leaves

Comparative Hydraulic Performance of Piñon and Juniper in a Rainfall Manipulation Experiment at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico

Abstract: 

From 2000-2003, extreme drought  across the Southwestern US resulted in widespread tree mortality: piñon pine (Pinus edulis) experienced up to 95% mortality while juniper (Juniperus monosperma) mortality was 25% or less at surveyed sites.  Field data have shown repeatedly that piñon typically exhibits isohydric regulation of leaf water potential, maintaining relatively constant leaf water potentials even as soil water potentials fluctuate, while juniper is anisohydric, allowing leaf water potential to decline during drought.  The goal of this study was to elucidate functional consequences of these two contrasting hydraulic strategies.  The study was conducted in the context of a rainfall manipulation experiment in piñon-juniper woodland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge and LTER in central New Mexico, USA, sampling trees in irrigation (~150% ambient rainfall), drought (50% ambient), cover control (ambient rainfall with similar drought infrastructure) and ambient control plots.  To quantify tissue and shoot level hydraulic performances we measured sapwood area-specific (KS, kg•m-1•s-1•MPa-1) and leaf area-specific (KL, g•m-1•s-1•MPa-1) hydraulic conductivity in similar sized distal branches, and we calculated AS:AL (sapwood area to leaf area ratio) to compare shoot level allocation.

Samples collected at predawn and midday both exhibited significant trends between species and across treatments.  Between species, juniper possessed significantly higher KS compared to piñon in all plots except irrigation, and higher KL than piñon in all plots.  Across treatments, irrigated juniper exhibited higher KS and KL relative to ambient and droughted plants, while irrigated piñon exhibited higher KS relative to ambient, drought and cover control plants, and irrigated and ambient piñon had higher KL than droughted and cover control plants.  Junipers did not modify AS:AL across treatments, while irrigated piñon had significantly lower AS:AL compared to all other plots.  Thus, under current climatic conditions in the Sevilleta, piñon and juniper achieve similar shoot hydraulic performances, but through different strategies: juniper maximizes xylem conductivity, while piñon maximizes xylem supply to leaves.  If climate change in the Southwest results in increased aridity, piñon could be vulnerable to extirpation from its current distribution in lower elevation PJ woodlands, as juniper demonstrates superior hydraulic capability at both the tissue and shoot level under drought conditions.

 

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

255

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Shoot ΨW

One shoot from each target tree was harvested between 0430-0545h and between 1200-1400h, to get predawn and midday water potential (referred to hereafter as ΨPD and ΨMD, respectively). Samples were placed in plastic bags containing a small segment of moist paper towel to prevent further dessication, which were placed in coolers out of direct sunlight in the interim time between collection and processing (between 15-60 minutes). Water potential (ΨW) [u1]was measured using a pressure chamber (PMS, Corvallis, OR).

Stem Hydraulics

After ΨW was measured, shoots were placed in humid plastic bags and allowed to equilibrate for 24 hours in a refrigerator.  Shoots were then trimmed underwater to remove peripheral embolized tissue and inserted into a steady state flow meter to measure hydraulic conductivity, Kh, kg•m-1•s-1•MPa-1 (see Hudson et al. 2010 for a full explanation of method).  In brief, the steady state flowmeter operates on the Ohm’s Law analogy of hydraulic transport (Tyree 1997), and solves for Kh by knowing the pressure gradient and the flow rate of sap surrogate (20 mM KCl, Zwieniecki et al. 2001) through the flowmeter, and measuring the pressure drop across the sample stem segment.  Hydraulic conductivity was calculated as flow through the sample segment divided by the pressure gradient across the sample segment. Sapwood cross-sections and distal leaf areas were measured for each sample to normalize Kh at tissue level (KS, sapwood area specific hydraulic conductivity, kg•m-1•s-1•MPa-1) and shoot level (KL, leaf area specific hydraulic conductivity, g•m-1•s-1•MPa-1). AS:AL was calculated for each species by dividing each sample’s sapwood area by distal leaf area.


Instrumentation: 

Instrument Name: Pressure Chamber    

Manufacturer: PMS Instrument Company    

Model Number: 1505D    


Instrument Name:  Gage model pressure transducer (0-15 psig range)    

Manufacturer:  Omega Engineering, INC.

Model number: PX26-015GV

Piñon Pine (Pinus edulis) Responses of Annual Growth to Water Availability in a Pinyon-Juniper Forest at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico

Abstract: 

Increased incidence of large-scale forest die-off attributed to drought has been observed globally over the past decade, raising concern about the future stability of forests as carbon sinks.  To understand the mechanistic basis of semi-arid woodland responses to drought, we measured annual increment growth from branches of Pinus edulis in a rainfall manipulation experiment at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge and LTER site in central New Mexico, USA. We collected 4 branches from each of five trees growing in drought, irrigation, cover control, and ambient control plots at a site in the Los Pinos Mountains.  We measured annual branch elongation, stem diameter, sapwood area, and leaf area.  We compared these structural data to fluctuations in annual precipitation across treatments to understand how such variation in available water influence branch growth.  Rainfall manipulation produced clear differences among treatment groups, with drought trees exhibiting shorter stem lengths, decreased stem and sapwood diameters, and decreased leaf area production than control treatments.  Irrigated trees displayed increased stem length, stem diameter, sapwood diameter, and leaf area production relative to ambient controls.  The net effect of these responses is a likely shift in the allometric relationships, such as hydroactive xylem and absorbing root area.

Additional Project roles: 

18
19
20

Data set ID: 

248

Core Areas: 

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Branch sampling, four small branches were removed from each of five target trees per plot according to aspect (North, South, East, West). 

Experimental design:  Single block from complete block design.

Plots:  Four plots of varying treatments (Irrigation, Drought, Cover control, Ambient control) were used from preexisting study, each 40m X 40m.

Sampling:  Samples taken according to aspect (North, South, East, West) on all pinon target trees within one replicate block.

Measurements:  Stem length, two perpendicular midpoint diameter, and two perpendicular sapwood diameters were taken for each growth increment for each sample using digital callipers. Needles from each age cohort were scanned and leaf area was estimated using ImageJ software.

Allometric Ant Foraging Data from the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2003)

Abstract: 

The allometric ant foraging data was collected to test the allometric ant foraging model proposed by Jun et al. (2003). Key variables are the number of foragers in the colony, the time of an average foraging trip for the colony and the average distance a forager travels to collect a seed. Data on Pogonomyrmex rugosus and Pogonomyrmex maricopa were collected at the Sevilleta.

Data set ID: 

160

Core Areas: 

Keywords: 

Purpose: 

This study was designed to test the predictions of the Jun et al (Evolutionary Ecology Research, 2003) Allometric Ant Foraging Model which predicts longer foraging times in colonies with large population sizes. The primary prediction of the model is that the average time of a foraging trip (Tf) is proportional to the average distance a forager travels (dt), and both of these increase with forager population size (F) by Tf = F^1/3 and dt = F^1/3. Standard regression was then used to determine whether the predicted exponent of 1/3 was rejected when comparing empirical values of Tf , dt and F. The predictions are based on the assumptions that forager travel speed, the density of foragers searching in the landscape and the time spent actively searching (as opposed to travelling) are invariant across colony sizes. These variables were measured to test for statistical differences across colony sizes. Measurements made at the Sevilleta were part of a larger study. Similar data were collected in Portal, AZ, including data on another species, Pogonomyrmex barbatus.

Data sources: 

sev160_alloant_09212005.txt

Methods: 

Field Methods

For each colony in the study, I followed individual foraging ants as they left the nest. Ants initially exhibit 'travel' behavior in which they move relatively directly and quickly away from the nest. When they began the slower, meandering 'search' behavior, I noted the time, and marked the location with a flag. Searching continued until a seed was located, at which point I noted the time, marked the location with a flag, and then noted the time that the ant returned to the nest. Temperature, total distance travelled, travel time and search time were recorded. Data are reported from following 61 foragers in 6 colonies on 11 days. On approximately 6 days, foraging was almost non-existant due to extremely hot and dry conditions, and no data are reported from those days. As a result, the study was continued in July and August 2003 in Portal, AZ where climate conditions were slightly better for Pogonomyrmex. Data on colony size was estimated by multiplying the 'flux' of ants leaving the nest by the average search time of foragers. The flux rate was measured by counting the number of foragers leaving the nest in one minute, then the number returning in the next minute, repeated 3 times for a total of 6 minutes of observations, approximately once per hour during the foraging period.

Sampling Design

Plot size is 50 x50 m.

Additional information: 

Additional Study Area Information

Study Area Name: McKenzie Flats

Study Area Location: The northeast section of the Sevilleta, stretching from Black Butte south to the canyon and east to the Los Pinos. McKenzie Flats, between black Butte, 5 Points, Palo Duro Canyon, and the old McKenzie headquarters ranch building site.

Elevation: 1615 m

Vegetation: The terrain was generally mixed-species desert grassland, dominated by black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda), blue grama grass (B. gracilis), sand muhly (Muhlenbergia arenicola), various drop seeds and sacatons (Sporobolus spp.), purple three-awn (Aristida purpurea), and burrow grass (Scleropogon brevifolia). Shrubs were common in Five Points area; these were creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) and snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae).

Soils: Turney Series: fine-loamy, mixed, thermic Typic Calciorthids. Berino Series: fine-loamy, mixed, thermic Typic Haplargids.

Hydrology: Surface water only during rain events, no arroyos. Run on plain for Los Pinos Mountains.

Landform: McKenzie Flats is a broad, nearly flat grassland plain between the Los Pinos Mountains and the breaks on the east side of the Rio Grande.

Geology: Deep (20,000 ft) alluvial and eolian deposits.

