community structure

Monsoon Rainfall Manipulation Experiment (MRME) Soil Temperature, Moisture and Carbon Dioxide Data from the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2012- present)

Abstract: 

The Monsoon Rainfall Manipulation Experiment (MRME) is designed to understand changes in ecosystem structure and function of a semiarid grassland caused by increased precipitation variability, by altering rainfall pulses, and thus soil moisture, that drive primary productivity, community composition, and ecosystem functioning. The overarching hypothesis being tested is that changes in event size and frequency will alter grassland productivity, ecosystem processes, and plant community dynamics. Treatments include (1) a monthly addition of 20 mm of rain in addition to ambient, and a weekly addition of 5 mm of rain in addition to ambient during the months of July, August and September. It is predicted that changes in event size and variability will alter grassland productivity, ecosystem processes, and plant community dynamics. In particular, we predict that many small events will increase soil CO2 effluxes by stimulating microbial processes but not plant growth, whereas a small number of large events will increase aboveground NPP and soil respiration by providing sufficient deep soil moisture to sustain plant growth for longer periods of time during the summer monsoon.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

304

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Experimental Design

MRME contains three ambient precipitation plots and five replicates of the following treatments: 1) ambient plus a weekly addition of 5 mm rainfall, 2) ambient plus a monthly addition of 20 mm rainfall. Rainfall is added during the monsoon season (July-Sept) by an overhead (7 m) system fitted with sprinkler heads that deliver rainfall quality droplets. At the end of the summer, each treatment has received the same total amount of added precipitation, delivered in different sized events. Each plot (9x14 m) includes subplots (2x2 m) that receive 50 kg N ha-1 y-1. Each year we measure: (1) seasonal (July, August, September, and October) soil N, (2) plant species composition and ANPP, (3) annual belowground production in permanently located root ingrowth cores, and (4) soil temperature, moisture and CO2 fluxes (using in situ solid state CO2 sensors).

Soil Measurements

Soil temperature is measured with Campbell Scientific CS107 temperature probes buried at 2 and 8 cm In the soil. Soil volume water content, measured with Campbell Scientific CS616 TDR probes is an integrated measure of soil water availability from 0-15 cm deep in the soil. Soil CO2 is measured with Vaisala GM222 solid state CO2 sensors. For each plot, soil sensors are placed under the canopy of B. eriopoda at three depths: 2, 8, and 16 cm. Measurements are recorded every 15 minutes.

CO2 fluxes are calculated using the CO2, temperature, and moisture data, along with ancillary variables following the methods of Vargas et al (2012) Global Change Biology

Values of CO2 concentration are corrected for temperature and pressure using the ideal gas law according to the manufacturer (Vaisala). We calculate soil respiration using the flux-gradient method (Vargas et al. 2010) based on Fick’s law of diffusion where the diffusivity of CO2 is corrected for temperature and pressure (Jones 1992) and calculated as a function of soil moisture, porosity and texture (Moldrup et al. 1999).

Data sources: 

sev304_mrme_soiltemp_moisture_co2_2012
sev304_mrme_soiltemp_moisture_co2_2013
sev304_mrme_soiltemp_moisture_co2_2014
sev304_mrme_soiltemp_moisture_co2_2015

Instrumentation: 

Instrument Name: Solid State Soil CO2 sensor
Manufacturer: Vaisala
Model Number: GM222

Instrument Name: Temperature Probe
Manufacturer: Campbell Scientific
Model Number: CS107

Instrument Name: Water Content Reflectometer Probe
Manufacturer: Campbell Scientific
Model Number: CS616

Additional information: 

Additional Study Area Information

Study Area Name: Monsoon site

Study Area Location: Monsoon site is located just North of the grassland Drought plots

Vegetation: dominated by black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda), and other highly prevalent grasses include Sporabolus contractus, S.cryptandrus, S. lexuosus, Muhlenbergia aernicola and Bouteloua gracilis.

North Coordinate:34.20143
South Coordinate:34.20143
East Coordinate:106.41489
West Coordinate:106.41489

Core Site Grid Quadrat Data for the Net Primary Production Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2013- present)

Abstract: 

Begun in spring 2013, this project is part of a long-term study at the Sevilleta LTER measuring net primary production (NPP) across three distinct ecosystems: creosote-dominant shrubland (Site C), black grama-dominant grassland (Site G), and blue grama-dominant grassland (Site B). Net primary production is a fundamental ecological variable that quantifies rates of carbon consumption and fixation. Estimates of NPP are important in understanding energy flow at a community level as well as spatial and temporal responses to a range of ecological processes.

