QAQC: 

Each month, the data should be QAQCd for typos and incorrect plant codes. To do this in Excel, place the cursor in the first cell of the actual data, not the headings. Go to Data/Filter and select auto filter. Each list formed should fit the parameters listed above. The plant list and the unknown plant list should be updated regularly. Check all errors against the paper data. Be sure that the numbers at the end of the kartez codes are correct. In most cases, all errors can be fixed at this time.At the end of every year, compile all the data into one file for the year. Check to make sure no data is missing or duplicated. Also, each year, all the previous years data should be updated using the unknown plant list to replace former unknowns with their proper kartez code. At this point all compiled, yearly data sets should be re-archived, replacing the old data sets. Meta data should be maintained with every data set.

Additional information: 

Additional Information on the personnel associated with the Data Collection / Data Processing

Sevilleta Field Crew Employee History

Chandra Tucker (CAT; 04/2014-present), Megan McClung (MAM; 04/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 10/2010-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2009-06/2013), Amaris Swann (ALS;  08/2008-01/2013), Maya Kapoor, August 9, 2003-January 21, 2005 and April 2010-March 2011, Terri Koontz, February 2000-August 2003 and August 2006-August 2010, Yang Xia, January 31, 2005-April 2009, Karen Wetherill, February 7, 2000-August 2009, Michell Thomey, September 3, 2005-August 2008, Jay McLeod, January 2006-August 2006, Charity Hall, January 31, 2005-January 3, 2006, Tessa Edelen, August 15, 2004-August 15, 2005, Seth Munson, September 9, 2002-June 2004, Caleb Hickman, September 9, 2002-November 15, 2004, Heather Simpson, August 2000-August 2002, Chris Roberts, September 2001-August 2002, Mike Friggens, 1999-September 2001, Shana Penington, February 2000-August 2000.

Dates of collection for each field site:

Site B:  April 2001 - present

Site C:  April 2000 - present

Site G:  April 2000 - present

Site J:  April 2000 - November 2001

Site P:  April 2000 - November 2001

Water Balance Modeling Project at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico: Vegetation Plot Data (1995-1998)

Abstract: 

The water balance vegetation plots were part of a larger water balance monitoring project at the Sevilleta LTER. The plots were designed to measure the percent cover of photosynthetic/transpiring (green) plant species at specific sites where time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes and weather stations were already installed.  In 1995, there were three sites (Field Station, Deep Well and Rio Salado). A 30m x 30m plot was installed at each site, and collection of vegetation data commenced in July 1995. Percent cover (green) and species identities were recorded monthly at a representative sample of 1m square quadrats within each plot.  

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

81

Additional Project roles: 

89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev081_waterbalance_03022011

Methods: 

Study Plots - Each of the three plots was 30m x 30m (900 m squared). Eleven lines and eleven rows of small wooden pegs were placed in an evenly-spaced manner, as shown in the diagram below. Each peg was about 3 meters from the next in the grid. Therefore, the lines and rows were numbered by 3's. For monthly data collection, a one meter square quadrat was placed so that the peg was at the northeast corner. The 0th line and 0th row of pegs served as borders on two sides of the plot and also as anchors for the NE corners of quadrats. The 30th line and 30th row of pegs served only as borders on the other two sides of the plot.

The Field Station (fs) and Deep Well (dw) sites were oriented as in the diagram below. The Rio Salado (rs) plot was a mirror image of this, so that row '0' is on the west side of the plot and rows run from west to east. The lines remained the same, running from north to south.

                                  N

Row
30 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 0
* * * * * * * * * * 0
| * * * * * * * * * * 3
| * * * * * * * * * * 6
| * * * * * * * * * * 9
| * * * * * * * * * * 12 L
W | * * * * * * * * * * 15 i E
| * * * * * * * * * * 18 n
| * * * * * * * * * * 21 e
| * * * * * * * * * * 24
| * * * * * * * * * * 27
|________________________________30

S

Sample frequency and size - Plots were sampled once per month, near the middle of the month, from January through December (in 1995, sampling did not begin until July.).