Climate: Long-term mean annual precipitation is 243 mm, about 60% of which occurs during the summer. Long-term mean monthly temperatures for January and July are 1.5°C and 25.1°C, respectively.

Site history: McKenzie Flats encompasses an area of approximately 50 square miles. McKenzie Flats was one of the primary livestock grazing areas of the Sevilleta NWR. Cattle have been excluded from the site since 1974-76.

North Coordinate:34.3592
South Coordinate:34.3592
East Coordinate:-106.691
West Coordinate:-106.691

Additional Metadata

Data are reported from 11 collection dates, primarily in June 2003. A number of incomplete foraging trips are not reported. Many of the data here were taken on days in which foraging activity appeared subdued, probably due to hot and dry conditions. Additional data of a similar nature were collected in Portal AZ in July and August 2003, and are available upon request from melaniem@unm.edu.

 

Pinon Branch Demography Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1989-1993)

Abstract: 

This project was designed to investigate the response of plant growth and reproduction to short- and long-term variation in biotic and abiotic environmental variables. Several perennial taxa, including tree (Juniperus monsperma and Pinus edulis), shrub (Larrea tridentata) and bunch grasses (Oryzopsis hymenoides (now Achnaterum hymenoides) and Sporobolus contractus) species, were monitored at 1-3 sites differing in elevation and topography as well as edaphic variables and annual precipitation. The sites represented optimal or marginal/transitional zones for particular species. Demographic measurements were made biannually, after the 'wet' (fall) and 'dry' (spring) seasons. For tree and shrub species, estimates of growth and reproduction were based on branch demography, with ten branch tips from 10-20 individuals per species per site repeatedly measured from 1989-1993.  For J. monsperma, P. edulis and L. tridentata, vegetative growth (i.e., branch growth) as well as reproduction were monitored. Additional measurements included needle length for P. edulis and leaf production, leaf size and branchlet production for L. tridentata. For grasses, basal diameter, leaf length and reproduction were monitored for 100 individuals per species per site.

This project, SEV006, contains only data on pinon branch demography.  Data on other variables and species is contained in SEV024, SEV025, SEV026, SEV027, and SEV028.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

6

Additional Project roles: 

224

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev6_pinyondemography_20160303.txt

Methods: 

Tree Selection - Ten numbered pinon trees were randomly selected at each study site; five on the north slope of a canyon and five on the south slope.  Numbers were assigned to trees which were then sampled by random selection.

Branch Selection - Ten branches approximately 1.5 meters above the ground were chosen and assigned numbers (1-10).

Tag Placement - Tags were placed about six centimeters from the tip of a selected branch.

Blength - The length of the branch from the tag wire (or paint mark) to the branch apex.

Fascicles - The length of the most distal cluster of leaves on the branch, the present year's cohort of leaves.

Needle1 - The length, from tip to attachment point, of one needle in a cluster included in a length-with-fascicles measurement.

Needle2 - A measurement of second needle in a cluster.

Male - A measure of the length of a branch containing male cones. If the tagged branch diverged before reaching the apex, producing two or more male cones, the individual lengths were added together as one male cone branch length.

Female - The number of female cones on a measured branch.

Codes - The codes used for species in this study follow Kartesz abbreviation standards (Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Timber Press, Oregon). Codes consist of four-to-six characters and are alphanumeric .  A comprehensive list of all plant species found on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge and their associated codes can be found on the Sevilleta Information Management System (SIMS) at:

/export/db/local/plant/lib/species_kartesz_codes_.lst.

Maintenance: 

I. Condensed log of activity of plant demography data:
  a. Individual documentations iniatiated 1989; Troy Maddux
  b. File (combined documentations) 31 August 1990; Troy Maddux
  c. Abstract (Written by Diane Marshall and Charles Wisdom) put in documentation 31 August 1990; Troy Maddux
  d. Documentation expanded 2 September 1990; Troy Maddux
  e. Concatenation of individual documentations iniatiated September 1990, completed 17 December 1990; Michelle Murillo
  f. File expanded into rdb file 17 December 1990; Michelle Murillo
  g. Rdb file checked, and errors eliminated 18 December 1990; Michelle Murillo
  h. KEYWORDS added 19 December 1990; James Brunt
  i. Random error checking completed 20 December 1990; Michelle Murillo
  j. File complete and archived 21 December 1990; Michelle Murillo & Greg Shore
 
     Documentation changed to reflect changes in datafile structure; 1 March 91 T. Maddux  

II. Detailed log of alterations/modifications of plant demography data:

This portion of the log contains details of all alterations and modifications applied to this file by Michelle Murillo. The file demography.dat was initiated in September 1990 by concatenating individual files into the demography.dat file. A generic header was devised to apply to all individual files. The header reads as such: date season site species station plant# branch# #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8, and the detailed description of the numbers 1-8 are listed in the documentation section of this file. The individual files were then modified to follow this header, which entailed rearranging of columns (generally the season, site, species, station, plant#, and branch#) and the addition of the date column. As the columns numbered 1-8 did not pertain to all individual files, non-applicables (na) were inserted where necessary. Other alterations included:

    1. Juniper 1989: Sepultura Canyon; addition of na's to presence/absence of male or female cones, depending on sex of tree, i.e. if tree was female then na's were inserted in the male column. Goat Draw; same as Sepultura Canyon
    2. juniper 1990: (Sepultura Canyon site has been discontinued) Goat Draw (season 1); orginal file contained x,y and --'s; which were converted to 0 (absence) and 1 (presence) and appropriate na's were inserted, depending on sex of tree Goat Draw (season 2); orginal file contained +'s for presence of cones; which were converted to 1 (presence) and appropriate na's were inserted depending on sex of tree.

        NOTE: In 1989 width of branch was measured, and in 1990 this measurement was no longer taken. (The orginal data sheets for 1989-2 are unavailable at the time of archiving, assumption is that this measurement applies to season 2 also ).  In 1990 the length of branchlet was measured which was not measured in 1989. (See documentation).
        NOTE: In 1989 (both seasons) the variable, number of branchlets, was not included. In 1990 the variable was added, but measurements of this variable was sporadic, occuring only in a few plants.

    3. grasses 1989/1990: All sites: addition of na's to branch#

Error checking was done as follows:

Two files, grasses 1990-season 1, and creosote 1990-season 1, had not been entered at the time of concatenation of individual files, and were therefore entered by Michelle Murillo. These two files were error checked by Michelle Murillo by visual checking of original data sheets with the files on 18 December 1990. On 17 December 1990, the expand program was applied to the demography.dat file and placed into the demography.rdb file. The rdb file was then checked for various errors, and the elimination of these errors were completed on 18 December 1990. On 19-20 December 1990, random error checking was conducted by using 'Tables for Statistical Data-Analysis'. One hundred and fifty entries were checked and approximiately 45 percent of the numbers were from 1989-season 2, and because the data sheets were unavailable, the entries were not error checked. On 23 December 1990, visual checking with the original data sheets was conducted for an overall check.

File initiated June 1991: MLM
season 1 entered: MLM
season 2 entered: KPM
Black Butte, season 2 entered and error checked, 7 Jan 1992: MLM
data entry complete 25 October 1991:  KPM
data error checking completed 8 November 1991:  KPM

Documentation updated (New people and times added) on 29 Jan 1992 and inserted into data file by Troy Maddux.

  1992 log

    * Put the 1992 data in the data base on 22 Oct 1992 Troy Maddux.


THE FOLLOWING IS THE LOG FOR THE SPRING 1992 DEMOGRAPHY DATA


    * File initiated by Troy Maddux 24 Aug 1992
    * Goat Draw PIED information entered by Michael Bradley
    * and sent to Troy Maddux Wed Aug 19 15:31:03 1992 and these
    * data added to this file by T. Maddux on 15 Oct 1992
    * Black butte data added to this file 15 Oct 1992
    * Many SPCO4 plants in plots 2 and 3 of Five Points had no
    * data for the inflorescence # so this was added (it was 0)
    * on 15 Oct 1992 by Troy Maddux
    * Removed extra '0' from rs SPCO4 #531-534 - 16 Oct 1992, T.M.
    * Pulled \doc from 1991 demography data to change for 1992 data 16 Oct 1992; T.M.
    * Who and When data were collected was added 20 Oct 1992; T.M.  

THE FOLLOWING IS THE LOG FOR THE FALL 1992 DEMOGRAPHY DATA
    *File initiated 16 Sep 1992 by Tiffany Cotlar
    *Data file from Tiffany Cotlar and a data file from Robin Abell combined; also blank lines removed from both files; this was done by Troy Maddux on 20 Oct 1992.
    *File initiated 16 Sep 1992 by Robin Abell
    *PIED #'s 9,13,23,15,17,36,41,42 by Robin Abell 16 Sep 1992
    *JUMO #'s 26,23,24,28,49,5,8,17,13,22,36,41,47,4,15,27,32,46,42
    * by Robin Abell 16 Sep 1992
    *LATR2 #'s (Five Points) 2,3,5,26 by Robin Abell 23 Sep 1992
    *SPCO4 #'s (Station B) 61,92,93,94,95,99,101,103,104,105,108,109
    * 109.1,110,110.1,111,112,112.1,122,125,126,127,130,148,149,402
    * by Robin Abell 23 Sep 1992
    *LATR2 #'s (Five Points) 90,92,96 by Robin Abell 24 Sep 1992
    *LATR2#'s (Rio Salado) 1,14,17 by Robin Abell 1 Oct 1992
    *changed typo: juno to JUMO; 20 Oct 1992, T.M.
    *added additional field to grass data to make the field # correct 20 Oct 1992, TM.