Above-ground net primary production is the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and and foliage, over time and incoporates growth as well as loss to death and decomposition. To measure this change the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, are sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at permanent 1m x 1m plots within each site. A third sampling at Site C is performed in the winter. The data from these plots is used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV999, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." This biomass data is included in SEV999, "Seasonal Biomass and Seasonal and Annual NPP for Core Grid Research Sites."

Data set ID: 

289

Additional Project roles: 

450
451
452
453

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Sampling Quadrats:

Each sampling grid contains 40 1x1m quadrats in a 5x8 array. However, only 30 quadrats are sampled at each. These are quadrats 1-15 and 26-40. Thus, the middle two rows (i.e., 10 quadrats) are not sampled. Locating the Sampling Quadrats: Three core sites (B, G, and C) contain five rodent trapping and vegetation sampling webs. The vegetation grids are near these webs at each core site. At the blue grama site, the grid is located at the southern end of web 5, between webs 2 and 4. At the creosote site, the grid is east of web 3, near the road. At the black grama site, the grid is just northeast of web 5.

Collecting the Data:

Net primary production data is collected twice each year, spring and fall, for all sites. The Five Points Creosote Core Site is also sampled in winter. Spring measurements are taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals have reached peak biomass. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals have reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. Winter measurements are taken in February before the onset of spring growth.

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection.

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-The cover of forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs is measured as the horizontal area of the plant. If the species is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement if it increases cover. If the species is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecanthaOpuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest cm instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria viviparaSchlerocactus intertextusEchinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground.

Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat.

Creosote Measurements till 2013:

To measure creosote (i.e., Larrea tridenta) break the observations into two categories:

1.)Small, individual clusters of foliage on a branch (i.e., branch systems): Measure the horizontal cover of each live (i.e., green) foliage cluster, ignoring small open spaces (keeping in mind the 15% guideline stated above). Then measure the vertical "height" of each cluster from the top of the foliage to a plane created by extending a line horizontally from the bottom of the foliage. Each individual foliage cluster within a bush is considered a separate observation.

2.) Stems: Measure the length of each stem from the base to the beginning of live (i.e., green) foliage. Calculate the cumulative total of all stem measurements. This value is entered under "height" with the species as "stem" for each quadrat containing creosote. All other variable receive a default entry of "1" for creosote stem measurements. Do not measure dead stems or areas of dead foliage. If in doubt about whether a stem is alive, scrape the stem with your fingernail and check for the presence of green cambium.

Creosote Measurements 2013 and after:

Each creosote is only measured as one total cover. Each quad that contains creosote will have one cover observation for each creosote canopy in quad.

Recording the Data:

Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). Finally, "g" for "grid," along with the site abbreviation, should be added (i.e., gc, gg, gb). The final format for sites B, G, and C should be as follows: npp_core.mm.dd.yy.abgg.xls. File names should be in lowercase.

Data sources: 

sev289_nppgridquadrat_20161214.csv

Additional information: 

Other researchers involved with collecting samples/data: Chandra Tucker (CAT; 04/2014-present), Megan McClung (MAM; 04/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 2013-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2009-06/2013).

Bird Community Assessment in Grassland, Shrubland, and Woodland Habitats at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1991-1997)

Abstract: 

This project was designed to sample the richness and abundance of birds on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge. Three types of habitat were surveyed: grassland, creosote shrubland and pinyon-juniper woodland.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

17

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Data was collected from 1991 through 1997.  Each habitat was sampled on a single morning in winter, spring, summer, and fall, totalling three sampling efforts per year per site. Sampling was done in the last two weeks of February, May, August, and December.  Year-to-year variation likely affected bird patterns relative to the schedule, but these dates generally enabled an accurate sampling of species richness and abundance. Weather permitting, each of the three habitats were surveyed over three consecutive days.  Unseasonable conditions, windy mornings (7+ mph), and rain were avoided.

Bird densities were sampled using a Variable Circular Plot Census technique. There were eight sampling locations in each of the three habitat types. (However, the sampling design did not include replication, and, therefore, estimates of density should be considered tentative.)  At each sampling location the observer stood at a stake for nine minutes and scanned for bird activity. All individuals seen and/or heard within a 200 meter radius were recorded. 

