herbs

Core Site Grid Quadrat Data for the Net Primary Production Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2013- present)

Abstract: 

Begun in spring 2013, this project is part of a long-term study at the Sevilleta LTER measuring net primary production (NPP) across three distinct ecosystems: creosote-dominant shrubland (Site C), black grama-dominant grassland (Site G), and blue grama-dominant grassland (Site B). Net primary production is a fundamental ecological variable that quantifies rates of carbon consumption and fixation. Estimates of NPP are important in understanding energy flow at a community level as well as spatial and temporal responses to a range of ecological processes.

Above-ground net primary production is the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and and foliage, over time and incoporates growth as well as loss to death and decomposition. To measure this change the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, are sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at permanent 1m x 1m plots within each site. A third sampling at Site C is performed in the winter. The data from these plots is used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV999, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." This biomass data is included in SEV999, "Seasonal Biomass and Seasonal and Annual NPP for Core Grid Research Sites."

Data set ID: 

289

Additional Project roles: 

450
451
452
453

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Sampling Quadrats:

Each sampling grid contains 40 1x1m quadrats in a 5x8 array. However, only 30 quadrats are sampled at each. These are quadrats 1-15 and 26-40. Thus, the middle two rows (i.e., 10 quadrats) are not sampled. Locating the Sampling Quadrats: Three core sites (B, G, and C) contain five rodent trapping and vegetation sampling webs. The vegetation grids are near these webs at each core site. At the blue grama site, the grid is located at the southern end of web 5, between webs 2 and 4. At the creosote site, the grid is east of web 3, near the road. At the black grama site, the grid is just northeast of web 5.

Collecting the Data:

Net primary production data is collected twice each year, spring and fall, for all sites. The Five Points Creosote Core Site is also sampled in winter. Spring measurements are taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals have reached peak biomass. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals have reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. Winter measurements are taken in February before the onset of spring growth.

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection.

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-The cover of forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs is measured as the horizontal area of the plant. If the species is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement if it increases cover. If the species is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecanthaOpuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest cm instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria viviparaSchlerocactus intertextusEchinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground.

Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat.

Creosote Measurements till 2013:

To measure creosote (i.e., Larrea tridenta) break the observations into two categories:

1.)Small, individual clusters of foliage on a branch (i.e., branch systems): Measure the horizontal cover of each live (i.e., green) foliage cluster, ignoring small open spaces (keeping in mind the 15% guideline stated above). Then measure the vertical "height" of each cluster from the top of the foliage to a plane created by extending a line horizontally from the bottom of the foliage. Each individual foliage cluster within a bush is considered a separate observation.

2.) Stems: Measure the length of each stem from the base to the beginning of live (i.e., green) foliage. Calculate the cumulative total of all stem measurements. This value is entered under "height" with the species as "stem" for each quadrat containing creosote. All other variable receive a default entry of "1" for creosote stem measurements. Do not measure dead stems or areas of dead foliage. If in doubt about whether a stem is alive, scrape the stem with your fingernail and check for the presence of green cambium.

Creosote Measurements 2013 and after:

Each creosote is only measured as one total cover. Each quad that contains creosote will have one cover observation for each creosote canopy in quad.

Recording the Data:

Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). Finally, "g" for "grid," along with the site abbreviation, should be added (i.e., gc, gg, gb). The final format for sites B, G, and C should be as follows: npp_core.mm.dd.yy.abgg.xls. File names should be in lowercase.

Data sources: 

sev289_nppgridquadrat_20161214.csv

Additional information: 

Other researchers involved with collecting samples/data: Chandra Tucker (CAT; 04/2014-present), Megan McClung (MAM; 04/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 2013-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2009-06/2013).

Pinon-Juniper (Core Site) Quadrat Data for the Net Primary Production Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2003-present )

Abstract: 

This dataset contains pinon-juniper woodland quadrat data and is part of a long-term study at the Sevilleta LTER measuring net primary production (NPP) across four distinct ecosystems: creosote-dominant shrubland (Site C, est. winter 1999), black grama-dominant grassland (Site G, est. winter 1999), blue grama-dominant grassland (Site B, est. winter 2002), and pinon-juniper woodland (Site P, est. winter 2003). Net primary production is a fundamental ecological variable that quantifies rates of carbon consumption and fixation. Estimates of NPP are important in understanding energy flow at a community level as well as spatial and temporal responses to a range of ecological processes.

Above-ground net primary production is the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and and foliage, over time and incoporates growth as well as loss to death and decomposition. To measure this change the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, are sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at permanent 1m x 1m plots within each site. A third sampling at Site C is performed in the winter. The data from these plots is used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV157, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." This biomass data is included in SEV182, "Seasonal Biomass and Seasonal and Annual NPP for Core Research Sites."

Data set ID: 

278

Core Areas: 

Additional Project roles: 

458
459
460
461

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Locating the Sampling Quadrats:

Site P, the pinon-juniper woodland site (Cerro Montosa), is set-up differently than the other core sites. In order to accommodate the different habitat types, groups of transects (i.e., "plots") were set up along north (N) and south (S) facing slopes as well as along vegas (V) and ridges (R). Transects on the first two plots consist of 40 quads each (10 quadrants for each of four habitat types). Plot one is slightly west of plot three and plot two is slightly west of the weather station. Plot three is located on a wide piedmont, which consists of four transects with five quadrats on each.

Collecting the Data:

Net primary production data is collected twice each year, spring and fall, for all sites. The Five Points Creosote Core Site is also sampled in winter. Spring measurements are taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals have reached peak biomass. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals have reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. Winter measurements are taken in February before the onset of spring growth.

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection.

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-The cover of forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs is measured as the horizontal area of the plant. If the species is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement if it increases cover. If the species is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest cm instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria vivipara, Schlerocactus intertextus, Echinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground.

Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat. 

Creosote Measurements:

To measure creosote (i.e., Larrea tridenta) break the observations into two categories:

1.) Small, individual clusters of foliage on a branch (i.e., branch systems): Measure the horizontal cover of each live (i.e., green) foliage cluster, ignoring small open spaces (keeping in mind the 15% guideline stated above). Then measure the vertical "height" of each cluster from the top of the foliage to a plane created by extending a line horizontally from the bottom of the foliage. Each individual foliage cluster within a bush is considered a separate observation.

2.) Stems: Measure the length of each stem from the base to the beginning of live (i.e., green) foliage. Calculate the cumulative total of all stem measurements. This value is entered under "height" with the species as "stem" for each quadrat containing creosote. All other variable receive a default entry of "1" for creosote stem measurements.

Do not measure dead stems or areas of dead foliage. If in doubt about whether a stem is alive, scrape the stem with your fingernail and check for the presence of green cambium.

Recording the Data:

Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). Finally, the site abbreviation should be added (i.e., c, g, b, p). The final format for sites B, G, and C should be as follows: npp_core.mm.dd.yy.abc.xls. For site P, the file format should be npp_pinj.mm.dd.yy.abc.xls. File names should be in lowercase.