File submitted for archival 22 OCT 1992 - Troy Maddux

File initiated by Troy Maddux 22 Apr 1993 combining data entered by Ursula Bonhage, Roger Stupf, Christian Heierli, Marilyn Altenbach, and
Eric Scherff.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
*Data for:    
*        PIED 28, 32, 36
*    entered by Ursula Bonhage 14 Apr 1993.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
*Data for:
*        PIED 4, 5, 8, 9, 13, 15
* entered by M. Altenbach & E. Scherff 14 April 93.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
*Data for:
*        pinyon 17,22,23,24 and
* entered by  M. Altenbach & 16 April 93.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
* Data entered for:
*        PIED 26,27,41,42,46,47,49
* by eric and marilyn on 13 and 14 April 1993
----------------------------------------------------------------------
* Documentation taken from 91-92 archive data set and modified for this data set.  18 Oct 1993, by Troy Maddux.
* Filled in "Who" and "When" sections from the data sheets - Troy Maddux - 16 Nov 1993.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
****************************************
    1993 FALL DATA
****************************************
File for Black Butte orhy data created by Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on September 21, 1993. Data collected by Marilyn Altenbach and Eric Scherff on September 14, 1993
****************************************
File for Five Points Sporobolus information created by Cynthia Gregoire & Eric Scherff on 21 September 1993. Data collected by Marilyn Altenbach & Eric Scherff on 14 September 1993 and 15 September 1993. File appended by Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on 22 September 1993. Changed "nd" representing "no data" to "na" to be consistent with other data bases. - Troy Maddux - 8 Nov 1993.
****************************************
File for pinyons created by Eric Scherff on 10 September 1993 File appended by Eric Scherff on 15 September 1993 Data collected by M. Altenbach & E. Scherff on 9 September, 10 September, and 13 September.
****************************************
Different fall plant data put together into single archive file by Troy Maddux on 8 Nov 1993.
****************************************
Spring and Fall data put together in Archive File format 17 Nov 1993. by Troy Maddux - also changed nd's and dashes to na's.            
****************************************
9 Dec 1993 - Demography file contained all species - all but the pinyon information was taken from this file by Troy Maddux.
****************************************
10 Dec 1993 - Documentation section changed to reflect only pinyon and not other measured species (e.g. jumo, latr, orhy, and spco). Troy Maddux
****************************************
10 Feb 1994 - Documentation section compared to Doc. Manual and necessary changes made by Rosemary Vigil; Troy Maddux replaced four occurances of "na" with 0.
****************************************

14 March 1994. Separated the big demography-89-90 file into four parts; grass, pinyon, creosote, and juniper.  Rupal Shah went through and separated the file and edited the documentation.

* 3 Jan 1995 - replaced a couple of enigmatic X's with "na"'s - Troy Maddux.

3/19/98 - Changed species codes to Kartesz. K. Taugher
    - Added a final line to dataset of: "{END OF DATA}". K. Taugher
    - Updated metadata to reflect species code changes. K. Taugher

9/23/09 - Added Kartesz reference. K. Taugher

Additional information: 

1989: First Census - May 8,9,11 of 1989; Second Census - September 5 of 1989.

1990: First Census - This equals season  1 in the header for the data.  The data were collected from 27 Apr 1990 to 17 May 1990. Second Census - This equals season  2 in the header for the data. The data were collected from 5 Sep 1990 - 20 Sep 1990.

1991: First Census - 16 Apr 1991 - 15 May 1991. Second Census - 4 Aug 1991 - 13 Sep 1991.

1992: First Census - The first census was performed on the following dates: 15 Apr, 16 Apr, 22 Apr, 23 Apr, 27 Apr, 28 Apr, 29 Apr, 30 Apr, 1 May, 19 May, 21 May, 27 May, 28 May, 1 Jun, 2 Jun, 12 Jun 1992. Second Census - The second census was performed on 14-17 Sep, 22-24 Sep, 29 Sep, 5-7 Oct 1992.

1993: First Census - Goat Draw pinyon and juniper were measured on: 14 Apr; and 15 Apr 1993. Second Census - Goat Draw pinyon and juniper were measured on: 9 Sep; 10 Sep; and 13 Sep 1993.

The data for the first census (May) were collected by Ann Evans (Asst. Professor/UNM), Troy Maddux (Head Plant Tech/LTER), Sam Loftin (Graduate Student/UNM), Marikay Ramsey (Head Animal Tech/LTER), Joran Viers (Plant Tech/LTER), Michelle Murillo (Plant Tech/LTER), Jennifer Franklin (Plant Tech/LTER), Amy Shortess (Plant Tech/LTER).  The data for the second census (September) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Tech/LTER), Amy Shortess (Plant Tech/LTER), David Keller (Plant Tech/LTER).

1991: The data for the first census  (May) were collected by Roger Mongold (Plant Technician), Brad Swanson (Plant Technician), Joran Viers (Plant Technician), Kathleen McGee (Plant Technician), Sam Loftin (Graduate Student Technician), and Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician).  The data for the second census (May) were collected by Jim Stanton (Plant Technician), Susan Prichard (Plant Technician), and Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician).
 
1992: The data for the first census (Apr-Jun) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician) and the following plant technicians: Marilyn Altenbach, Michael Bradley, Melissa Chavez, Anthony Collier, Julie Knight, Ivan Ortiz, Amanda Persaud, Monica Valdez.  The data for the second census (Aug-Oct) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician), Robin Abell (Plant Technician), and Tiffany Cotlar (Plant Technician).

1993: SPRING CENSUS - Roger Stupf (Volunteer from Switzerland), Ursula Bonhage (Volunteer from Switzerland), Christian Heierli (Volunteer from Switzerland), Marilyn Altenbach (Field Crew Chief), Eric Scherff (Field Tech), Troy Maddux (Vegetation Studies Program Manager). FALL CENSUS - Cynthia Gregoire (Volunteer from Vermont), Marilyn Altenbach (Field Crew Chief), Eric Scherff (Field Tech).

Point-Quarter Harvested Plant Weight Measurements to Estimate Shrub ANPP in a Chihuahuan Desert Creosote Shrubland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2007- present)

Abstract: 

In an effort to better quantify NPP of Creosotebush in the Five-Points region, it was decided to test the Point-Quarter method against the standard 1-m2 quadrat method that has been in use since 1998. Transects were laid out across the 5 mammal trapping webs as well as across burned and unburned plots of the Mixed Shrub site (MS). Repeat measures of the same bushes are performed seasonally. Whole shrubs of various size classes are collected and sorted and weighed to develop regressions for biomass.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

202

Additional Project roles: 

504
505
506
507
508
509
510

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev202_pqweight_20161103

Methods: 

Shrub Harvesting
Creosote shrubs of various size classes are measured . Height of the shrub is measured as well as the diameter of the crown at its widest point and also a diameter perpendicular to this first diameter. The shrubs are then harvested.

Sorting and Drying
Creosote shrubs are separated into leaves, twigs (small stems that are left after removing all of the green leaves), and stems (the large main stems of creosote. After the samples are sorted they are dried for up to five days.

Weights and Measurements
The dry weight for all samples leaves, twigs, and stems are recorded. For each stem sample, the length (cm) of each stem is measured and recored as total stem length (the sum of all stems). A small, medium, and large bush from both burned and unburned treatments are randomly selected for future C/N analysis.

Maintenance: 

January 2009: All data sets (Winter, Spring, and Fall) for 2007-2008 were combined, checked for errors, and imported into Navicat. Variables site was added and burned and unburned were used as treatments instead. Any calculated measurements (i.e. volume, twig+leaf weight, etc.) were removed from data set. -Changed missing data on volume and weightt due to plant being dead to -888. -Changed missing data on volume and weight due to human error to -999. -- A. Swann

Quality Assurance: 

Data were scanned by eye to catch mistakes. Data were then filtered in excel to determine if all parameters were met. Data were combined and imported into Navicat using the import wizard.

Additional information: 

Additional Personnel Associated with the Data Collection / Data Processing

Sevilleta Field Crew Employee History

Chandra Tucker, April 2014-present, Megan McClung, April 2013-present, Stephanie Baker, October 2010-Present, John Mulhouse, August 2009-June 2013, Amaris Swann, August 25, 2008-January 2013, Maya Kapoor, August 9, 2003-January 21, 2005 and April 2010-March 2011, Terri Koontz, February 2000-August 2003 and August 2006-August 2010, Yang Xia, January 31, 2005-April 2009, Karen Wetherill, February 7, 2000-August 2009, Michell Thomey, September 3, 2005-August 2008, Jay McLeod, January 2006-August 2006, Charity Hall, January 31, 2005-January 3, 2006, Tessa Edelen, August 15, 2004-August 15, 2005, Seth Munson, September 9, 2002-June 2004, Caleb Hickman, September 9, 2002-November 15, 2004, Heather Simpson, August 2000-August 2002, Chris Roberts, September 2001-August 2002, Mike Friggens, 1999-September 2001, Shana Penington, February 2000-August 2000.

Ocotillo Plant Dimensions in the Chihuahuan Desert at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1991)

Abstract: 

This study looks at Ocotillo (Fouqieria splendens) at the northern extent of its range in New Mexico. Gross morphological and phenological measurements are made in the field and leaves are collected for isozyme work. Questions that this study may address are: Do individuals at range edges show reduced genetic diversity relative to individuals in the heart of the range? Do population age structures(Can we age them?) differ at edges. Can we, in time, determine stasis or movement of populations? Are demographics germane to the study questions? What other methods, in addition to isozyme work will we use to get at the relative genetics of these populations?

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

54

Additional Project roles: 

165
166
167
168

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev054_ocotillodimensions_09082011.txt

Methods: 

Five hundred ocotillo individuals were tagged and measured in the ways described below. The plants follow the south-facing slopes of a ridgeline near the southern boundry of the Sevilleta. The plants were marked starting at the easternmost population and numbered consecutively as one moves west along the ridge.