To obtain accurate estimates of the mean percent green cover of each guild, including annuals, perennials, grasses, forbs, and creosote bush, with the least amount of effort and time, both running means and boot strap analyses were performed. This was originally proposed by Bruce Milne (for detail, see /research//local/plant/src/plantcover/field_methods) and implemented by Yeulong Yang using SAS. The SAS program used to determine the sample size is called "swb_size.sas", located at /research/local/plant/src/plantcover.

Documentation can be found at the beginning of the SAS program. Based on the results of the running mean analyses, a minimum of 60 quads was needed. From that point on, only 60 quads per plot were sampled by the field crew.

Equipment - Equipment included meter quadrat frames, tape recorders, and microcassettes. Quadrat frames were made of 1/2 " PVC and PVC corners, with 10 cm lengths marked using black electrical tape. Each 10 cm square within the quadrat would therefore comprise 1% of the area.

Recording data - The person recording data first placed the quadrat frame on the ground with the NE corner inside of the wooden peg and the SW corner inside of a PVC peg placed as a marker. A brief note was left on the microcasette and a similar introductory statement taped at the beginning of data collection (e.g. "Jan. 18. 1996, Susan Geer, Rio Salado water balance plot").

Only species which had some green were identified. Many times it was hard to tell whether foliage was green. It was easier to determine foliage color when the sun was not directly overhead. Geen foliage was mentally combined and tallyed to the nearest percent. Anytime green foliage occupied less than half of a 10 cm square area (less than 0.5%), it was classified as "trace." If between 0.5% and 1% was occupied, cover was rounded up to 1%. All foliage that was not green at the time of sampling was classified as "litter." The following is an example of what might have been recorded for one quadrat: "Begin quad 0 0. Gutierrezia sarothrae 5, Dalea jamesii 1, Psilotrope tagetina +, litter 45. End quad 0 0".

Consistency of estimates - To ensure that cover estimates were always made in the same way, the crew leader served as the standard. Before gathering data, each group of plant crew members had a training session in which the crew leader demonstrated collection of percent cover for green foliage only.  The crew did about 10 quadrats as a group, and then members all gathered data independently for another set of quadrats. A crew member estimating cover differently would recieve extra training and practice. Data were compared to detect differences between crew members in September.

The SAS program used to estimate the differences among crew members is called PerDiff.sas, located at /research/local/plant/src/plantcover. Based on the results of such analyses, differences in percent cover were mainly due to site and guild and there were no significant differences among the crew members. A brief documentation can be found at the beginning of the PerDiff.sas program.

Data entry - Data were entered by each crew member using dictaphones to transcribe the microcassttes directly to the computer. The dictaphones were equipped with footpedals and headphones. Therefore, hands were free for data entry. Data were entered using the "emacs" text editor. Each entry line consisted of line, row, plant or litter code, and percent cover.

Codes - Sevilleta plant codes for 1995 (Appendix B) were used, as well as the code "LITT" for litter. The definition of litter for this particular data set is simply non-green organic matter. This non-green organic matter is often part of a plant that is green as well. In fact, during the winter months only a few plants had green foliage on them. Here is an example of data entered from one quadrat at line 0, row 0: 0 0 GUSA2 5

0 0 DAJA 1

0 0 PSTAT +

0 0 LITT 45.

Lineup program - Data for each site were compiled by the crew leader. Date and site were added to all entries, and spacing standardized, using a program called "lineup." After compiling data for a site, the following command was entered: >lineup filename yyyymmdd si > tempfile in which "filename" was the name of the file, "yyyy" was the full year, "mm" was a two number code for month, "dd" the date, "si" a two letter code for location, and "tempfile" a temporary file to hold the modified data. After scanning for errors, the data for each site was appended to the file "water_balance_1995."

Maintenance: 

08/08/95 - File created. JWB
09/01/95 - Searched and replaced the following:
ATCA2 = atca, crna = chna, daji = daja, euph = eupho, euph? = eupho
gipi = gapi, hij = hija, hopdr = hodr, hifi = hyfi, saki = saka
spcp = spco, spha = sphae, spor = sporo, spsp = sporo, stepha =
stpa. S. Geer.
09/11/95 - Corrected a few typing errors, such as row=5,or line=14.
Yang.
***Have added data once per month, July to Dec. 15 December 1995. S. Geer.***

1/22/96 - File created. S. Geer
Note: Aristida purpurea var. longiseta changed from arlo to arpul 5/96.
C.Buxbaum.