Data sources: 

sev278_npppinjquadrat_20161214.csv

Additional information: 

Other researchers involved with collecting samples/data: Chandra Tucker (CAT; 04/2014-present), Megan McClung (MAM; 04/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 09/2010-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2009-06/2013), Amaris Swann (ALS; 08/2008-01/2013), Maya Kapoor (MLK; 08/2003 - 01/2005, 05/2010 - 03/2011), Terri Koontz (TLK; 02/2000 - 08/2003, 08/2006 - 08/2010), Yang Xia (YX; 01/2005 - 03/2010), Karen Wetherill (KRW; 02/2000 - 08/2009);  Michell Thomey (MLT; 09/2005 - 08/2008), Heather Simpson (HLS; 08/2000 - 08/2002), Chris Roberts (CR; 09/2001- 08/2002), Shana Penington (SBP; 01/2000 - 08/2000), Seth Munson (SMM; 09/2002 - 06/2004), Jay McLeod (JRM; 01/2006 - 08/2006); Caleb Hickman (CRH; 09/2002 - 11/2004), Charity Hall (CLH; 01/2005 -  01/2006), Tessa Edelen (MTE, 08/2004 - 08/2005).

Data updated 08/18/15: MOSQ changed to MUSQ3; ARPUP6 changed to ARPU9; SPWR changed to SPPO6; ambiguous Quercus species resolved by New Mexico Natural Heritage Program and updated.

Linking Precipitation and C3 - C4 Plant Production to Resource Dynamics in Higher Trophic Level Consumers: Plant Data (2005-2006)

Abstract: 

In many ecosystems, seasonal shifts in temperature and precipitation induce pulses of primary productivity that vary in phenology, abundance and nutritional quality.  Variation in these resource pulses could strongly influence community composition and ecosystem function, because these pervasive bottom-up forces play a primary role in determining the biomass, life cycles and interactions of organisms across trophic levels.  The focus of this research is to understand how consumers across trophic levels alter resource use and assimilation over seasonal and inter-annual timescales in response to climatically driven changes in pulses of primary productivity. We measured the carbon isotope ratios (d13C) of plant, arthropod, and lizard tissues in the northern Chihuahuan Desert to quantify the relative importance of primary production from plants using C3 and C4 photosynthesis for consumers.  Summer monsoonal rains on the Sevilleta LTER in New Mexico support a pulse of C4 plant production that have tissue d13C values distinct from C3 plants.  During a year when precipitation patterns were relatively normal, d13C measurements showed that consumers used and assimilated significantly more C4 derived carbon over the course of a summer; tracking the seasonal increase in abundance of C4 plants.  In the following spring, after a failure in winter precipitation and the associated failure of spring C3 plant growth, consumers showed elevated assimilation of C4 derived carbon relative to a normal rainfall regime. These findings provide insight into how climate, pulsed resources and temporal trophic dynamics may interact to shape semi-arid grasslands such as the Chihuahuan Desert in the present and future.

Data set ID: 

269

Additional Project roles: 

270

Core Areas: 

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Study site: 

This research was conducted on the Sevilleta LTER, located 100 km south of Albuquerque, New Mexico, which is an ecotonal landscape of Chihuahuan desert shrub and grasslands (Muldavin et al. 2008).  Data were collected from a 0.9 x 0.5km strip of land that encompassed a flat bajada and a shallow rocky canyon of mixed desert shrub and grassland dominated by the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) and black grama grass (Bouteloua eriopoda). 

Tissue collection & sample preparation for stable isotope analysis:

From May to October of 2005 and 2006 we collected plant, lizard, and arthropod tissues for carbon stable isotope analysis. During mid-summer of 2005, we randomly collected leaf and stem samples from the 38 most abundant species of plants; these species produce over 90% of the annual biomass on our study site (see Appendix Table A).  Approximately 3.5 mg of plant material was then loaded into pre-cleaned tin capsules for isotope analysis.  

Data sources: 

sev269_plant_isotope_20140520.csv

Long-term Intersite Decomposition Team (LIDET) Plant Litter Data at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1990-2001)

Abstract: 

Sevilleta data from a study testing the degree to which substrate quality and macroclimate control the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of decomposing leaf, wood, and fine-root litter in a 10-year, 28 site (17 LTER) team experiment.

http://andrewsforest.oregonstate.edu/data/abstract.cfm?dbcode=TD023&topnav=97

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

35

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev35_lidet_20131031.txt

Plant phenology or life-history pattern changes seasonally as plants grow, mature, flower, and produce fruit and seeds. Plant phenology follows seasonal patterns, yet annual variation may occur due to annual differences in the timing of rainfall and ambient temperature shifts. Foliage growth and fruit and seed production are important aspects of plant population dynamics and food resource availability for animals.

Keystone species have large impacts on community and ecosystem properties, and create important ecological interactions with other species.  Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) and banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) are considered keystone species of grassland ecosystems, and create a mosaic of unique habitats on the landscape.

Master Plant Species Information Database for the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1989-1996)

Abstract: 

This data base contains taxonomic and ecological information for the plant species on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

51

Additional Project roles: 

276

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev051_plantspecieslist_20140106.txt

Methods: 

SOURCE OF DATA FOR THIS DATA BASE - The original plant list was taken from Thomas Manthey's masters thesis (see reference list below). The following changes are made continuously to this list:

* Species are added. - This list is augmented by Sevilleta scientists as
plants new to the list are collected on the Sevilleta NWR.

* Some taxa are renamed. - Some older names for certain taxa are changed. For example, these conserved family names were replaced: Gramineae became Poaceae, Leguminosae became Fabaceae and Compositae became Asteraceae. The Ephedra were put into Ephedraceae instead of Gnetaceae. Krameria was moved from the Leguminosae to the
Krameriaceae. Additional changes will be logged in this file.

* Some plant species were taken off of the list - The original thesis plant list covered the Sevilleta National Wildlife refuge and the Ladron Mountains. Since this list is designed to represent only the Sevilleta Refuge proper, species that occur on the mountain and not on the Sevilleta were removed (These are listed below). There are still species in this data base that no doubt fall into this category but it is unreliable to say a plant does not occur in a certain place because you have not seen it and do not think that it is there. When thorough collections of the Sevilleta have been made then this list will more closely reflect the true list of plant species on the Sevilleta.  The collection field was added to this data base so the species that have been collected can be monitored.

* The photosynthetic_pathway, life-form and life cycle data were collected from the references listed below by Troy Maddux in 1989.  The abbreviation codes were produced by Troy Maddux in 1989 as well and existed as a separate file. The codes were put into this data base as a field when the data base was created in early 1992.

REFERENCE LIST

Correl, D.S., and M.C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the Vascular plants
of Texas. Texas Research Foundation.

Edwards and Walker. 1983. C3,C4: Mechanisms, and cellular and
environmental regulation of photosynthesis. Blackwell Scientific
Publications.

Eickmeier, W.G. 1978. "Photosynthetic Pathway Distribution etc."
Photosynthetica. 12(3): 290-297.

Elmore, C.D. and Rex N. Paul. 1983. "Composite list of C4 Weeds".
Weed Science. Vol. 31: 686-692.

Manthey, G. Thomas. 1977. "A Floristic Analysis of the Sevilleta
National Wildlife Refuge and the Ladrone Mountains." Masters
Thesis, University of New Mexico.

Martin, W.C., and C.R. Hutchins. 1980. A Flora of New Mexico.
A.R. Gantner Verlag.

Mulroy, T.W., and P.W. Rundel. 1977. "Annual Plants: Adaptations
to Desert Environments". Bioscience. 27(2): 109-114.

Smith, B.N., and W.V. Brown. 1973. "The Kranz syndrome in the
Gramineae as indicated by carbon isotope ratios." American Journal
of Botany. 60(6): 505-513

Syvertsen, J.P. et al. 1976. "Carbon Reduction Pathways and Standing
Crop in Three Chihuahuan Desert Plant Communities." The Southwestern
Naturalist. 21(3): 311-320.