DESCRIPTION OF EACH MEASUREMENT

1] PLANT# - this is the number on the tag attached to the plant.

2] POP# - Represents the population number which is simply which group of plants encountered. Each population is separated by an area along the ridge that does not have ocotillo growing on it.

3] PHENOLOGY - Phenology is measured by circling one of the following codes for each plant. If the code was circled on the data sheet it is given a value of "y" in the data base, if not circled, the value is "n" in the data base.

  • St = Stems only (i.e. plant is alive but no leaves or reproductive structures are present)
  • B = Flower Buds - Flower buds are present.
  • Fl = Flowers - Flowers are present.
  • Fr = Fruit - Fruit is present. Fruit is considered   to be present when the ovary has expanded and the perianth has senesced.
  • L = Leaves - Leaves are present.
  • D = Senescence/Plant is dying(Plant has dead stems attached.)

4] #/STEM - this measurement is the number of stems Son the plant at the highest order of branching, i.e. if a stem branches near the base and each of those two stems branch once then a person counts four stems, the first branching does not matter in the count.

5] #/FLOWERING STEMS - simply the number of stems with reproductive structures, counted as above.

6] HSTEM - this is the longest stem measured from the base to the apical tip of the stem.

7] NOTES - any comments or qualifiers that need to be made. Notes are put in curly brackets '{}' on the next line.

Maintenance: 

File initiated 11 Jun 1991. Data entered by 3 Nov 1992 by Rupal Shah Errors changed on 5 Nov 1992 by Rupal Shah More Errors corrected on 9 Nov 1992 by Rupal Shah 8 Feb 1993 - Added a date to documentation from data sheets recently found by Rupal Shah - Troy Maddux. 11/12/98 - Added final line of "END OF DATA" to dataset. K. Taugher - Aligned columns to right justification. K. Taugher doc

Additional information: 

Additional Information on the personnel associated with the Data Collection / Data Processing

 The data were collected by the 1991 plant crew: Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician), Sam Loftin (Plant Research Assistant), Joran Viers, (Plant Technician), Kathleen McGee (Plant Technician).

Hydraulic Constraints on Two Life History Stages of Larrea tridentata in a Chihuahuan Desert Creosote Shrubland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2002-2003)

Abstract: 

Maintaining high rates of water loss during times of high resource availability could allow establishing woody desert perennials to grow quickly by allowing them to take advantage of the fleeting but abundant monsoonal moisture typical of warm deserts like the Chihuahuan. However, a plant cannot endlessly increase water loss in order to grow faster --there are hydraulic constraints on rates of water loss. The hydraulic properties of each particular plant xylem and soil microsite, as well as the AR:AL absorbing root area to transpiring leaf area ratio) interact to set limits on rates of water loss. If transpiration rates become too high, cavitation may limit the ability of the xylem to supply water to the leaves. The main objective of this study was to test two hypotheses on a population of Larrea tridentata at the Sevilleta LTER in central New Mexico (1) do small plants grow faster and use water less conservatively than large, and (2) are there differences in the hydraulic constraints on small and large plants. Measurements were made every six weeks in the spring, summer and fall from April 2002 - August 2003. Field measurements of shoot growth, gas exchange and plant and soil water potentials were made to determine growth rates and water use. Measurements of leaf specific conductance determined the ability of the xylem to supply water to the leaves. Excavation findings were used to estimate (AR:AL). Xylem vulnerability curves and soil texture analysis were used to determine the hydraulic properties of the plant xylem and soil. A model determined where the limiting conductance occurred in the plant-soil continuum.

Data set ID: 

154

Core Areas: 

Additional Project roles: 

306
307

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Field Methods:

For gas exchange measurements a LiCor 6400 portable gas exchange system was used. Measurements took place in June, August and September 2002 and May, June, and August 2003. Two measurements were made on each plant at approximately 7-9:30AM and 10-12:30PM. One branch tip was chosen and marked on each 10 small and 10 large plants. The same branch tip was used for measurement throughout the day unless it broke, at which time another branch tip was chosen and marked. Stomatal Ratio was set to one because stomates are present on both sides of the leaf in this species. Because of the small size of the leaves, an energy balance approach was used to calculate the leaf temperature in the chamber.

Chamber temperature and humidity were controlled at ambient and reference CO2 was set to 400ppm. Using natural light plants were clamped into the chamber, oriented in their original direction, chamber conditions were allowed to stabilize. Leaf area was set to one during measurement. Because of the small leaves of the species, a branch tip had to be measured. Measured branch tips were cut and returned to the lab where their leaf area was measured.

A Vista Scan Scanner was used to create an image of the leaves. The bitmap image was then analyzed for number of pixels using Scion Image. A regression equation was developed which converted pixel number into leaf area in cm2.The gas exchange data was then recalculated to adjust for leaf area.

For plant water potential a Scholander Pressure bomb was used to measure branched stem tips consisting of 15-20 leaves and a woody base. Predawn water potential samples were collected between 4AM and 5AM. Midday water potentials were collected between 11AM and 1PM. Samples were placed into a plastic baggie with a moist paper towel during transport. Samples were collected in May, June, August, September and December 2002 as well as January, March, May, June and August 2003.

For whole plant hydraulic conductance measurements large sections of the xylem were measured using a vacuum canister to generate known vacuum pressures. The plant was attached to a water filled container on a balance via tiagon tubing. Changes in weight on the balance, and thus flow rate (mg/s) through the plant were measured by a computer using a program written in Turbo Pascal. Each sample was measured at four or five pressures and the change in flow rate with pressure was calculated as the total hydraulic conductance of all tissues contained in the sample. All samples were immediately placed into a plastic bag with a wet paper towel and transported to the lab where they were measured within 48 hours of collection.

For large plants an entire stem of the plant was cut at the base. The stems were cut under water at the lab, to about 30cm. For small plants the entire plant was excavated, and any roots larger than about 2mm in diameter were kept intact. Back at the lab, most of the root system was cut off under water, leaving the root collar and the initial un-branched portion of the main root which obviously supplied the entire plant. For both sizes, all green material was removed from the tips of the branches, leaving only woody stems.

The green portion of the plant included all leaves and sometimes large (up to 150mm) branched sections. For root hydraulic conductance measurements root segments +AD4-50cm were cut in the field and transported to the lab wrapped tightly in 3 plastic bags containing wet paper towel. Segments were re-cut underwater and the ends shaved off with a razor blade. They were then placed on a manifold and flow through the segment was measured. Segments were then flushed for 15 minutes with distilled water at 100kPa. Flow was then re-measured. Percent loss of conductivity is calculated as the difference between pre and post flush flow divided by post flush flow and multiplied by 100. Due to time constraints only one flush was performed on each sample. For soil water potential monitoring soil thermocouple psychrometers were placed under 4 large and 4 small plants at 30cm and 45cm below the soil surface. Measurements were made at or around 2AM when temperature gradients were at a minimum. A Campbell datalogger reported millivolt output which was converted to MPa using calibrations determined in the lab. Calibration involved regression of millivolt output against solutions of known salt concentration for each psychrometer.

Data sources: 

sev154_waterpot_07132009

Additional information: 

Additional Information on the personnel associated with the Data Collection / Data Processing Joy Francis, a post-doc with Jim Gosz, was instrumental in setting up this study.

Core Site Phenology Study from the Chihuahaun Desert Grassland and Shrubland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2000- present)

Abstract: 

Plant phenology or life-history pattern changes seasonally as plants grow, mature, flower, and produce fruit and seeds. Plant phenology follows seasonal patterns, yet annual variation may occur due to annual differences in the timing of rainfall and ambient temperature shifts. Foliage growth and fruit and seed production are important aspects of plant population dynamics and food resource availability for animals. The purpose of this study is to assess plant phenology patterns across a series of biotic communities that represent an environmental moisture gradient. These communites include: Chihuhuan Desert creosotebush shrubland, Chihuahuan Desert black grama grassland, and blue grama grassland. Plant phenology is recorded for all plant species across 4 replicate 200 m transects at each of the 3 habitat sites. Plant phenology measurements are taken once every month from February through October. The first ten individuals of each plant species encountered along each transect are assessed for life-history status. Data recorded include the status of leaves, flowers and fruit. Leaves are recorded as new, old, brown or absent. Reproductive status is recorded as absent, buds, flowers, fruits or both fruits and flowers. Data from the site P and J were only collected in 2000 and 2001 and are included in this data set.

Core Areas: 

Additional Project roles: 

271
272
273
274

Data set ID: 

137

Keywords: 

Purpose: 

The purpose of this study is to assess plant phenology patterns across a series of biotic communities that represent an environmental moisture gradient.

Data sources: 

sev137_phenologycore_20170203.csv

Methods: 

Locating the Transects:

Phenological conditions are recorded along four permanently marked 200 m x 2 m wide transects at each of the core study sites. The transects are located within four of the five rodent trapping webs. All five transects were originally measured, but in 2003 the least diverse transect at each site was dropped. Each web consists of twelve 100 m transects radiating as spokes from a central rebar stake marked #145. As measured from the center stake, the first four stakes within a ray are positioned at 5 m intervals and the remaining eight at 10 m intervals along a given transect. Plant phenology is recorded along two of these 100 m transects, the transect that extends due north from the central stake and the transect that extends due south from the central stake. The stakes that extend due north are marked 1-12 where stake #1 is closest to the center stake. The stakes that extend due south are marked 73-84 where stake #73 is closest to center. 

Collecting the Data:

Each transect is sampled by one technician. Measurements are started from the northern (stake #12) end of each transect. The technician walks in a straight line from one stake to the next surveying a 1 m wide area on each side of the line until the opposite end of the transect is reached. As a transect is walked, phenological conditions are recorded for each species that occurs along the transect. The phenological condition of the first 10 individuals of each species is recorded. After the conditions of ten individuals have been recorded no more observations are made for that particular species even though more may be encountered. Conversely, for rare species only a few individuals may be encountered so there will be less than 10 observations.