1/3/97 - Data for May, 1996 Rio Salado entered. K. Taugher
- Data for May, 1996 Field Station entered. K. Taugher
- Data for June, 1996 Rio Salado entered. K. Taugher
- Data for June, 1996 Field Station entered. K. Taugher
1/6/97 - Data for July, 1996, all sites, entered. K. Taugher
1/7/97 - Data for August, 1996, all sites, entered. K. Taugher
- Data for Sept., 1996, all sites, entered. K. Taugher
- Data for Oct. 1996, Field Station entered. K. Taugher
- Data for Oct. 1996, Rio Salado entered. K. Taugher
1/8/97 - Data for Dec. 1996, all sites, entered. K. Taugher
1/10/97 - Species codes changed to Kartez. K. Taugher
1/22/97 - Changed sphae to Sphae for 19950813 dw 27 3. K. Taugher
- Changed entries that read UNK {grass seedling} to GRASS {seedling}.
(to be more specific). K. Taugher
- Corrected entries that in the process of changing species codes to
Kartez with the "global replacement" command, some codes carried
an extra character. For example arpup was changed to ARPUP6 but in
some cases, ARPUP6 was replaced as ARPUP6 6. I'm not sure why this
happened, but those entries were cleaned up. K. Taugher
2/19/97 - Added Nov and Dec data. K. Taugher
- Realigned columns. K. Taugher
3/12/97 - Changed sedo to SEFLF. K. Taugher
- Changed gaco to GACO5 for Feb. fs plot 3.0. K. Taugher
5/12/97 - Fixed records that had comment fields (i.e., {.*}) inline with
data line, by simply moving comment field to next line below
data line.
Added .dbf extension to file name.
Changed row number from 14 to 24 for the following entries.
19960717 dw 21 24 ARPUP6 6
19960717 dw 21 24 CADR6 1
19960717 dw 21 24 BOER4 12
19960717 dw 21 24 LITT 10
Added missing "}" on comment line. G. Shore.

05/27/97 - Fixed records whose number of columns did not equal the headline
columns for entries:

19960915 fs 3 0 CHNA2 2 1
Changed to : fs 3 0 CHNA2 1
19960915 fs 24 18 CHNA2 2 1
Changed to: fs 24 18 CHNA2 1
19960916 rs 6 24 GUSA2 2 1
Changed to: rs 6 24 GUSA2 1
19960916 rs 24 9 CADR6 6 1
Changed to: rs 24 9 CADR6 1

Changes were made as indicated above as most likely the numerical value
in the Kartez code was somehow carried over/repeated into the next column.
K. Taugher

05/27/97 - Made changes to "UNK" entries when {comments} gave information
which put the "UNK" into a guild. I changed "UNK" to either "FORB" "shrub"
etc...

19960915 fs 3 0 UNK {shrub}
**changed to** 19960915 fs 3 0 SHRUB

19961015 dw 12 6 UNK {forb seedling}
**changed to** 19961015 dw 12 6 FORB

19961015 dw 12 15 UNK {forb}
**changed to ** 19961015 dw12 15 FORB

19961015 dw 15 15 UNK {forb}
**changed to** 19961015 dw 15 15 FORB

19961015 dw 15 18 UNK {forb}
**changed to** 19961015 dw 15 18 FORB

19961015 dw 0 6 UNK {Fabaceae forb}
**changed to 19961015 dw 0 6 FORB

K. Taugher

6/30/97 - Changed ARDI5+ to ARDI5 with a cover value of + for entry
19970716 rs 6 12. K. Taugher

6/30/97 - Changed sphae to Sphae for all August entries. K. Taugher
6/30/97 - Data were added for Aug. Field Station plots #: 0 3, 0 6, 0 9, 0 12, 0 15, 0 18, 0 24,
3 0, 3 3, 3 12, 3 15, 6 3, 6 9 , 6 18, 6 21, 9 0, 9 12, 9 15, 9 21, 9 27 as it was previously missing. K. Taugher

6/30/97 - Changed "DACS4" entries to "DASC4". K Taugher

6/30/97 - Changed "HOGL" entries to "HOGL2". K Taugher
Changed "CAJA" entries to "CAJA6". K. Taugher
Changed "Euho" entry to "Eupho". K. Taugher
Changed "ARCO" entry to "ATCO". K. Taugher
Changed "ATPUP6" entry to "ARPUP6". K. Taugher
Changed "LTIT" entry to "LITT". K. Taugher