USDA Plants Database. http://plants.usda.gov/index.html

Waller, S.S. and J.K. Lewis. 1989. "Occurrence of C3 and C4
Photosynthetic Pathways in North American Grasses". Journal of Range
Management. 32(1): 12-28.

ARCHIVE HEADER LABELS (Width of that field in characters) -


Family(17) - This field contains the plant family to which each species belongs.

Photosynthetic_pathway(3) - This field represents the way in which plants fix carbon in the process of photosysthesis.

C3 = This is the Calvin/Benson cycle.
C4 = This is the Hatch/Slack pathway.
CAM = This represents Crassulacean Acid Metabolism
*Missing data are represented by a "na."

Life_cycle(3) - The life cycle field represents the longevity of a plant species.


a = annual
ab = annual or biennial
ap = annual or perennial
ap- = annual or short-lived perennial
b = biennial
bp = biennial or perennial
bp- = biennial or short-lived perennial
p- = short-lived perennial
p = perennial
*Missing data are represented by a "?"

Life_form(3) - This field represents the form or physiognomy of a plant species.

G = grass - Plants in the family Poaceae.
H = herb - Plants that have no woody tissue.(the distinction between This and subshrub can be fuzzy since woody tissue at the caudex (right at the ground) would technically be considered a subshrub but this is often overlooked when the plant is mostly herbaceous.)
HV = herbaceous vine - A climbing or trailing plant with no woody tissue
rp = root parasite - A plant which is parasitic on other plant's roots.
S = shrub - A woody plant that usually has several-to-many main branches. (See Tree for problems.)
sp = stem parasite - A plant that is parasitic on the stems of another plant.
ss = subshrub - A plant that is woody just near the base or a plant that is woody throughout its stem structure but smaller than a meter.
ST = shrub or tree - A plant that sometimes grows in a shrub-like form and sometimes grows as a (usually small) tree.
T = tree - A woody plant that generally has one main stem. The distinction between trees and shrubs can be dubious. For example, Juniperus monosperma (one-seeded juniper) is usually considered a tree even though it is generally multistemmed.
su = succulent - A plant with water-storage tissues.
V = vine - A climbing or trailing plant in which the woodiness is not known by the database manager.
WV = woody vine - A woody trailing or climbing plant.
*Missing data are represented by a "?".

Sspecies_code(5) - A four- or five-letter code which represents a particular plant species and is unique within the group of the Sevilleta plant species. This code is created by taking the first two letters of the genus and the first two letters of the specific epithet of a plant's scientific name to make a four-letter code. If duplicate four-letter codes are created then a number two was added to the less common of the two codes. (Troy Maddux, previous LTER plant specialist, decided which species were less common
on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge.) If three duplicates occurred
then one code got a "2" after it and the next got a "3". Below is an example:

semu Senecio multicapitatus
semu2 Senecio multilobatus
semu3 Selaginella mutica

These abbreviations are used to represent plant species in field work and in data entry.

Sgenus(16) - The taxon of plant genus as it was known to Sevilleta LTER researchers. The genus and the species combined create the binomial which is the scientific name of a plant.

Sspecies(20) - The specific epithet of a plant and with the genus makes up the scientific name of a plant.

Svariety_subspecies(20) - Subspecific taxa including varieties and subspecies. They are represented thus:

Subspecies: subsp._ambiguus
Variety: var._scopulorum
Affinity: aff._grisea

Scommon_name(26) - The common or vernacular name for a plant species. These names are highly unreliable for delimiting a specific taxon but are useful in communication with those unfamiliar with the scientific names.
*Missing data are represented by a "na".

collection(3) - Indicates whether a speces has been collected on the Sevilleta by: Thomas Manthey, the Sevilleta LTER, or others.

m = Manthey Collection. (If the collection was made within the Sevilleta boundaries.)
s = Sevilleta LTER Collection.
o = Other Collection.
X = No known collection on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge.

native(1) - Indicates whether the species is native or introduced to the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge.
y = Yes the plant is native.
n = No, not native.
X = Status unknown.

species_code(5) - A four- five- or six-letter code which represents a particular plant species and is unique within the North American continent per the John Kartesz group and as published by the USDA PLANTS database.

genus(16) - The taxon of plant genus as published by John Kartesz and the USDA PLANTS database. The genus, species, and variety or subspecies combined create a trinomial which is the scientific name of a plant.

species(20) - The specific epithet of a plant.  This, with the genus and variety or subspecies, comprises the scientific name of a plant.

author(?) - The published authority of the trinomial name as represented by John Kartesz and the USDA PLANTS database.

variety_subspecies(20) - The subspecific taxa, including varieties and subspecies. They are represented thus:

Subspecies: subsp._ambiguus
Variety: var._scopulorum
Affinity: aff._grisea

Kfamily(5) - The John Kartesz six character family abbreviation. Included for compatibility. Unnecessary in most applications.

common_name(26) - The common or vernacular name for a plant species. These are the names as published by John Kartesz and the USDA Plants database
*Missing data are represented by a "na".

Maintenance: 

Added Prosopis pubescens to the species list;18 September 1996; JBRUNT

Added Kartesz entries for Sevilleta species:
Astragalus nuttallianus var. ellisae
Atriplex argentea var. argentea
Erodium texanum
Euphorbia lata
Gilia mexicana
Hordeum jubatum var. jubatum
Ipomoea coccinea
Maurandya wislizeni
Oenothera cespitosa var. montana
Oenothera pallida subsp. trichocalyx
Oxybaphus glaber
Polygala obscura
Stellaria longipes
Verbesina encelioides
Delphinium virescens
Euphorbia dentata var. dentata
Euphorbia fendleri var. fendleri
Gaura parviflora
Greggia camporum var. camporum
Happlopappus spinulosus var. spinulosus
Happlopappus spinulosus var. scabrellus
Lactuca serriola var. serriola
Lesquerella gordonii var. gordonii
Lotus (X)_nummularius
Monroa squarrosa
Nama hispidum var. hispidum
Neolloydia intertexta var. intertexta
Opuntia violacea var. violacea
Orobanche multiflora var. multiflora
Panicum capillare var. capillare
Pericome caudata var. caudata
Phoradendron flavescens
Psilostrophe sparsiflora
Sphaeralcea coccinea subsp. coccinea
Sphaeralcea subhastata
Tidestromia lanuginosa var. lanuginosa
Verbena ciliata var. ciliata
Woodsia mexicana
18 September 1996; JBRUNT

Changed UMBELLIFERAE to APIACEAE; 16 August 1996 JBRUNT

Added Kartesz entries for our Sevilleta species:
Achillea lanulosa subsp. lanulosa
Arenaria saxosa var. saxosa
Aristida fendleriana
Aristida longiseta var. longiseta
Asclepias asperula subsp. asperula
ASter hesperius var. hesperius
Baileya multiradiata var. multiradiata
Brickellia grandiflora var. grandiflora
Cassia bauhinioides var. bauhinioides
Chenopodium desiccatum var. desiccatum
Coryphantha vivipara var. vivipara
Cryptantha jamesii var. jamesii
7 August 1996 JBRUNT

From gshore Sat May 18 17:32:29 1996
Date: Sat, 18 May 1996 17:32:28 -0600
From: gshore (Greg Shore)
To: jbrunt
Subject: plantlist
Cc: gshore
Status: RO

Some things that still need to be resolved are:

1. There are 17 records that don't have Kartesz information because
they didn't show up in Kartesz list. These records are indicated
by "???" values in the Kartesz fields.