Because measurements are taken on separate individuals, it is important to note that many plants have clonal growth forms. This can be seen in some grasses that occur as a clump of overlapping vegetation. In this case each clump is treated as a single individual. This is also true for some cactus and yucca species that appear as a cluster of many individual heads.

Determining Phenological Conditions:

1. New green foliage (N)

This category refers to a plant that is producing new vegetative tissue. The production of new vegetative tissue can be characterized in several ways depending on the species. In many herbaceous plants, new vegetative growth will be indicated by the presence of immature leaves or stems. In herbaceous plants this growth generally appears near the tips of shoots and also at axillary buds.

For species that have a rosette growth form (yucca, some herbaceous plants), the center of the rosette is examined for the presence of immature leaves.

In cacti, the spines are modified leaves and do not readily indicate new vegetative growth so cacti are examined for production of new stems. For example, in Opuntia spp., the presence of a new stem/pad represents new green foliage as each stem-joint represents a season's growth. Cacti that exhibit a cylindrical growth form are more difficult to classify. Cacti with tuberculate stems (Mammilaria spp.) are examined for new tubercules which can often be seen in the center of the head. More problematic are the ribbed cacti where the growth of one season is continuous with that of the preceding season.  While these species may be producing new growth it is extremely difficult to identify and thus they are usually categorized as old green foliage.

2. Old green foliage (O)

This category refers to a plant that is not producing new vegetative tissue but exhibits only mature green foliage.  

3. Brown leaves (B)

This category refers to a plant that has only brown leaves and is used to indicate a period of senescence or decline.  

4. No leaves (Z)

This category is similar to the above category.  It is meant to capture a period of senescence or decline and refers to a plant that has subsequently dropped its leaves. It only applies to growth forms that drop their leaves during a period of dormancy or senescence. This category is not used for plants such as Ephedra spp. that normally do not have leaves.

Determining Phenological Conditions:

1. New flowers (FL)

This category refers to the presence of flowers at anthesis (open flowers). For many species the petals are large and showy making this condition easy to identify. In species with small or reduced flowers, this condition represents the presence of key reproductive structures such as stamens and/or carpels.   

2. New fruit (FR)

This category refers to the presence of a ripened ovary that contains seed. Open fruits that do not contain seed are not categorized as fruiting.  Open fruits that do contain seed belong in this category.               

3. Fruits and Flowers (FF)

This category indicates that both fruit and flowers are present.

4. No Fruits or Flowers (Z)

This category indicates that neither fruits or flowers are present.

5. Flower buds (B)

This category indicates that only closed flower buds are present.

QAQC: 

Each month, the data is QAQCd for typos and incorrect plant codes. To do this in Excel, place the cursor in the first cell of the actual data, not the headings. Go to Data/Filter and select auto filter. Each list formed should fit the parameters listed above. The plant list and the unknown plant list should be updated regularly. Check all errors against the paper data. Be sure that the numbers at the end of the kartez codes are correct. In most cases, all errors can be fixed at this time.

At the end of every year, compile all the data into one file for the year. Check to make sure no data is missing or duplicated. Also, each year, all the previous years data should be updated using the unknown plant list to replace former unknowns with their proper kartez code. At this point all compiled, yearly data sets should be re-archived, replacing the old data sets. Meta data should be maintained with every data set.

Recording the Data:

For each transect, the following is recorded:   

1. Recorder- Recorder's initials and also the initials of anyone helping take measurements on that particular transect.  

2. The date (month, day, year)  

3. The site (B, G, C, J, P)

B = Blue grama grassland

G = Five-Points grassland

C = Five-Points creosote

J = Juniper Savanna

P = Pinon-Juniper woodland 

4. The web (1,2,3,4,5) 

5. The page number (1/3, 2/3, 3/3)

The species code for all the species occurring along the transect is recorded. Then the phenological conditions of the individual plants in the area are recorded in the Fol and Flw columns of the data sheet. The Fol column is for status codes reflecting the condition of a plant's foliage and the Flw column is for codes reflecting the reproductive status of the plant. The status codes are as follows:

Foliage codes:

N = new green foliage

O = old green foliage only

B = brown leaves only

Z = no leaves

Reproductive codes:

FL = new flower

FR = new fruits

FF = new fruits and flowers

Z = no fruits or flowers

B  = Only buds present

BFL = Buds and flowers

BFR = Buds and fruits

Instrumentation: 

The phenology data is taken with paper and pencil.

Maintenance: 

12/2/2008

For both 2007 and 2008, individual monthly files were checked for errors and compiled in pc_field/phenology. These were uploaded into navicat. Then all the data was exported and put on line with this updated meta data and EML.

2/8/2007

Phenology data from 2001-2006 was taken out of flat files and imported into MySQL. Once in the database, I checked for duplicates. These most often happened when a recorder had already taken data for a particular species and accidentally started a new row for data for that species. In these instances, no data was deleted, but the observation numbers were made consecutive. Therefore, they end up with more than 10 observations per web. In no case was this more than 20. The other reason I found duplicates was in years where certain recorders collected separate data for seedlings and adults. In these cases, no data was thrown away and againg the observation number was made consecutive and there also can be up to 20 observations per web for these species. Always in this case the comment "SEEDLING" was added to the relevant observations. I also checked every plant code against the USDA Plants database online at http://plants.usda.gov/ All plant codes that have had nomenclature changes were updated. All previously unknown plants that have since been identified were also updated. All unknown plants that will never be identified were dropped from the database. All typos were corrected. The original code was stored in the database under the collumn title OLD_SPECIES, but is not available online.

Quality Assurance: 

QAQC: 

Each month, the data should be QAQCd for typos and incorrect plant codes. To do this in Excel, place the cursor in the first cell of the actual data, not the headings. Go to Data/Filter and select auto filter. Each list formed should fit the parameters listed above. The plant list and the unknown plant list should be updated regularly. Check all errors against the paper data. Be sure that the numbers at the end of the kartez codes are correct. In most cases, all errors can be fixed at this time.At the end of every year, compile all the data into one file for the year. Check to make sure no data is missing or duplicated. Also, each year, all the previous years data should be updated using the unknown plant list to replace former unknowns with their proper kartez code. At this point all compiled, yearly data sets should be re-archived, replacing the old data sets. Meta data should be maintained with every data set.

Additional information: 

Additional Information on the personnel associated with the Data Collection / Data Processing

Sevilleta Field Crew Employee History

Chandra Tucker (CAT; 04/2014-present), Megan McClung (MAM; 04/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 10/2010-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2009-06/2013), Amaris Swann (ALS;  08/2008-01/2013), Maya Kapoor, August 9, 2003-January 21, 2005 and April 2010-March 2011, Terri Koontz, February 2000-August 2003 and August 2006-August 2010, Yang Xia, January 31, 2005-April 2009, Karen Wetherill, February 7, 2000-August 2009, Michell Thomey, September 3, 2005-August 2008, Jay McLeod, January 2006-August 2006, Charity Hall, January 31, 2005-January 3, 2006, Tessa Edelen, August 15, 2004-August 15, 2005, Seth Munson, September 9, 2002-June 2004, Caleb Hickman, September 9, 2002-November 15, 2004, Heather Simpson, August 2000-August 2002, Chris Roberts, September 2001-August 2002, Mike Friggens, 1999-September 2001, Shana Penington, February 2000-August 2000.

Dates of collection for each field site:

Site B:  April 2001 - present

Site C:  April 2000 - present

Site G:  April 2000 - present

Site J:  April 2000 - November 2001

Site P:  April 2000 - November 2001

Water Balance Modeling Project at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico: Vegetation Plot Data (1995-1998)

Abstract: 

The water balance vegetation plots were part of a larger water balance monitoring project at the Sevilleta LTER. The plots were designed to measure the percent cover of photosynthetic/transpiring (green) plant species at specific sites where time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes and weather stations were already installed.  In 1995, there were three sites (Field Station, Deep Well and Rio Salado). A 30m x 30m plot was installed at each site, and collection of vegetation data commenced in July 1995. Percent cover (green) and species identities were recorded monthly at a representative sample of 1m square quadrats within each plot.  

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

81

Additional Project roles: 

89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev081_waterbalance_03022011

Methods: 

Study Plots - Each of the three plots was 30m x 30m (900 m squared). Eleven lines and eleven rows of small wooden pegs were placed in an evenly-spaced manner, as shown in the diagram below. Each peg was about 3 meters from the next in the grid. Therefore, the lines and rows were numbered by 3's. For monthly data collection, a one meter square quadrat was placed so that the peg was at the northeast corner. The 0th line and 0th row of pegs served as borders on two sides of the plot and also as anchors for the NE corners of quadrats. The 30th line and 30th row of pegs served only as borders on the other two sides of the plot.

The Field Station (fs) and Deep Well (dw) sites were oriented as in the diagram below. The Rio Salado (rs) plot was a mirror image of this, so that row '0' is on the west side of the plot and rows run from west to east. The lines remained the same, running from north to south.

                                  N

Row
30 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 0
* * * * * * * * * * 0
| * * * * * * * * * * 3
| * * * * * * * * * * 6
| * * * * * * * * * * 9
| * * * * * * * * * * 12 L
W | * * * * * * * * * * 15 i E
| * * * * * * * * * * 18 n
| * * * * * * * * * * 21 e
| * * * * * * * * * * 24
| * * * * * * * * * * 27
|________________________________30

S

Sample frequency and size - Plots were sampled once per month, near the middle of the month, from January through December (in 1995, sampling did not begin until July.).