1/21/97 - Changed species codes to Kartez.
- Changed solan to Solan for entries:
199509?? rs 6 16, 6 21, 6 18, 3 6, 3 9, 3 15, 0 18
- Changed unkwo to UNK for 19951016 fs 0 12
- Changed saki to SAKA for 19950729 dw 18 12
- Changed euph to Eupho in various places
- Changed eupho to Eupho in various places
- Changed unkno to UNK in various places
- Changed daji to DAJA for 19950724 dw 0 3
- Changed spor to Sporo in various places
- Changed linum to Linum for 19950919 rs 3 18, 0 18
- Changed ???1 to UNK for 19950719 rs 6 12
- Changed penst to Penst for 19950814 dw 0 0
- Changed arist to Arist for 19950919 rs 12 9
- Changed hopdr to CADR6 (formerly hodr) for 19950724 dw 15 21
- Changed gipu to GAPU for 19950814 dw 24 0
- Changed hifi to HYFIC for 19950714 fs 9 18
- Changed stepa to STPA4 for 19950813 rs 18 9
- Changed Spaer to Sphae in various places
- Changed crna to CHNA2 for 19950714 fs 15 9, 3 15
- Cleaned up \log section to make it easier to read (i.e. without
changing any information, I entered the date first, followed
by the action performed on that date). K. Taugher

05/12/97 - Fixed records that had comment fields (i.e., {.*}) inline with
data line by simply moving comment field to next line below
data line.
Removed blank lines at end of file.
Added .dbf extension to file name.
G. Shore.

05/12/97 - Added extra column width to species code field.
Realigned columns.
G. Shore.

06/30/97 - Changed ASNU to ASNU4 and arlo to ARPUL K. Taugher
- Changed spsp codes to Sporo (as indicated by comment made
09/1/95) K. Taugher
- Changed thlo to THLO. K. Taugher
- Changed buer to BOER4, gaura to Gaura, latr to LATR2,
lit to LITT, saki to SAKA, solan to Solan, spsu to SPHA,
forb1 to FORB with a comment of {FORB#1}, forb2 to FORB
with a comment of {FORB#2}, forb3 to FORB with a comment
of {FORB#3}, spta to STPA4. K. Taugher