2. There are 36 records that don't have Kartesz information because
Susan couldn't find entries for them in the Kartesz database
(she said most of these have variety names same as species name).
These records are indicated by "?" values in the Kartesz fields.

3. The variety field of mome needs looked at. Susan had this record
listed as Monarda fistulosa subsp._fistulosa_var._menthifolia

Cheerz,
Greg


*Added Collection and Native fields to the data base, also
*lined the columns up with their headers. 27 Feb 1992 T.M.
*3 Mar 1992 Changed Castilleja linaraefolia to Castilleja linearifolia. T.M.
*Changes made on 27 Jul 1992 by Troy Maddux.
The following abbreviation code changes were made
OLD CODE SPECIES NEW CODE
crhe Draba helleriana drhe
cyse Cyperus esculentus cyes
gode Hoffmanseggia densiflora hode
ocdi Oxybaphus diffusus oxdi
peed Pinus edulis pied
ipah Ipomopsis aggregata ipag
cere Centaurea repens cere2
* 19 Oct 1992 - Data for "Native" field added from a separate file. by Troy Maddux.
* 26 Oct 1992 - Explained the archive header labels in the documentation section - Troy Maddux.
* 28 Oct 1992 - Removed "s" or sevilleta collection from Lotus X nummularis - Troy Maddux.

********************LINES TAKEN OUT OF THIS FILE*********************
Took The following lines out of the data base 28 Feb 1992:
ACERACEAE C3 p T acne Acer negundo var._interius Box_elder X X
ACERACEAE na p ST acgl Acer glabrum var._neomexicanum New_Mexico_Maple X X
PINACEAE na p T pifl Pinus flexilis na Limber_pine X X
PINACEAE na p T pipo Pinus ponderosa na Ponderosa_pine X X
PINACEAE na p T psme Pseudotsuga menziesii na Douglas_Fir X X
CANNABINACEAE na p ss casa2 Cannabis sativa na Marijuana X X
FAGACEAE C3 p ST quga Quercus gambellii na Gambel_oak X X
FAGACEAE na p S quun Quercus undulata na Wavyleaf_oak X X
ROSACEAE na p S phmo Physocarpus monogynus na Nine_bark X X
Took The following lines out of the data base 3 Mar 1992:
CUPRESSACEAE C3 p T jude Juniperus deppeana na Alligator-bark_juniper X X
SALICACEAE na p T potr2 Populus tremuloides var._aurea na X X

********************LINES ADDED TO THIS FILE*************************
Added the following lines to the data base on 28 Feb 1992:
HYDROPHYLLACEAE na p su naca Nama carnosum na na X X
Added The following lines to the data base 3 Mar 1992:
EUPHORBIACEAE na a H acne Acalypha neomexicana na na s X
APOCYNACEAE na p H amfu Amsonia fugatei na Bluestar s X
ASTERACEAE na p Hss arfr Artemisia frigida na Estafiata m X
FABACEAE na p H asal Astragalus albulus na Cibola milk-vetch s X
NYCTAGINACEAE na a H bopu Boerhaavia purpurescens na Spiderling X X
FABACEAE na p H dawr Dalea wrightii na na s X
ASTERACEAE na b H grsq Grindelia squarrosa na Curlycup_gumweed s X
ASTERACEAE na bp- H maca Machaeranthera canescens na na s X
LOASACEAE C3 p H mehu Mentzelia humilis na Stick-leaf s X
POACEAE na p G paha Panicum hallii na na s X
ASTERACEAE na p H paly Parthenium lyratum na na s X
PORTULACACEAE C4 a su popa Portulaca parvula na na X X
ASTERACEAE na a H safl Sartwellia flaveriae na na s X
ASTERACEAE na b H toex2 Townsendia eximia na na m X
Added this line 28 Oct 1992 - Troy Maddux.
POACEAE na a G mufr Muhlenbergia fragilis na ms y
*24 Mar 1993 - Changed the header label "abbreviation" to the
label "species_code" to be more consistent with other data bases. The
species codes stne and stne2 were reversed. - Troy Maddux.
* 21 Jul 1993 - Code for Opuntia violacea was oppo was changed
to the correct opvi.
* 29 Mar 1994 - Added some common names to the data base. Troy
Maddux.
* 5 Aug 1994 - Changed "Opuntia erinaceae" to Opuntia erinacea by
Troy Maddux.
* 20 Sep 1994 - /// Added the following lines to this file. /// T.M.
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
POLEMONIACEAE na a H gime Gilia mexicana na Mexican_gilia s y
POACEAE na a G brte Bromus tectorum na Downy_chess s n
VIOLACEAE na p H hyve Hybanthus verticillatus na Green_violet s y
POLYGALACEAE na p H poob Polygala obscura na Milkwort s y
ASCLEPIADACEAE na p H asin Asclepias involucrata na Dwarf_milkweed s y
EUPHORBIACEAE na p H eula Euphorbia lata na na X y
AIZOACEAE na a su trpo Trianthema portulacastrum na Horse_purslane X y
NYCTAGINACEAE na p H oxgl Oxybaphus glaber na Desert_four-o'clock X y
Also changed: "trpo" - Tragopogon porrifolius to "trpo2"
and put the common name "Desert-four_o'clock" on the Oxybaphus species.
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
* 23 Sep 1994 - /// Added the following lines to this file. /// T.M.
POACEAE na a G trbe Tragus berteronianus na Bur_grass s y
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
* 28 Sep 1995 - /// Added the following lines to this file. /// S.G.
GERANIACEAE na a H erte Erodium texanum na Alfilaria
LILIACEAE na p H alma Allium macropetalum na Wild_onion
SCROPHULARIACEAE na p V mawi Maurandya wislizeni na False_snapdragon
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

* 30 July 1996 - /// Converted database to Kartesz names. Sevilleta
conserved names will remain in the database until all historical data
have been converted. Remaining entries to this log will be made from the
top down