To obtain accurate estimates of the mean percent green cover of each guild, including annuals, perennials, grasses, forbs, and creosote bush, with the least amount of effort and time, both running means and boot strap analyses were performed. This was originally proposed by Bruce Milne (for detail, see /research//local/plant/src/plantcover/field_methods) and implemented by Yeulong Yang using SAS. The SAS program used to determine the sample size is called "swb_size.sas", located at /research/local/plant/src/plantcover.

Documentation can be found at the beginning of the SAS program. Based on the results of the running mean analyses, a minimum of 60 quads was needed. From that point on, only 60 quads per plot were sampled by the field crew.

Equipment - Equipment included meter quadrat frames, tape recorders, and microcassettes. Quadrat frames were made of 1/2 " PVC and PVC corners, with 10 cm lengths marked using black electrical tape. Each 10 cm square within the quadrat would therefore comprise 1% of the area.

Recording data - The person recording data first placed the quadrat frame on the ground with the NE corner inside of the wooden peg and the SW corner inside of a PVC peg placed as a marker. A brief note was left on the microcasette and a similar introductory statement taped at the beginning of data collection (e.g. "Jan. 18. 1996, Susan Geer, Rio Salado water balance plot").

Only species which had some green were identified. Many times it was hard to tell whether foliage was green. It was easier to determine foliage color when the sun was not directly overhead. Geen foliage was mentally combined and tallyed to the nearest percent. Anytime green foliage occupied less than half of a 10 cm square area (less than 0.5%), it was classified as "trace." If between 0.5% and 1% was occupied, cover was rounded up to 1%. All foliage that was not green at the time of sampling was classified as "litter." The following is an example of what might have been recorded for one quadrat: "Begin quad 0 0. Gutierrezia sarothrae 5, Dalea jamesii 1, Psilotrope tagetina +, litter 45. End quad 0 0".

Consistency of estimates - To ensure that cover estimates were always made in the same way, the crew leader served as the standard. Before gathering data, each group of plant crew members had a training session in which the crew leader demonstrated collection of percent cover for green foliage only.  The crew did about 10 quadrats as a group, and then members all gathered data independently for another set of quadrats. A crew member estimating cover differently would recieve extra training and practice. Data were compared to detect differences between crew members in September.

The SAS program used to estimate the differences among crew members is called PerDiff.sas, located at /research/local/plant/src/plantcover. Based on the results of such analyses, differences in percent cover were mainly due to site and guild and there were no significant differences among the crew members. A brief documentation can be found at the beginning of the PerDiff.sas program.

Data entry - Data were entered by each crew member using dictaphones to transcribe the microcassttes directly to the computer. The dictaphones were equipped with footpedals and headphones. Therefore, hands were free for data entry. Data were entered using the "emacs" text editor. Each entry line consisted of line, row, plant or litter code, and percent cover.

Codes - Sevilleta plant codes for 1995 (Appendix B) were used, as well as the code "LITT" for litter. The definition of litter for this particular data set is simply non-green organic matter. This non-green organic matter is often part of a plant that is green as well. In fact, during the winter months only a few plants had green foliage on them. Here is an example of data entered from one quadrat at line 0, row 0: 0 0 GUSA2 5

0 0 DAJA 1

0 0 PSTAT +

0 0 LITT 45.

Lineup program - Data for each site were compiled by the crew leader. Date and site were added to all entries, and spacing standardized, using a program called "lineup." After compiling data for a site, the following command was entered: >lineup filename yyyymmdd si > tempfile in which "filename" was the name of the file, "yyyy" was the full year, "mm" was a two number code for month, "dd" the date, "si" a two letter code for location, and "tempfile" a temporary file to hold the modified data. After scanning for errors, the data for each site was appended to the file "water_balance_1995."

Maintenance: 

08/08/95 - File created. JWB
09/01/95 - Searched and replaced the following:
ATCA2 = atca, crna = chna, daji = daja, euph = eupho, euph? = eupho
gipi = gapi, hij = hija, hopdr = hodr, hifi = hyfi, saki = saka
spcp = spco, spha = sphae, spor = sporo, spsp = sporo, stepha =
stpa. S. Geer.
09/11/95 - Corrected a few typing errors, such as row=5,or line=14.
Yang.
***Have added data once per month, July to Dec. 15 December 1995. S. Geer.***

1/22/96 - File created. S. Geer
Note: Aristida purpurea var. longiseta changed from arlo to arpul 5/96.
C.Buxbaum.

1/3/97 - Data for May, 1996 Rio Salado entered. K. Taugher
- Data for May, 1996 Field Station entered. K. Taugher
- Data for June, 1996 Rio Salado entered. K. Taugher
- Data for June, 1996 Field Station entered. K. Taugher
1/6/97 - Data for July, 1996, all sites, entered. K. Taugher
1/7/97 - Data for August, 1996, all sites, entered. K. Taugher
- Data for Sept., 1996, all sites, entered. K. Taugher
- Data for Oct. 1996, Field Station entered. K. Taugher
- Data for Oct. 1996, Rio Salado entered. K. Taugher
1/8/97 - Data for Dec. 1996, all sites, entered. K. Taugher
1/10/97 - Species codes changed to Kartez. K. Taugher
1/22/97 - Changed sphae to Sphae for 19950813 dw 27 3. K. Taugher
- Changed entries that read UNK {grass seedling} to GRASS {seedling}.
(to be more specific). K. Taugher
- Corrected entries that in the process of changing species codes to
Kartez with the "global replacement" command, some codes carried
an extra character. For example arpup was changed to ARPUP6 but in
some cases, ARPUP6 was replaced as ARPUP6 6. I'm not sure why this
happened, but those entries were cleaned up. K. Taugher
2/19/97 - Added Nov and Dec data. K. Taugher
- Realigned columns. K. Taugher
3/12/97 - Changed sedo to SEFLF. K. Taugher
- Changed gaco to GACO5 for Feb. fs plot 3.0. K. Taugher
5/12/97 - Fixed records that had comment fields (i.e., {.*}) inline with
data line, by simply moving comment field to next line below
data line.
Added .dbf extension to file name.
Changed row number from 14 to 24 for the following entries.
19960717 dw 21 24 ARPUP6 6
19960717 dw 21 24 CADR6 1
19960717 dw 21 24 BOER4 12
19960717 dw 21 24 LITT 10
Added missing "}" on comment line. G. Shore.

05/27/97 - Fixed records whose number of columns did not equal the headline
columns for entries:

19960915 fs 3 0 CHNA2 2 1
Changed to : fs 3 0 CHNA2 1
19960915 fs 24 18 CHNA2 2 1
Changed to: fs 24 18 CHNA2 1
19960916 rs 6 24 GUSA2 2 1
Changed to: rs 6 24 GUSA2 1
19960916 rs 24 9 CADR6 6 1
Changed to: rs 24 9 CADR6 1

Changes were made as indicated above as most likely the numerical value
in the Kartez code was somehow carried over/repeated into the next column.
K. Taugher

05/27/97 - Made changes to "UNK" entries when {comments} gave information
which put the "UNK" into a guild. I changed "UNK" to either "FORB" "shrub"
etc...

19960915 fs 3 0 UNK {shrub}
**changed to** 19960915 fs 3 0 SHRUB

19961015 dw 12 6 UNK {forb seedling}
**changed to** 19961015 dw 12 6 FORB

19961015 dw 12 15 UNK {forb}
**changed to ** 19961015 dw12 15 FORB

19961015 dw 15 15 UNK {forb}
**changed to** 19961015 dw 15 15 FORB

19961015 dw 15 18 UNK {forb}
**changed to** 19961015 dw 15 18 FORB

19961015 dw 0 6 UNK {Fabaceae forb}
**changed to 19961015 dw 0 6 FORB

K. Taugher

6/30/97 - Changed ARDI5+ to ARDI5 with a cover value of + for entry
19970716 rs 6 12. K. Taugher

6/30/97 - Changed sphae to Sphae for all August entries. K. Taugher
6/30/97 - Data were added for Aug. Field Station plots #: 0 3, 0 6, 0 9, 0 12, 0 15, 0 18, 0 24,
3 0, 3 3, 3 12, 3 15, 6 3, 6 9 , 6 18, 6 21, 9 0, 9 12, 9 15, 9 21, 9 27 as it was previously missing. K. Taugher

6/30/97 - Changed "DACS4" entries to "DASC4". K Taugher

6/30/97 - Changed "HOGL" entries to "HOGL2". K Taugher
Changed "CAJA" entries to "CAJA6". K. Taugher
Changed "Euho" entry to "Eupho". K. Taugher
Changed "ARCO" entry to "ATCO". K. Taugher
Changed "ATPUP6" entry to "ARPUP6". K. Taugher
Changed "LTIT" entry to "LITT". K. Taugher

1/21/97 - Changed species codes to Kartez.
- Changed solan to Solan for entries:
199509?? rs 6 16, 6 21, 6 18, 3 6, 3 9, 3 15, 0 18
- Changed unkwo to UNK for 19951016 fs 0 12
- Changed saki to SAKA for 19950729 dw 18 12
- Changed euph to Eupho in various places
- Changed eupho to Eupho in various places
- Changed unkno to UNK in various places
- Changed daji to DAJA for 19950724 dw 0 3
- Changed spor to Sporo in various places
- Changed linum to Linum for 19950919 rs 3 18, 0 18
- Changed ???1 to UNK for 19950719 rs 6 12
- Changed penst to Penst for 19950814 dw 0 0
- Changed arist to Arist for 19950919 rs 12 9
- Changed hopdr to CADR6 (formerly hodr) for 19950724 dw 15 21
- Changed gipu to GAPU for 19950814 dw 24 0
- Changed hifi to HYFIC for 19950714 fs 9 18
- Changed stepa to STPA4 for 19950813 rs 18 9
- Changed Spaer to Sphae in various places
- Changed crna to CHNA2 for 19950714 fs 15 9, 3 15
- Cleaned up \log section to make it easier to read (i.e. without
changing any information, I entered the date first, followed
by the action performed on that date). K. Taugher

05/12/97 - Fixed records that had comment fields (i.e., {.*}) inline with
data line by simply moving comment field to next line below
data line.
Removed blank lines at end of file.
Added .dbf extension to file name.
G. Shore.