07/03/97 - Changed "herb" entry to "FORB" (for consistency). K. Taugher
- Changed "huja" entries to "HIJA". K. Taugher.
02/15/97 - Date file created. K. Taugher
09/05/97 - Aligned columns to right justification. K. Taugher
- Imported data for months May, June, July. K. Taugher
09/09/97 - Began error-checking for missing plots. K. Taugher
- Added {}'s around comments for may dw entry that were
previously missing. K. Taugher
- Changed "CADR6+" entry for dw may plot 6 15 to CADR6 +.
K. Taugher
- GUSA2 entry for fs June plot 3 18 had no cover value. In order
to leave GUSA2 represented, I added a cover value of "+".
I attempted to leave the species and/or guild member but not
add much cover (which could potentially artificially increase
the true cover value). Same was done for "GRASS" entry
for July at fs plot 21 3. K. Taugher
- Changed cover value from "=" to "+" for GUSA2 in July at
rs plot 0 0 . K. Taugher
- Changed "LIT" entry for Jan. dw plot 9 6 to "LITT". K. Taugher
and for dw Feb. plot 24 9 . K. Taugher
- Changed "ATC0" to "ATCO" (changed a zero to an O) for Mar.
fs plot 21 15. K. Taugher
- Changed "ARPUP" entry to "ARPUP6" for May rs plot 27 24.
and "ARPU6" entry to "ARPUP6" for May rs plot 27 24. K. Taugher
09/10/97 - Changed "DNANA" entry for dw May plot 6 6 to "DANAN". K. Taugher
- Changed "ERPU4" entries to "ERPU8" for May rs plots 9 0,
6 24, and 6 27. K. Taugher
- Changed various "EUPHO" entries to "Eupho", "SPHAE" entries to
"Sphae" , "SPORO" to "Sporo" and "LINUM" to "Linum" to be
consistent with naming/coding protocol. K. Taugher
- Changed various "GUSA" entries to "GUSA2". K. Taugher
- Changed "HELIA" entry for May fs plot 9 0 to "Helia" to be
consistent with naming/coding protocol (NOTE: this is most
likely HEPE, Helianthus petiolaris). K. Taugher
- Changed "Euphoy" entry to "Eupho" for July rs plot 24 0 .
K. Taugher
- Changed "SPCO" entry to "SPCO4" for Jul dw plot 18 24. K. Taugher
- Changed "OPPO" entry to "OPPOP" for Jul rs plot 15 9 . K. Taugher
09/11/97 - Changed "DAJA6" entry to "DAJA" for Jul dw plot 6 12
and for Jul dw plot 27 27. K. Taugher
- Changed various July entries from "HELIA" to "Helia". K. Taugher
- Changed "MELE" entry to "MELE2" for Jult fs plot 21 3. K. Taugher
- Changed "MEPU" entries to "MEPU3" for July fs plots 15 27
and 18 24. K. Taugher
- Changed "DALEA" entry to "Dalea" for July dw plot 18 24. K.Taugher
- Changed incorrect plot # for June rs from 24 26 to 24 27.K.Taugher
- Changed various entries of "ERPUP8" to "ERPU8". K. Taugher
- Changed "CAJA" entry for June dw plot 27 0 to "CAJA6". K. Taugher
- Changed "HIFIC" entries to "HYFIC" for June fs plots:
0 3, 0 6, and 9 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "SPCO2" entry to "SPCO4" for June dw plot 9 0 . K.Taugher
- Added 11 plots of data for June for fs site that were missing.
K. Taugher
09/12/97 - Added data for June dw that were missing. K. Taugher
- Realigned columns to right justification (again). K.Taugher
- Changed June dw plot entry from "12 O" to "12 0" (i.e.
from the letter O to the number zero (0). K. Taugher
- Changed June dw plot 12 0 entry from "CADR2" to "CADR6"
K. Taugher
- Changed other various "MEPU" entries to "MEPU3" for May. K.Taugher
- Changed "CRCR" entry for May fs plot 21 18 to "CRCR3". K.Taugher
- Changed "DALEA" entry for May dw plot 18 24 to "Dalea". K. Taugher
- Changed "GAC05" entry for May fs plot 0 0 to "GACO5" (a zero
was substituted for the O). K. Taugher
- Changed "HIFIC" entries to "HYFIC" for May dw plot 18 15 and
May rs plot 18 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "DAJA6" entry for Feb dw plot 12 6 to "DAJA". K. Taugher
09/18/97 - Added missing dw data for R. Conn for May. K. Taugher
- Changed various entries for May rs site: Changed "EUPHO" entries
to "Eupho", "LINUM" to "Linum", "SPHAE" to "Sphae", and
"SPORO" to "Sporo" to conform to naming/coding protocol. K. Taugher
- Added missing fs data for July for K. Taugher. K. Taugher
- Added August data. K. Taugher
09/29/97 - Added September data. K. Taugher
- Moved comments from along the righthand side of entry to
the following line. K. Taugher
10/13/97 - Made the following corrections to the data for Sept:
- Changed "EUPUP" to "ERPU8" in various places.
- Changed "GUSA" to "GUSA2" in various places.
- Changed "CEDR6" to "CADR6" in various places.
- Changed "ARPUP" to "ARPUP6" in various places.
- Changed "ERPU" to "ERPU8" in various places.
- Changed "CRCIJJ" to "CRCIJ" for fs 21 27.
- Changed "CRCIR" to "CRCIJ" for fs 21 9 .
- Changed "DIWI" to "DIWI2" for fs 21 12.
- Changed "ERPU2" to "ERPU8" for dw 12 0.
- Changed "ARDI" to "ARDI5" for rs 21 6.
- Changed "ARPO" to "ARPUP6" for rs 21 9.
- Changed "BOGR" to "BOGR2" for fs 21 9.
- Changed "BUER4" to "BOER4" for dw 21 18.
- Changed "BUGR" to "BOGR2" for fs 18 0.
- Changed "CHER6" to "CHER2" for dw 12 24.