1/22/98 - Added Photosynthetic pathway information for the following species:
-Equisetum laevigatum
-Bromus anomalus
-Bromus lanatipes
-Bromus tectorum
-Poa bigelovii
-Poa fendleriana
-Poa longiligula
-Poa reflexa
-Poa arida
-Agrostis semiverticillata
-Elymus canadensis
K. Taugher
1/29/98 - Added Photosynthetic pathway information for the following species:
-Carex filifolia
-Carex praegracilis
-Carex siccata
-Eleocharis macrostachya
-Juncus balticus
-Juncus bufonius
-Juncus interior
-Juncus mexicanus
-Juncus tenuis
-Juncus torreyi
-Rubus parviflorus
-Rubus strigosus
-Parthenocissus inserta
-Prunus serotina
-Prunus virginiana
-Quercus pungens
-Quercus turbinella
-Salix exigua
-Salix gooddingii
-Salix irrorata
-Fraxinus Pennsylvanica
-Pinus edulis
-Rhus trilobata
-Rhus trilobata var._pilosissima
-Trifolium repens
-Trifolium fendleri
-Medicago lupulina
-Achillea lanulosa
-Arabis fendleri
-Artemisia campestris
-Artemisia ludoviciana
-Artemisia ludoviciana subsp. ludoviciana
-Chrysopsis villosa
-Delphinium virescens
-Lepidium densiflorum
-Phlox mesoleuca
-Phlox nana
-Physalis virginiana
-Silene antirrhina
-Tragopogon dubius
-Verbascum thapsus
-Aster commutatus
-Aster hesperius
-Aster pauciflorus
-Aster spinosus
-Helianthus annuus
-Melilotus albus
-Solidago altissima
-Solidago wrightii
-Solidago sparsiflora
-Solidago missouriensis
-Asclepias asperula
-Asclepias engelmanniana
-Asclepias involucrata
-Asclepias latifolia
-Asclepias speciosa
-Asclepias subverticillata
-Solanum heterodoxum
-Solanum jamesii
-Solanum rostratum
-Cirsium megacephalum
-Cirsium neomexicanum
-Cirsium ochrocentrum
-Cirsium pulchellum
-Cirsium wheeleri
-Potentilla pensylvanica
-Erigeron bellidiastrum
-Erigeron divergens
-Erigeron flagellaris
-Erigeron nudiflorus
-Erigeron speciosus
-Erigeron subtrinervis
-Lithospermum cobrense
-Lithospermum incisum
-Lithospermim multiflorum
-Polygonum lapathifolium
-Oenothera caespitosa
-Oenothera coronopifolia
-Oenothera hookeri
-Oenothera pallida subsp. trichocalyx
-Oenothera pallida subsp. runcinata
-Plantago patagonica
-Oxalis alpina
-Oxalis violacea
-Gnaphalium chilense
-Physalis hederifolia
-Galium aparine
-Galium mexicanum
-Galium fendleri
-Antennaria marginata
-Petalostemum (Dalea) purpurea
-Petalostemum (Dalea) candida
-Senecio douglasii/flaccidus
-Senecio eurypterus
-Senecio multicapitatus
-Senecio multilobatus
-Senecio neomexicanus
-Senecio wootonii
-Apocynum medium
-Pedicularis centranthera
-Bidens frondosa
-Bidens heterosperma
-Epilobium ciliatum
-Epilobium saximontandum
-Lycopus americanus
-Rumex altissimus
-Rumex hymenosepalus
-Rumex mexicanus/salicifolius
-Rumex triangulivalvis/salicifolius
-Fragaria bracteata
-Tradescantia wrightii
-Tradescantia pinetorum
-Lycopus lucidus/asper
-Silene laciniata
-Silene plankii
-Silene wrightii
-Chenopodium graveolens
-Chenopodium neomexicanum
-Chenopodium rubrum
-Lepidium latifolium
-Lepidium montanum var. alyssoides
-Lepidium montanum var. angustifolium
-Penstemon ambiguus var. ambiguus
-Penstemon ambiguus var. laevissimus
-Penstemon fendleri
-Penstemon jamesii
-Penstemon virgatus
-Penstemon whippleanus
-Sporobolus flexuosus
-Sporobolus giganteus
-Sporobolus nealleyi
-Setaria macrostachya
-Aristida arizonica
-Aristida barbata/havardii
-Aristida divaricata
-Aristida fendleriana
-Aristida wrightii/purpurea var. wrightii
K. Taugher

2/10/98 - Added photosynthetic pathway information for the following
species:
-Allium macropetalum
-Astragalus nuttallianus var. austrinus
-Astragalus nuttallianus var. ellisae
-Brickellia californica
-Chamaesaracha coronopus
-Chamaesaracha sordida
K. Taugher

1/6/2005 Karen Wetherill updates:

Since the meta data was last updated in 1998, the following changes were made to the plant list:

Duplicates for the following species were removed:
AMAL, ARLAS, ARPUL, ARPUL, ECTRT, ERFL, EUDE4, GLBIB, GLBIB, ISPL, MALE3, MAPIP, MAPIP, PHCO, PHVIV4, PSTAT, PSTAT, STPA4

The following species were added:
CHGL13-Chamaisyce glyptosperma
DEWO-Delphinium wootonii
ERCI-Eragrostis cilianensis
FEAR2-Festuca arizonica
FEOV2-Festuca ovina
GUWR-Gutierrezia wrightii
OPEN3-Opuntia engelmannii
OPMA8-Opuntia macrocentra
SEDI3-Selinocarpus diffuses

Name changes were made as follows according to the USDA website.
http://plants.usda.gov/index.html:

ERPU8 is now DAPU7
HIJA is now PLJA
SAKA is now SATR12 (not a name change, but a previous misidentification)
SYCYH2 is now FUCYH
STNE2 is now HENE5
MIOB was removed, it is synonymous with MIAL4
MIDI5 was removed, it is synonymous with MILI3
OECEC2 is now OECAC2 (misspelling)
GAPA6 is now GAMO5
ARTEH is now ARTEG
ASFAC is now SYFAC
ASLAH2 is now SYLAH6
ASPA8 is now ALPA14
ASSUL is now SYDI2
BOBAB is now BOBA3
CECA6 is now CELO3
COHY is now COAMR
DAFE is now DAQU
ERAS2 is now ERCAC
EULU is now EUBR
FEOV2 is now FETR3
LEMU10 is now LEPAM
NITR is now NIOBO
ORMI2 is now PIMI7
SCAC is now SCACA
SCAM2 is now SCAM6
SCMA is now SCMA8
STCOC2 is now HECOC8
STRO3 is now ACRO7
BRFE is now BRFE2

2/22/2010 John Mulhouse updates:

Since the meta data was last updated in 2005, the following changes were made to the plant list.

Changes were made as follows according to the USDA website.
http://plants.usda.gov/index.html:

ASFAC is now SYFAC
ASLAH2 is now SYLAH6
ASPA8 is now ALPA14
ASSUL is now SYD12
ASWO2 is now ASALP
BOBAB is now BOBA3
BRFE is now BRFE2
CADR6 is now HODR
CAJA6 is now POJA5
CHNA2 is now ERNAN5
COHY is now COPA37
DAFE is now DAQU
ECCRC is now ECCR
ECFEF2 is now ECFEF3
ENPI is now ENPE4
ERPU8 is now DAPU7
EULU is now EUBR
GAPA6 is now GAMO5
GIRIA is now GIAC4
GISU is now ALSU9
GLWR is now GLBIC
GNST is now PSST7
HEVIH is now HEVIM3
JUBAM is now JUARL
LALAA3 is now LALAL3
LEMOA3 is now LEALA4
LEMU10 is now LEPAM
MACA2 is now PSAS2
MOME3 is now MOFIM2
MESCS is now MESC
NITR is now NIOBO
OECEC2 is now OECAC2
OPCL is now GRCL
OPERH is now OPPOH
OPFRF is now OPFR
OPIM is now CYIMI
OPPHP is now OPPH
OPTUD is now CYDA4
ORHY is now ACHY
ORMI2 is now PIMI7
PEPA2 is now PACOL
PHGRG is now MIGRG4
PHOC2 is now PHMI4
PHVIV4 is now PHCO14
POOLO is now POOL
SCAC is now SCACA
SCAM2 is now SCAM6
SCIND is now ECIN2
SCINI is now ECIN2
SCMA is now SCMA8
SENEN is now PANEN
SENE4 is now PANEN
SEMU2 is now SESPM
SEMU3 is now PAMU11
STCOC2 is now HECOC8
STLE4 is now ACLE9
STNE2 is now HENE5
STRO3 is now ACRO7
STTE2 is now STMIM
SPANC is now SPAN3
TRMA4 is now TRMA20
TAPA3 is now PHPA29
THRHM is now THMOM3

antelopehorns is now spider milkweed
conyza is now Coulter's horseweed
foothill_sagewort is now white_sagebrush
fringed_sagewort is now prairie_sagewort
galleta is now James' galleta
Great_Plains_falsewillow is now willow_baccharis
gypsum_moonpod is now lanceleaf_moonpod
gypsum_scorpionweed is now gypsum_phacelia
hairy_coldenia is now hairy_crinklemat
hairy_willowherb is now fringed_willowherb
iron_skyrocket is now iron_ipomopsis
James'_catseye is now James'_cryptantha
manyflowered_gilia is now manyflowered_ipomopsis
manyflowered_gromwell is now manyflowered_stoneseed
mesa_greggia is now bicolor_fanmustard
Mexican_campion is now cardinal_catchfly
Mexican_squawroot is now Mexican_cancer-root
na is now bristlecup_sandmat
na is now Gordon's_bladderpod
narrowleaf_gromwell is now narrowleaf_stoneseed
Oregongrape is now creeping_barberry
pineland_marshtail is now pineland_horseweed
skyblue_scorpionweed is now skyblue_phacelia
slimflower_muhly is now slender_muhly
smooththroat_gromwell is now smooththroat_stoneseed
tall_townsendia is now tall_Townsend_daisy
thicksepal_catseye is now thicksepal_cryptantha
threadleaf_groundsel is now threadleaf_ragwort
threeawn is now spidergrass