05/12/97 - Added extra column width to species code field.
Realigned columns.
G. Shore.

06/30/97 - Changed ASNU to ASNU4 and arlo to ARPUL K. Taugher
- Changed spsp codes to Sporo (as indicated by comment made
09/1/95) K. Taugher
- Changed thlo to THLO. K. Taugher
- Changed buer to BOER4, gaura to Gaura, latr to LATR2,
lit to LITT, saki to SAKA, solan to Solan, spsu to SPHA,
forb1 to FORB with a comment of {FORB#1}, forb2 to FORB
with a comment of {FORB#2}, forb3 to FORB with a comment
of {FORB#3}, spta to STPA4. K. Taugher

07/03/97 - Changed "herb" entry to "FORB" (for consistency). K. Taugher
- Changed "huja" entries to "HIJA". K. Taugher.
02/15/97 - Date file created. K. Taugher
09/05/97 - Aligned columns to right justification. K. Taugher
- Imported data for months May, June, July. K. Taugher
09/09/97 - Began error-checking for missing plots. K. Taugher
- Added {}'s around comments for may dw entry that were
previously missing. K. Taugher
- Changed "CADR6+" entry for dw may plot 6 15 to CADR6 +.
K. Taugher
- GUSA2 entry for fs June plot 3 18 had no cover value. In order
to leave GUSA2 represented, I added a cover value of "+".
I attempted to leave the species and/or guild member but not
add much cover (which could potentially artificially increase
the true cover value). Same was done for "GRASS" entry
for July at fs plot 21 3. K. Taugher
- Changed cover value from "=" to "+" for GUSA2 in July at
rs plot 0 0 . K. Taugher
- Changed "LIT" entry for Jan. dw plot 9 6 to "LITT". K. Taugher
and for dw Feb. plot 24 9 . K. Taugher
- Changed "ATC0" to "ATCO" (changed a zero to an O) for Mar.
fs plot 21 15. K. Taugher
- Changed "ARPUP" entry to "ARPUP6" for May rs plot 27 24.
and "ARPU6" entry to "ARPUP6" for May rs plot 27 24. K. Taugher
09/10/97 - Changed "DNANA" entry for dw May plot 6 6 to "DANAN". K. Taugher
- Changed "ERPU4" entries to "ERPU8" for May rs plots 9 0,
6 24, and 6 27. K. Taugher
- Changed various "EUPHO" entries to "Eupho", "SPHAE" entries to
"Sphae" , "SPORO" to "Sporo" and "LINUM" to "Linum" to be
consistent with naming/coding protocol. K. Taugher
- Changed various "GUSA" entries to "GUSA2". K. Taugher
- Changed "HELIA" entry for May fs plot 9 0 to "Helia" to be
consistent with naming/coding protocol (NOTE: this is most
likely HEPE, Helianthus petiolaris). K. Taugher
- Changed "Euphoy" entry to "Eupho" for July rs plot 24 0 .
K. Taugher
- Changed "SPCO" entry to "SPCO4" for Jul dw plot 18 24. K. Taugher
- Changed "OPPO" entry to "OPPOP" for Jul rs plot 15 9 . K. Taugher
09/11/97 - Changed "DAJA6" entry to "DAJA" for Jul dw plot 6 12
and for Jul dw plot 27 27. K. Taugher
- Changed various July entries from "HELIA" to "Helia". K. Taugher
- Changed "MELE" entry to "MELE2" for Jult fs plot 21 3. K. Taugher
- Changed "MEPU" entries to "MEPU3" for July fs plots 15 27
and 18 24. K. Taugher
- Changed "DALEA" entry to "Dalea" for July dw plot 18 24. K.Taugher
- Changed incorrect plot # for June rs from 24 26 to 24 27.K.Taugher
- Changed various entries of "ERPUP8" to "ERPU8". K. Taugher
- Changed "CAJA" entry for June dw plot 27 0 to "CAJA6". K. Taugher
- Changed "HIFIC" entries to "HYFIC" for June fs plots:
0 3, 0 6, and 9 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "SPCO2" entry to "SPCO4" for June dw plot 9 0 . K.Taugher
- Added 11 plots of data for June for fs site that were missing.
K. Taugher
09/12/97 - Added data for June dw that were missing. K. Taugher
- Realigned columns to right justification (again). K.Taugher
- Changed June dw plot entry from "12 O" to "12 0" (i.e.
from the letter O to the number zero (0). K. Taugher
- Changed June dw plot 12 0 entry from "CADR2" to "CADR6"
K. Taugher
- Changed other various "MEPU" entries to "MEPU3" for May. K.Taugher
- Changed "CRCR" entry for May fs plot 21 18 to "CRCR3". K.Taugher
- Changed "DALEA" entry for May dw plot 18 24 to "Dalea". K. Taugher
- Changed "GAC05" entry for May fs plot 0 0 to "GACO5" (a zero
was substituted for the O). K. Taugher
- Changed "HIFIC" entries to "HYFIC" for May dw plot 18 15 and
May rs plot 18 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "DAJA6" entry for Feb dw plot 12 6 to "DAJA". K. Taugher
09/18/97 - Added missing dw data for R. Conn for May. K. Taugher
- Changed various entries for May rs site: Changed "EUPHO" entries
to "Eupho", "LINUM" to "Linum", "SPHAE" to "Sphae", and
"SPORO" to "Sporo" to conform to naming/coding protocol. K. Taugher
- Added missing fs data for July for K. Taugher. K. Taugher
- Added August data. K. Taugher
09/29/97 - Added September data. K. Taugher
- Moved comments from along the righthand side of entry to
the following line. K. Taugher
10/13/97 - Made the following corrections to the data for Sept:
- Changed "EUPUP" to "ERPU8" in various places.
- Changed "GUSA" to "GUSA2" in various places.
- Changed "CEDR6" to "CADR6" in various places.
- Changed "ARPUP" to "ARPUP6" in various places.
- Changed "ERPU" to "ERPU8" in various places.
- Changed "CRCIJJ" to "CRCIJ" for fs 21 27.
- Changed "CRCIR" to "CRCIJ" for fs 21 9 .
- Changed "DIWI" to "DIWI2" for fs 21 12.
- Changed "ERPU2" to "ERPU8" for dw 12 0.
- Changed "ARDI" to "ARDI5" for rs 21 6.
- Changed "ARPO" to "ARPUP6" for rs 21 9.
- Changed "BOGR" to "BOGR2" for fs 21 9.
- Changed "BUER4" to "BOER4" for dw 21 18.
- Changed "BUGR" to "BOGR2" for fs 18 0.
- Changed "CHER6" to "CHER2" for dw 12 24.
- Changed "CRCI" to "CRCIJ" FOR FS 18 9.
- K. TAUGHER
12/12/97 - Imported data for April. K. Taugher
- Added a space between species code and % cover entry for
19970418 fs 3 15 STPA4+. K. Taugher
- Added missing % cover entry for 19970418 dw 12 0 LITT 15.
K. Taugher
- Corrected date entry for X19970922 fs 18 0 EUPU +
to "19970922" as an "X" must have been added in error. K. Taugher
- Changed "ARUP6" to "ARPUP6" for 19970418 rs 6 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "ATCA" to "ATCA2" for 19970418 rs 0 15. K. Taugher
- Changed "CHNA" to "CHNA2" for 19970418 fs 3 15 and
19970418 fs 24 24. K. Taugher
12/15/97 - Changed "PSSC" to "PSSC6" for 19970922 fs 15 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "PSSC" to "PSSC6" for 19970922 fs 18 24. K. Taugher
- Changed "SCBR" to "SCBR2" for 19970923 dw 21 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "MAPI" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 18 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "MAPI" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 18 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "MAPI" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 18 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "MAPI" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 21 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "MIP1C" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 18 0. K. Taugher
- Changed "GUSA24" to "GUSA2" for 19970923 dw 21 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "STPA" to "STPA4" for 19970922 fs 18 9. K. Taugher
- Changed "Forb" to "FORB" for 19970923 rs 21 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "Forb" to "FORB" for 19970923 rs 27 0. K. Taugher
- Changed "Euphor" to "Eupho" for 19970923 rs 9 15. K. Taugher
- Changed "HIFIC" to "HYFIC" for 19970923 dw 9 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 15 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 0. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 9. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 24. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 21 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 21 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 24 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 27 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 27 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "HEPE" to "HEPEP" for 19970923 dw 27 0. K. Taugher
- Changed "HEPE" to "HEPEP" for 19970922 fs 18 27. K.Taugher
- Changed "Spor" to "Sporo" for 19970923 dw 6 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "Spor" to "Sporo" for 19970923 dw 6 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "THFI" to "HYFIC" for 19970922 fs 18 6. K. Taugher
- Added missing data for Sept. fs. K. Taugher
- Changed "DASC42" with no cover value to "DASC4" with a
cover value of "2". K. Taugher
- Changed "DIXI2" to "DIWI2" for 19970922 fs 6 6. K. Taugher
1/9/97 - Added October data. K. Taugher
- Adjusted positioning of comments to correspond with correct
entry. K. Taugher
- Changed brackets on comments from "]" to "}" for
19971016 dw 15 15 FORB + K. Taugher
and for 19971016 dw 18 6 Sporo 1. K. Taugher
- Changed plot # for 19971016 rs 0 18 CHSE7 + to read "0 18"
from "O 18" (i.e. from a letter O to a zero). K. Taugher
- Added a space between species code and cover value for
19971016 fs 21 6 STPA4 +....It previously read:
19971016 fs 21 6 STPA4+. K. Taugher
- Changed species code from "ARPUP8" to the correct code of
"ARPUP6" with a "query-replace" for entries :
19971016 rs 0 0, 0 3, 0 6, 0 12, 0 15, 0 18, 0 27, 3 21,
19971016 rs 3 18, 3 15. K. Taugher
- Changed species code from "ATCA" to the correct code o
"ATCA2" with a "query-replace" for entries:
19971016 rs 0 15, 0 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "CARD6" to "CADR6" for 19971016 dw 21 3. K. Taugher
- Changed "CEDR6" to "CADR6" for 19971016 rs 3 3. K.Taugher
- Changed "CHNA" to "CHNA2" for 19971016 fs 24 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "DAJA6" to "DAJA" with a "query-replace" for entries:
19971016 dw 0 0 , 0 3, 0 6, 3 0, 3 12, 12 9, 12 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "EPRU8" to "ERPU8" for 19971016 fs 21 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "ERPUP" to "ERPU8" for 19971016 fs 3 3. K. Taugher
- Changed "Euphor" to "Eupho" for 19971016 rs 0 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "ZIGR2" to "ZIGR" for 19971016 fs 0 27, 15 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "STPA2" to "STPA4" for 19971016 fs 3 18, 3 3. K. Taugher
- Changed "Guara" to "Gaura" for 19971016 dw 18 15. K. Taugher
- Changed "LIAS" to "LIAUA" for 19971016 rs 21 0. K. Taugher
1/14/97 - Added December data. K. Taugher
1/21/97 - Added November data. K. Taugher
- Justified columns to right justification. K. Taugher