- Changed "CRCI" to "CRCIJ" FOR FS 18 9.
- K. TAUGHER
12/12/97 - Imported data for April. K. Taugher
- Added a space between species code and % cover entry for
19970418 fs 3 15 STPA4+. K. Taugher
- Added missing % cover entry for 19970418 dw 12 0 LITT 15.
K. Taugher
- Corrected date entry for X19970922 fs 18 0 EUPU +
to "19970922" as an "X" must have been added in error. K. Taugher
- Changed "ARUP6" to "ARPUP6" for 19970418 rs 6 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "ATCA" to "ATCA2" for 19970418 rs 0 15. K. Taugher
- Changed "CHNA" to "CHNA2" for 19970418 fs 3 15 and
19970418 fs 24 24. K. Taugher
12/15/97 - Changed "PSSC" to "PSSC6" for 19970922 fs 15 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "PSSC" to "PSSC6" for 19970922 fs 18 24. K. Taugher
- Changed "SCBR" to "SCBR2" for 19970923 dw 21 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "MAPI" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 18 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "MAPI" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 18 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "MAPI" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 18 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "MAPI" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 21 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "MIP1C" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 18 0. K. Taugher
- Changed "GUSA24" to "GUSA2" for 19970923 dw 21 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "STPA" to "STPA4" for 19970922 fs 18 9. K. Taugher
- Changed "Forb" to "FORB" for 19970923 rs 21 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "Forb" to "FORB" for 19970923 rs 27 0. K. Taugher
- Changed "Euphor" to "Eupho" for 19970923 rs 9 15. K. Taugher
- Changed "HIFIC" to "HYFIC" for 19970923 dw 9 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 15 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 0. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 9. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 24. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 21 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 21 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 24 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 27 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 27 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "HEPE" to "HEPEP" for 19970923 dw 27 0. K. Taugher
- Changed "HEPE" to "HEPEP" for 19970922 fs 18 27. K.Taugher
- Changed "Spor" to "Sporo" for 19970923 dw 6 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "Spor" to "Sporo" for 19970923 dw 6 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "THFI" to "HYFIC" for 19970922 fs 18 6. K. Taugher
- Added missing data for Sept. fs. K. Taugher
- Changed "DASC42" with no cover value to "DASC4" with a
cover value of "2". K. Taugher
- Changed "DIXI2" to "DIWI2" for 19970922 fs 6 6. K. Taugher
1/9/97 - Added October data. K. Taugher
- Adjusted positioning of comments to correspond with correct
entry. K. Taugher
- Changed brackets on comments from "]" to "}" for
19971016 dw 15 15 FORB + K. Taugher
and for 19971016 dw 18 6 Sporo 1. K. Taugher
- Changed plot # for 19971016 rs 0 18 CHSE7 + to read "0 18"
from "O 18" (i.e. from a letter O to a zero). K. Taugher
- Added a space between species code and cover value for
19971016 fs 21 6 STPA4 +....It previously read:
19971016 fs 21 6 STPA4+. K. Taugher
- Changed species code from "ARPUP8" to the correct code of
"ARPUP6" with a "query-replace" for entries :
19971016 rs 0 0, 0 3, 0 6, 0 12, 0 15, 0 18, 0 27, 3 21,
19971016 rs 3 18, 3 15. K. Taugher
- Changed species code from "ATCA" to the correct code o
"ATCA2" with a "query-replace" for entries:
19971016 rs 0 15, 0 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "CARD6" to "CADR6" for 19971016 dw 21 3. K. Taugher
- Changed "CEDR6" to "CADR6" for 19971016 rs 3 3. K.Taugher
- Changed "CHNA" to "CHNA2" for 19971016 fs 24 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "DAJA6" to "DAJA" with a "query-replace" for entries:
19971016 dw 0 0 , 0 3, 0 6, 3 0, 3 12, 12 9, 12 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "EPRU8" to "ERPU8" for 19971016 fs 21 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "ERPUP" to "ERPU8" for 19971016 fs 3 3. K. Taugher
- Changed "Euphor" to "Eupho" for 19971016 rs 0 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "ZIGR2" to "ZIGR" for 19971016 fs 0 27, 15 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "STPA2" to "STPA4" for 19971016 fs 3 18, 3 3. K. Taugher
- Changed "Guara" to "Gaura" for 19971016 dw 18 15. K. Taugher
- Changed "LIAS" to "LIAUA" for 19971016 rs 21 0. K. Taugher
1/14/97 - Added December data. K. Taugher
1/21/97 - Added November data. K. Taugher
- Justified columns to right justification. K. Taugher