LORANTHACEAE is now VISCACEAE.
POLYPODIACEAE is now PTERIDACEAE.

Cleome serrulata is now in CAPPARACEAE not CAPPARIDACEAE.
Cuscuta pentagona var._pentagona is now in CUSCUTACEAE not CONVOLVULACEAE.
Cystopteris fragilis is now in DRYOPTERIDACEAE not POLYPODIACEAE.
Pellaea fendleri is now in POLYPODIACEAE not PTERIDACEAE.

Carex spp. are now "G" not "H".
Cyperus spp. are now "G" not "H".
Juncus spp. are now "G" not "H".

Dalea brachystachya is now "ab" not "a".
Descurainia incana subsp._incisa is now "b" not "a".
Eragrostis pectinacea is now "ap" not "a".
Erigeron bellidiastrum var._bellidiastrum is now "a" not "ab".
Erigeron divergens is now "b" not "bp-".
Eriogonum abertianum is now "a" not "ab".
Eriogonum annuum is now "ab" not "a".
Euphorbia spathulata is now "ap" not "ab".
Ipomoea coccinea is now "a" not "p".
Flaveria campestris is now "a" not "p".
Gaura suffulta subsp._nealleyi is now "a" not "b".
Tragopogon dubius is now "ab" not "p".
Verbena bracteata is now "ap-b" not "ap-".
Glandularia bipinnatifida var._bipinnatifida is now "ap" not "?".
Verbena neomexicana var._hirtella is now "p" not "?".
Schkuhria multiflora is now "a" not "p".
Bahia pedata is now "a" not "p".
Bidens tenuisecta is now "a" not "ap".
Boerhavia erecta is now "ap" not "a".
Chenopodium album is now "a" not "p".
Centaurium calycosum is now "ab" not "a".
Hedeoma oblongifolia is now "p" not "?".
Machaeranthera canescens subsp._canescens is now "abp" not "bp".
Malva neglecta is now "abp" not "ab".
Mentzelia laciniata is now "p" not "bp".
Mimulus guttatus is now "ap" not "p".
Pectis papposa is now "a" not "p".
Plantago lanceolata is now "abp" not "p".
Plantago major is now "p" not "ab".
Polygonum aviculare is now "ap" not "a".
Thelypodium wrightii is now "bp" not "b".
Sartwellia flaveriae is now "p" not "a".
Scorzonera laciniata is now "p" not "a".
Silene antirrhina is now "a" not "ab".
Sonchus oleraceus is now "a" not "p".
Castilleja minor is now "ap" not "a".
Juncus bufonius is now "a" not "p".

Carlowrightia linearifolia is now ss/H not S.
Castilleja integra is now ss/H/rp not Hrp.
Castilleja linariifolia is now ss/H/rp not Hrp.
Chrysothamnus pulchellus is now S/ss.
Coryphantha vivipara var._arizonica is now S/su not su.
Coryphantha vivipara var._radiosa is now S/su not su.
Coryphantha vivipara var._vivipara is now S/su not su.
Monardella odoratissima is now ss/H not H.
Nama carnosum is now ss/H.
Opuntia macrorhiza var._macrorhiza is now S/su not su.
Phragmites australis is now S/ss/G not G.
Portulaca oleracea is now H/su not su.
Portulaca halimoides is now H/su not su.
Sphaeralcea grossulariifolia subsp._pedata is now ss/H not ?.
Sphaeralcea incana ss/H not ss.
Sphaeralcea leptophylla is now ss/H not ?.
Sphaeralcea parvifolia is now ss/H not ?.
Sphaeralcea procera is now ss/H not ?.

Hackelia pinetorum is now "bp" not "p" and H not ss.
Orobanche ludoviciana subsp._multiflora is now "a" not "p" and Hrp not rp.
Portulaca pilosa is now "ap" not "a" and H/su not su.
Sphaeralcea coccinea subsp._coccinea is now "bp" not "p" and ss/H not H.
Sphaeralcea coccinea subsp._elata is now "bp" not "p" and ss/H not H.

Chamaesyce missurica var._intermedia is now Chamaesyce missurica na.
Fendlera rupicola var._falcata is now Fendlera rupicola na.
Petrophytum caespitosum is now Petrophyton caespitosum (misspelling) and ss not S.
Senna bauhinoides is now Senna bauhinioides (misspelling).

Burn Study Sites Quadrat Data for the Net Primary Production Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2004-present)

Abstract: 

In 2003, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a prescribed burn over a large part of the northeastern corner of the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge. Following this burn, a study was designed to look at the effect of fire on above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) (i.e., the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and foliage, over time) within three different vegetation types: mixed grass (MG), mixed shrub (MS) and black grama (G). Forty permanent 1m x 1m plots were installed in both burned and unburned (i.e., control) sections of each habitat type. The core black grama site included in SEV129 is used as a G control site for analyses and does not appear in this dataset. The MG control site caught fire unexpectedly in the fall of 2009 and some plots were subsequently moved to the south. For details of how the fire affected plot placement, see Methods below. In spring 2010, sampling of plots 16-25 was discontinued at the MG (burned and control) and G (burned treatment only) sites, reducing the number of sampled plots to 30 at each.

To measure ANPP (i.e., the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and foliage, over time), the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, are sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at each plot. The data from these plots is used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV157, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." This biomass data is included in SEV185, "Burn Study Sites Seasonal Biomass and Seasonal and Annual NPP Data."

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

156

Additional Project roles: 

438
439
440
441

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev156_nppburnquadrat_20161214.csv

Methods: 

Collecting the Data:

Net primary production data is collected three times each year, winter, spring, and fall, for all burn sites. Spring measurements are taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals have reached peak biomass. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals have reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. Winter measurements are taken in February before the onset of spring growth and only creosote is measured.

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit. It is possible to obtain a total percent cover greater than 100% for a given quadrat because vegetative units for different species often overlap.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that can help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-The cover of forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs is measured as the horizontal area of the plant. If the species is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement if it increases cover. If the species is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest centimeter instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria vivipara, Schlerocactus intertextus, Echinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrub and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground.

Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat.

Creosote Measurements till 2013:

To measure creosote (i.e., Larrea tridenta) break the observations into two categories:

1.) Small, individual clusters of foliage on a branch (i.e., branch systems): Measure the horizontal cover of each live (i.e., green) foliage cluster, ignoring small open spaces (keeping in mind the 15% guideline stated above). Then measure the vertical "height" of each cluster from the top of the foliage to a plane created by extending a line horizontally from the bottom of the foliage. Each individual foliage cluster within a bush is considered a separate observation.