09/14/98 - Date file created. K. Taugher
- Documentation section imported from 1997 file. K. Taugher
- Collection dates added to March, May, June, July, August
and data for those months imported to this file. K. Taugher
- Changed percent cover entries of "0.5" to "+" for the following
data:
For July: rs 15 27 CHLA10 rs 15 24 ARPUP6
rs 18 0 SOEL rs 21 9 DIWI2 rs 21 3 MELE2
dw 15 3 MAPIP dw 15 24 HYFIC dw 18 12 Sphae
fs 15 9 MAPIP fs 15 18 MAPIP fs 18 24 CRCIC
fs 18 21 GUSA2 fs 18 15 DANAN fs 18 9 SPFL2
fs 18 0 BAABA fs 18 0 HYFIC fs 18 0 DANAN
fs 18 0 MELE2 fs 21 3 ZIGR fs 21 3 MELE2
fs 21 9 STPA4 fs 21 9 BAABA fs 21 12 HIJA
fs 21 12 CRCIC fs 21 12 MAPIP fs 21 21 SPFL2

For August: rs 6 9 SOEL rs 6 9 Sporo
rs 6 0 MELE2 rs 9 18 CHAL11 rs 12 24 LIAUA
dw 6 0 CADR6 dw 6 9 Sporo dw 6 12 CHER2
dw 9 18 ERPU8 dw 12 3 CADR6 dw 12 6 GAPI
dw 12 9 DANAN dw 12 21 CADR6 fs 6 0 GACO5
fs 6 12 BAABA fs 6 12 MAPIP fs 9 18 MAPIP
fs 9 9 SPFL2 fs 12 6 PSTAT fs 12 6 ARPUP6
fs 12 24 Poace K. Taugher

- Made the following changes to percent cover entries as only integers
are suitable data:
For July: dw 21 3 ARPUP6 1.5 to 2
dw 21 9 MAPIP 2.5 to 3 fs 15 24 MAPIP 1.5 to 2
fs 21 3 MAPIP 1.5 to 2

For August: rs 6 12 GUSA2 1.5 to 2
rs 6 0 GUSA2 1.5 to 2 rs 9 12 ARPUP6 2.5 to 3
rs 12 9 Sphae 1.5 to 2 rs 12 6 LIAUA 1.5 to 2
rs 12 3 ARPUP6 2.5 to 3 dw 6 27 ERPU8 1.5 to 2
dw 9 3 MAPIP 1.5 to 2 dw 12 3 DAJA 1.5 to 2
dw 12 9 PSTAT 1.5 to 2 fs 12 9 DANAN 2.5 to 3
fs 12 21 MAPIP 1.5 to 2 fs 12 21 DANAN 1.5 to 2
K. Taugher
- Moved various comments to their appropriate lines (i.e. each comment
should occupy its own line immediately following the data it
refers to). K. Taugher
- Removed comments of "unknown Sphaeralcea" from entries of "Sphae"
as these comments are redundant and unnecessary. Comments removed
from the following entries:
For June: rs 0 6, rs 0 9, rs 0 18, rs 3 15, rs 3 18, rs 6 3
and fs 3 24
- Removed comments of "unknown Sporobolus" from entries of "Sporo"
as these comments are redundant and unnecessary. Comments removed
from the following entries:
For June: rs 0 21, rs 3 27, fs 3 6.
- Removed comment of "unknown Fabaceae" from entry of "Fabac"
as this comment is redundant and unnecessary. Comment removed
from: June dw 0 9.
K. Taugher
3/31/99 - Added data for Jan, Feb. and April. K. Taugher
- Changed codes of "GUA2" for January entries of rs 0 9 and
rs 0 18 to "GUSA2" and changed code of "GUAS2" for entry of Jan.
dw 0 21 and dw 6 21 to "GUSA2". K. Taugher
- Changed code of "GRASS SP" for July rs 9 3 to "GRASS". k. Taugher
4/1/99 - Changed code of "ERPUP8" to "ERPU8" for Mar fs 6 21. K. Taugher
- Changed code of "DAJA6" to "DAJA" for Feb dw 12 6. K. Taugher
- Changed the following codes for the month of May:
dw 0 24 Sprae to "Sphae"
dw 18 3 OECEC to "OECEC2"
dw 0 9 LUPIN to "Lupin"
fs 3 24 HIFIC to "HYFIC"
dw 6 9 ERPU9 TO "ERPU8"
fs 15 6 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 9 9 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 9 6 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 9 3 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 9 0 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 6 27 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
rs 18 21 ERP8 TO "ERPU8"
dw 15 3 CYCAF TO "CYACF"
rs 15 24 ATCA TO "ATCA2"
- Changed the following codes for the month of June:
fs 27 27 PSSC to "PSSC6"
4/2/99 - Changed the following codes for the month of July:
dw 9 0 ARIST to "Arist"
rs 9 12 ARIST to "Arist"
rs 9 15 ARIST to "Arist"
rs 15 18 ARPUP8 to "ARPUP6"
rs 18 12 ARPUP to "ARPUP6"
dw 24 15 Forb to "FORB"
fs 15 3 PSSC to "PSSC6"
fs 15 27 PSSC to "PSSC6"
rs 18 9 PSSC to "PSSC6"
rs 9 6 SPHAE to "Sphae"
rs 9 12 SPHAE to "Sphae"
rs 12 9 SPHAE to "Sphae"
dw 9 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 6 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 12 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 15 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 18 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 21 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 12 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 12 9 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 12 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 15 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 6 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 12 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 15 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 18 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 24 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 6 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 9 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 24 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 15 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 6 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 12 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 15 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 18 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 18 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 6 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 9 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 24 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 15 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
K. Taugher
-Changed the following codes for August:
rs 12 24 ARPU6 to "ARPUP6"
fs 3 27 Asclep to "FORB" {Asclepias}
- Added 15 quads to rs data for June as these were missing. K.T.

2/15/00 - Added some standard metadata, and corrected year references. G.Shore.




Additional information: 

Sampling Dates:

1995, Jul 14, 19, 24: fs, rs, dw
1995, Aug 13, 14: fs, rs & dw
1995, Sep 18, 19: fs, rs & dw
1995, Oct 16: all
1995, Nov 17: all
1995, Dec 15: all

Jan: 1/18/96 fs, rs, dw.
Feb: 2/14/96 rs; 2/19/96 dw, fs.
Mar: 3/14/96 dw, rs; 3/15/96 fs.
Apr: 4/17/96 fs, rs; 4/16/96 dw.
May: 5/16/96 dw, rs; 5/15/96 rs.
Jun: 6/13/96 rs, dw; 6/12/96 fs.
Jul: 7/16/96 rs; 7/17/96 dw; 7/18/96 fs.
Aug: 8/12/96 rs; 8/13/96 dw; 8/14/96 fs.
Sept: 9/15/96 fs; 9/16/96 rs; 9/18/96 dw.
Oct: 10/14/96 rs; 10/15/96 fs;
Nov
Dec: 12/16/96 fs, rs, dw.

Jan: 1/20/97 fs, rs, dw.
Feb: 2/12/97 rs, dw, fs.
Mar: 3/17/97 dw, rs, fs.
Apr: 4/18/97 fs, rs, dw.
May: 5/25/97 dw, rs, fs.
Jun: 6/19/97 rs, dw; 6/23/96 fs.
Jul: 7/16/97 rs, dw, fs.
Aug: 8/04/97 rs, dw, fs.
Sept: 9/22/97 fs; 9/23/96 rs, dw.
Oct: 10/16/97 rs, fs, dw.
Nov: 11/17/97 fs, dw, rs.
Dec: 12/17/97 fs, rs, dw.

Jan: 1/10/98 fs, rs, dw.
Feb: 2/15/98 rs, dw, fs.
Mar: 3/25/98 dw, rs, fs.
Apr: 4/11/98 fs, rs, dw.
May: 5/17/98 dw, rs, fs.
Jun: 6/16/98 rs, dw, fs.
Jul: 7/13/96 rs, dw, fs.
Aug: 8/17/98 rs, dw, fs.



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