09/14/98 - Date file created. K. Taugher
- Documentation section imported from 1997 file. K. Taugher
- Collection dates added to March, May, June, July, August
and data for those months imported to this file. K. Taugher
- Changed percent cover entries of "0.5" to "+" for the following
data:
For July: rs 15 27 CHLA10 rs 15 24 ARPUP6
rs 18 0 SOEL rs 21 9 DIWI2 rs 21 3 MELE2
dw 15 3 MAPIP dw 15 24 HYFIC dw 18 12 Sphae
fs 15 9 MAPIP fs 15 18 MAPIP fs 18 24 CRCIC
fs 18 21 GUSA2 fs 18 15 DANAN fs 18 9 SPFL2
fs 18 0 BAABA fs 18 0 HYFIC fs 18 0 DANAN
fs 18 0 MELE2 fs 21 3 ZIGR fs 21 3 MELE2
fs 21 9 STPA4 fs 21 9 BAABA fs 21 12 HIJA
fs 21 12 CRCIC fs 21 12 MAPIP fs 21 21 SPFL2

For August: rs 6 9 SOEL rs 6 9 Sporo
rs 6 0 MELE2 rs 9 18 CHAL11 rs 12 24 LIAUA
dw 6 0 CADR6 dw 6 9 Sporo dw 6 12 CHER2
dw 9 18 ERPU8 dw 12 3 CADR6 dw 12 6 GAPI
dw 12 9 DANAN dw 12 21 CADR6 fs 6 0 GACO5
fs 6 12 BAABA fs 6 12 MAPIP fs 9 18 MAPIP
fs 9 9 SPFL2 fs 12 6 PSTAT fs 12 6 ARPUP6
fs 12 24 Poace K. Taugher

- Made the following changes to percent cover entries as only integers
are suitable data:
For July: dw 21 3 ARPUP6 1.5 to 2
dw 21 9 MAPIP 2.5 to 3 fs 15 24 MAPIP 1.5 to 2
fs 21 3 MAPIP 1.5 to 2