2.) Stems: Measure the length of each stem from the base to the beginning of live (i.e., green) foliage. Calculate the cumulative total of all stem measurements. This value is entered under "height" with the species as "stem" for each quadrat containing creosote. All other variable receive a default entry of "1" for creosote stem measurements.

Do not measure dead stems or areas of dead foliage. If in doubt about whether a stem is alive, scrape the stem with your fingernail and check for the presence of green cambium.

Creosote Measurements 2013 and after:

Each creosote is only measured as one total cover. Each quad that contains creosote will have one cover observation for each creosote canopy in quad.

Recording the Data:

Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). Finally, the site abbreviation should be added (i.e., mg, ms, or g). The final format should be as follows: npp_burn.mm.dd.yy.abc.xls. File names should be in lowercase.

August 2009 Burn:

On August 4, 2009, a lightning-initiated fire began on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge.  The fire reached the Mixed-Grass Unburned plots on August 5, 2009, consuming them in their entirety.  As a result, in the spring of 2010, the Mixed-Grass (MG) unburned plots were moved to a different area within Deep Well, southwest of the Warming site. 

Also, on August 4, 2009, some of the webs and quadrats within the unburned Black Grama (G) site were impacted by the fire.  Thus, webs 2 and 3 were abandoned and extra plots added to areas within webs 1, 4, and 5 that were not burned.  Changes were as follows:

Webs 1, 4, and 5: A plot was added to the northeast to compensate for the loss of all plots at webs 2 and 3.

Web 4: A plot was added to the northwest to compensate for the northern plot, which was burned.

Maintenance: 

01/13/2011-Burn NPP quad data was QA/QC'd and put in Navicat. Matadata updated and compiled from 2004-2010. The mixed-grass unburned plot was moved to the south after the original plot burned unexpectedly in the fire of August 2009. (JMM) 11/28/2009-Burn NPP quad data was QA/QC'd and put in Navicat. Metadata updated and complied from 2004-2009. Mixed-grass unburned data (Fall 2009) was not collected due to unexpected fire at Sevilleta LTER in Aug 2009. (YX) 01/14/09-Metadata updated and compiled from 2004-2008 data. As of 2007, winter measurements are longer being taken. (YX) 12/20/2008-This data was QAQC'd in MySQL. I checked for duplicates and missing quads. (YX)

Additional information: 

Other researchers involved with collecting samples/data: Chandra Tucker (CAT; 04/2014-present), Megan McClung (MAM; 04/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 09/2010-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2010-04/2013), Amaris Swann (ALS; 08/2008-01/2013), Maya Kapoor (MLK; 08/2003-01/2005, 05/2010-03/2011), Terri Koontz (TLK; 02/2000-08/2003, 08/2006-08/2010), Yang Xia (YX; 01/2005-03/2010), Karen Wetherill (KRW; 02/2000-08/2009); Michell Thomey (MLT; 09/2005-08/2008); Seth Munson (SMM; 09/2002-06/2004), Jay McLeod (JRM; 01/2006-08/2006); Caleb Hickman (CRH; 09/2002-11/2004), Charity Hall (CLH; 01/2005-01/2006); Tessa Edelen (MTE, 08/2004-08/2005).Data updated 08/18/15: MOSQ changed to MUSQ3; ARPUP6 changed to ARPU9; SPWR changed to SPPO6; a single entry BOER changed to BOER4.

Discontinued Vegetation Line-Intercept Transects in Transition Zones at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1989-1998)

Abstract: 

The line-intercept transects included in this data set have been discontinued. These transects were installed to evaluate temporal and spatial dynamics in vegetation transition zones (e.g.black grama grassland/creosote shrubland) at one centimeter resolution. Each study site originally contained four 400 m transects, representing total coverage of 1 sq km. The transects were placed along a roughly north/south azimuth. The northwestern and southwestern transects were 100 meters from the western edge of the 1 sq km study area and the northeastern and southeastern transects were 100 m from the eastern edge, providing 800 meters between the eastern and western transects. The northeastern and northwestern transects began to the north and, after an interval of 200 meters, the southeastern and northeastern transects began, terminating at the southern edge of the study area.

Ongoing line-intercept transect data for transect 1, which continues to be sampled at both Deep Well and Five Points, can be found in SEV004.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

200

Additional Project roles: 

191

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev200_disconlineint_20160303.csv

Methods: 

Measuring the Transects: A 100 m tape was attached to permanent pieces of rebar at each of the four segments of a 400 m transect. The tape was stretched as tightly as possible to get the straightest line. Windy days were avoided as this became impossible.

Crew members worked independently, each sampling a 100 m segment simultaneously. Microcassette recorders and standard microcassettes were used to record data. At each 100m segment, the following sequence was followed:

Each species or substrate encountered along a transect was recorded at the centimeter level. The distance at which a species or substrate first crossed the tape was recorded.  Starting points only were recorded as the ending point of a species or substrate was the starting point of the next. It was also noted whether vegetation was fully alive, fully dead or a mix of both.

Maintenance: 

Changes to the data: This dataset (SEV200) includes all discontinued line-intercept transect data files. In particular, data is included from Bronco Well, Valle de la Jornada, Rio Salado and Sepultura Canyon, as well as transects 2-4 from Deep Well and Five Points.  Transect 1, season 2 data from Deep Well and Five Points in 1994 is also included (1994 was the only year that three seasons od data were collected). Otherwise, SEV004 contains transect 1 data from Deep Well and Five Points.

The data in this file has not been rigorously QA/QCed. Old metadata and individual year data can be found in: /export/db/local/htdocs/data/archive/plant/transect/data_oldformat. This data will not be available online. See the Sevilleta data manager for data and metadata in this old format.

Additional information: 

Principle investigator:
1989-1998: Milne, Bruce; Gosz, Jim

Data Manager:
1989-1992: Taugher, Kimberly
1993: Maddux, Troy; Taugher, Kimberly
1994: Maddux, Troy; Taugher, Kimberly; Chavez, Melissa
1995: Geer, Susan; Taugher, Kimberly
1996-1998: Taugher, Kimberly

Field Crew
1989: Banar, Alethea; Keller, David; Loftin, Sam; Maddux, Troy; Wolterstorff, Susan
1990: Franklin, Jennifer; Loftin, Sam; Maddux, Troy; Murillo, Michelle; Shortess, Amy;
Viers, Joran
1991: Maddux, Troy; Loftin, Sam; Viers, Joran; McGee, Kathleen; Prichard, Susan
1992: Maddux, Troy; Chavez, Melissa; Valdez, Monica; Bradley, Mike; Knight, Julie;
Collier, Anthony; Persaud, Amanda; Ortiz, Ivan
1993: Oriz, Ivan; Swanick, Raine; Taylor, Rob; Wagner, Natalie
1994: Chavez, Melissa; Bocock, Jonathan; Altenbach, Marilyn; Yanoff, Steven; East,
Micheal; Muckenhoupt, Jim; Budkovich, Pamela; Grant, Tom
1995: Geer, Susan; Smith, Richard; Carpenter, Claire; Parker, Kelli; Giese, Kristy;
Belden, Lisa; Weiss, Linda
1996: Taugher, Kimberly; Belden, Lisa; Payne, Jennifer; Monteith, Nancy; Newingham,
Beth Oldehoeft, Kim; Sexton, Jason
1997: Taugher, Kimberly; Campbell, Mariel; Conn, Rachel; Kuehner, John; Helm, Amy;
Kendall, John
1998: Kuehner, John; Frasier, Jason; Korbe, Nicole; Kroll, AJ; Hayes, Betty; Hersch, Erika