For August: rs 6 12 GUSA2 1.5 to 2
rs 6 0 GUSA2 1.5 to 2 rs 9 12 ARPUP6 2.5 to 3
rs 12 9 Sphae 1.5 to 2 rs 12 6 LIAUA 1.5 to 2
rs 12 3 ARPUP6 2.5 to 3 dw 6 27 ERPU8 1.5 to 2
dw 9 3 MAPIP 1.5 to 2 dw 12 3 DAJA 1.5 to 2
dw 12 9 PSTAT 1.5 to 2 fs 12 9 DANAN 2.5 to 3
fs 12 21 MAPIP 1.5 to 2 fs 12 21 DANAN 1.5 to 2
K. Taugher
- Moved various comments to their appropriate lines (i.e. each comment
should occupy its own line immediately following the data it
refers to). K. Taugher
- Removed comments of "unknown Sphaeralcea" from entries of "Sphae"
as these comments are redundant and unnecessary. Comments removed
from the following entries:
For June: rs 0 6, rs 0 9, rs 0 18, rs 3 15, rs 3 18, rs 6 3
and fs 3 24
- Removed comments of "unknown Sporobolus" from entries of "Sporo"
as these comments are redundant and unnecessary. Comments removed
from the following entries:
For June: rs 0 21, rs 3 27, fs 3 6.
- Removed comment of "unknown Fabaceae" from entry of "Fabac"
as this comment is redundant and unnecessary. Comment removed
from: June dw 0 9.
K. Taugher
3/31/99 - Added data for Jan, Feb. and April. K. Taugher
- Changed codes of "GUA2" for January entries of rs 0 9 and
rs 0 18 to "GUSA2" and changed code of "GUAS2" for entry of Jan.
dw 0 21 and dw 6 21 to "GUSA2". K. Taugher
- Changed code of "GRASS SP" for July rs 9 3 to "GRASS". k. Taugher
4/1/99 - Changed code of "ERPUP8" to "ERPU8" for Mar fs 6 21. K. Taugher
- Changed code of "DAJA6" to "DAJA" for Feb dw 12 6. K. Taugher
- Changed the following codes for the month of May:
dw 0 24 Sprae to "Sphae"
dw 18 3 OECEC to "OECEC2"
dw 0 9 LUPIN to "Lupin"
fs 3 24 HIFIC to "HYFIC"
dw 6 9 ERPU9 TO "ERPU8"
fs 15 6 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 9 9 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 9 6 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 9 3 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 9 0 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 6 27 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
rs 18 21 ERP8 TO "ERPU8"
dw 15 3 CYCAF TO "CYACF"
rs 15 24 ATCA TO "ATCA2"
- Changed the following codes for the month of June:
fs 27 27 PSSC to "PSSC6"
4/2/99 - Changed the following codes for the month of July:
dw 9 0 ARIST to "Arist"
rs 9 12 ARIST to "Arist"
rs 9 15 ARIST to "Arist"
rs 15 18 ARPUP8 to "ARPUP6"
rs 18 12 ARPUP to "ARPUP6"
dw 24 15 Forb to "FORB"
fs 15 3 PSSC to "PSSC6"
fs 15 27 PSSC to "PSSC6"
rs 18 9 PSSC to "PSSC6"
rs 9 6 SPHAE to "Sphae"
rs 9 12 SPHAE to "Sphae"
rs 12 9 SPHAE to "Sphae"
dw 9 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 6 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 12 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 15 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 18 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 21 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 12 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 12 9 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 12 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 15 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 6 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 12 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 15 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 18 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 24 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 6 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 9 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 24 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 15 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 6 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 12 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 15 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 18 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 18 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 6 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 9 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 24 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 15 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
K. Taugher
-Changed the following codes for August:
rs 12 24 ARPU6 to "ARPUP6"
fs 3 27 Asclep to "FORB" {Asclepias}
- Added 15 quads to rs data for June as these were missing. K.T.

2/15/00 - Added some standard metadata, and corrected year references. G.Shore.




Additional information: 

Sampling Dates:

1995, Jul 14, 19, 24: fs, rs, dw
1995, Aug 13, 14: fs, rs & dw
1995, Sep 18, 19: fs, rs & dw
1995, Oct 16: all
1995, Nov 17: all
1995, Dec 15: all

Jan: 1/18/96 fs, rs, dw.
Feb: 2/14/96 rs; 2/19/96 dw, fs.
Mar: 3/14/96 dw, rs; 3/15/96 fs.
Apr: 4/17/96 fs, rs; 4/16/96 dw.
May: 5/16/96 dw, rs; 5/15/96 rs.
Jun: 6/13/96 rs, dw; 6/12/96 fs.
Jul: 7/16/96 rs; 7/17/96 dw; 7/18/96 fs.
Aug: 8/12/96 rs; 8/13/96 dw; 8/14/96 fs.
Sept: 9/15/96 fs; 9/16/96 rs; 9/18/96 dw.
Oct: 10/14/96 rs; 10/15/96 fs;
Nov
Dec: 12/16/96 fs, rs, dw.

Jan: 1/20/97 fs, rs, dw.
Feb: 2/12/97 rs, dw, fs.
Mar: 3/17/97 dw, rs, fs.
Apr: 4/18/97 fs, rs, dw.
May: 5/25/97 dw, rs, fs.
Jun: 6/19/97 rs, dw; 6/23/96 fs.
Jul: 7/16/97 rs, dw, fs.
Aug: 8/04/97 rs, dw, fs.
Sept: 9/22/97 fs; 9/23/96 rs, dw.
Oct: 10/16/97 rs, fs, dw.
Nov: 11/17/97 fs, dw, rs.
Dec: 12/17/97 fs, rs, dw.

Jan: 1/10/98 fs, rs, dw.
Feb: 2/15/98 rs, dw, fs.
Mar: 3/25/98 dw, rs, fs.
Apr: 4/11/98 fs, rs, dw.
May: 5/17/98 dw, rs, fs.
Jun: 6/16/98 rs, dw, fs.
Jul: 7/13/96 rs, dw, fs.
Aug: 8/17/98 rs, dw, fs.



Subscribe to RSS - foliage