More information about when the data were collected:

Spring 1989 Summer 1989
dw 5/17/89-6/4/89 8/4/89-8/7/89
fp 6/5/89-6/12/89 8/8/89-8/9/89
sp 5/22/89-5/30/89 8/1/89-8/3/89
vj 6/13/89-6/20/89 8/10/89-8/11/89

Spring 1990 Summer 1990
All 5/23/90-6/14/90 All 8/6/90-9/5/90

Spring 1991 Summer 1991
All 5/22/91-7/12/91 All 7/22/91-8/15/91

Spring 1992 Summer 1992
All 6/3/92-6/18/92 7/28/92-8/6/92

Spring 1993 Summer 1993
dw 5/27/93-5/31/93 7/14/93-7/20/93
fp 6/4/93-6/10/93 7/22/93-7/27/93
vj 6/14/93-6/17/93 8/3/93-8/4/93
rs 6/17/93-7/9/93 8/4/93-8/10/93
bw 6/21/93-7/21/93 8/12/93-8/17/93
sp 7/6/93-7/8/93 not measured

Spring 1994 Summer1994 Fall 1994
dw 6/6/94 7/26/94 9/27/94-9/28/94
fp 6/8/94-6/9/94 8/2/94 9/29/94-10/3/94
vj 6/20/94 8/1/94-8/2/94 10/5/94
rs 5/31/94-6/3/94 7/25/94 10/6/94
bw 6/15/94-6/16/94 8/4/94 10/10/94-10/11/94
sp 6/23/94-6/27/94 8/9/94 10/13/94

Spring 1995 Fall 1995
dw 5/25/95 10/2/95
fp 5/30/95 9/26/95
vj 6/5/95 9/27/95
rs 5/23/95 9/25/95
bw 5/31/95 10/3/95
sp 6/6/95 10/4/95

Spring 1996 Fall 1996
dw 5/23/96 9/17/96
fp 5/27/96 9/19/96
vj 6/5/96 10/8/96
rs 5/29/96 9/25/96
bw 6/13/96 10/2/96
sp 6/3/96 9/30/96

Spring 1997 Fall 1997
dw 6/10/97 10/2/97
fp 6/11/97 10/8/97
vj 6/5/97 10/14/97
rs 6/12/97 10/16/97
bw 6/4/97 10/15/97
sp 7/15/97 10/22/97

Spring 1998 Fall 1998
dw 6/8/98 9/15/98
fp 6/1/98 9/17/98
vj 6/15/98 9/16/98
rs 7/8/98 9/29/98
bw 6/11/98 10/6/98
sp 6/30/98 10/8/98

Plant Removal Study: Recovery of Vegetation Following Disturbance at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1995-present)

Abstract: 

In 1995, a removal study was initiated at the Sevilleta LTER to examine the response of vegetation following the removal of dominant species. Five sites were selected that were dominated by either blue grama (site 1), blue and black grama (site 2), black grama (site 3), black grama and creosote (site 4), or creosote (site 5). A sixth site was later added in the blue grama community along the foothills of the Los Pinos Mountains (site 6). At sites 1, 3, 5, and 6, five 3m x 4m plots had all plants of the dominant species removed; five 3m x 4m plots were controls. At site 2, 5 plots had blue grama removed, 5 plots had black grama removed, and 5 plots were controls. At site 4, 5 plots had black grama removed, 5 plots had creosote removed, and 5 plots were controls. Initial cover prior to removal was estimated by species for each plot. Grass was removed using a shovel to collect above-ground biomass and crowns just below the soil surface. Shrubs were removed using large clippers to collect above-ground biomass to the soil surface. All biomass removed was bagged, dried, and weighed. Plot maintenance or removal of the target dominant species is performed annually or as needed. Rain gauges were installed at each site and the corners of the areas containing each set of plots GPS'd. Plot corners are marked by nails and are flagged periodically to aid identification and minimize foot traffic in the plots. Each northeast nail has a metal tag with site and plot number on it. Erosion bridges (1 m long) were installed in plots 1, 3 and 5 (removals and controls) at sites 1-5. Initial measurements were made in 1996.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

168

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Collecting the Data:

Each fall, during peak biomass (late Aug.-early Oct.), species richness and cover are visually observed in each plot. Data are entered onto a palmtop using the pre-formatted spreadsheet for ease of entry and transfer to a PC. The procedure is as follows:

1. Locate the metal tag on the northeastern nail and enter the site and plot code into the palmtop.

2. Depending on the treatment, certain species may need to be removed in and around the plot. The removal codes are as follows: RU-Remove BOGR2, RA-Remove BOER4, and RC-Remove LATR2. Do not remove plants from the control (C) and total removal (TR) plots.

3. Thoroughly search each plot and record every species present. This is ideally done by 1-2 people, but a single observer is sufficient.

4. The percent canopy cover of each species in the plot is estimated visually using the following numerical ranges:

T = < 0.1%

0.1-0.9% by intervals of 0.1%

1-5% by intervals of 0.5%

5-20% by intervals of 1.0%

20-100% by intervals of 5.0%

Cover is estimated for all species as well as litter. Bare ground is calculated by subtracting the total cover of all species from 100%. Cover of less than 0.1% is recorded in the data as "T" (i.e., trace).

It is advisable to re-flag plot corners and perform plot maintenance prior to assessing cover. To maintain the plots, clip any species to be removed from the edges and middle of the plot. Do not re-clip anything from the total removal plots.

Laboratory procedures:

Biomass removed from plots is dried, sorted by live and dead material, and weighed.

Data description:

In some years, dates of data collection were lost. -999 has been entered for "Date" in such instances.

Also, in 1996, data was collected in both the summer and fall. Therefore, the 1996 data represents the maximum cover of a species observed that year, regardless of sampling period.

Data sources: 

sev168_removal_20160324.txt

Maintenance: 

Data QA/QC'd and uploaded. Metadata completed for 2010. 11/10/10 (JMM) Data QA/QC'd and uploaded. Metadata updated and completed for years 1996-2009. 3/15/10 (JMM) Metadata completed for years 1996-2008.  3/6/09 (TLK)

Additional information: 

Other researchers involved with collecting samples/data: Chandra Tucker (CAT; 04/2014-present), Megan McClung (MAM; 01/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 10/2010-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2010-06/2013), Amaris Swann (ALS; 08/2008-01/2013), Maya Kapoor (MLK; 08/2003-01/2005, 05/2010-03/2011), Terri Koontz (TLK; 02/2000-08/2003, 08/2006-08/2010), Yang Xia (YX; 01/2005-03/2010), Karen Wetherill (KRW; 02/2000-08/2009); Michell Thomey (MLT; 09/2005-08/2008), Heather Simpson (HLS; 08/2000-08/2002),Chris Roberts (CR; 09/2001-08/2002), Shana Penington (SBP; 01/2000-08/2000), Seth Munson (SMM; 09/2002-06/2004), Jay McLeod (JRM; 01/2006-08/2006); Caleb Hickman (CRH; 09/2002-11/2004), Charity Hall (CLH; 01/2005-01/2006), Mike Friggens (MTF; 1999-09/2001), Tessa Edelen (MTE, 08/2004-08/2005).

Due to government shutdown in Fall of 2013, this data was not able to be collected. 

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - herbs