For each bird observation these variables were recorded: species ID (according to the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU)), estimated distance from sampling location in meters, cardinal direction, and detection mode (sight or sound). The observer also tallied individuals flying over a sample area and included these in the data. Additional birds observed while travelling between sampling locations were noted but not included in the data set.  Finally, weather conditions at the beginning and end of each daily sample were recorded. This included an estimate of wind speed (mph) and cloud cover (using an eight-point scale: 0 (clear) to 8 (completely overcast)), and a measurement of temperature.

Data sources: 

sev017_birdpop_09251997.txt

Maintenance: 

*Disk given to James Brunt by Greg Farley.
*File uploaded on 19 Feb 1993 by Melissa Chavez.
*File checked for mistakes on same day.
*Documentation started on 22 Feb 1993 by Melissa Chavez. Location and Procedures taken directly from sheets written by Greg Farley and Robert Parmenter.
*Documentation entered completed on 24 Mar 1993 by Melissa Chavez and newest data entered, from March 1993.
*Data from 1993 day 140 thru 1994 day 4 added on 17 Jan 1994 by Melissa Chavez. Check for dbf on same day.
*Total updated file including 1994 data delivered by Greg Farley to James Brunt during the week of 10 October 1994. Data made into an archivable format by lining up the columns and checking for rdb workability and checking for other errors on 18 October 1994 by Melissa Chavez. The latest collection dates also added.
*The the last dates from 1994 were added on 3 Jan 1995 and all checks were made and sent to James Brunt for archival.
*Data from Spring 1995 was added on 11 July 1995 by Melissa Chavez from disk given to James by Greg Farley. Notes with disk: In addition, in the protocol the first two grassland sammpling stations should be  changed as follows:

old # new #
138 146
139 147

The stations are in the same location, the tags have changed after the old ones were buried

*Data from fall 1995 through spring 1997 was collected and compiled by Mike Friggens. This data was added on September 12, 1997 by Mike Friggens. Some changes in the protocol were also made at this time, especially including a complete list of AOU codes for birds encountered on these transects to date.
*Archived by Gregg MacKeigan on 19 Sep 1997 as bird_transect_91-97.dbf.


Additional information: 

Grassland: The sampling locations for the grassland habitat are located along the road between Black Butte and 5-Points. Stations are numbered as follows, from north to south: 146, 147, 140, 141 142, 143, 144 and 145. All stakes are located  on the east side of the road. As one drives south from Black Butte, Station #138 (changed to 146 in the spring of 1995 because old tag lost) is located 1.2 miles south of the road intersection immediately east of Black Butte. Stations are then located at 0.5 mile intervals. There are eight total stations.

Creosote: The sampling locations for the creosote shrubland are located on or near the road that runs along the north rim of  Palo Duro Canyon (east and west of 5-points). Stakes are numbered from #130 through #137, and are located on the north side of the road.

Stake locations are as follows:

#130 West of 5-points at Pipeline Road; mileage = 0.0
#131 Heading east, site is on road; mileage = 0.3
#132 Heading east, site is on road; mileage = 0.6
#133 Turn south on "Neck Road", site is on road (stake is on west side of road); mileage = 1.0 from # 130
#134 Return to main east-west read, turn east and proceed to intersection of road coming from north (the "common garden" road). Keep going east 0.1 mile, and look for flagged stake on south side of road. Sample point is 200 meters south of road near the tall "A-100" rebar post of the rodent trapping web.
#135 At 5-points, in the center of the triangle formed by the three main roads. Flagged stake is on the east-west road, north side. Sample point is 50 meters north of road. Zero odometer here for next two stations.
#136 Proceed east on road 0.3 miles from #135. Flagged stake in on north side of road, and sample point is 50 meters north of road.
#137 Proceed east on road 0.7 miles from # 135. Flagged stake is on north side of road. Sample point is on road.

Pinyon-Juniper: Sample locations are in Goat Draw. All sample points are off the main road, on high ground to one side or the other. Flagged stakes mark parking positions on road, and flagged, numbered stakes mark sampling points. Stations are numbered from #121 in the lower canyon to #129 in the upper canyon. There are nine total staions (eight regular stations and one station at the Goat Draw well site). Odometer is zeroed at sign-in box near entrance gate.

Stake locations are as follows:

#121 Mileage = 0.7 Sample location is on hill to west.
#122 Mileage = 1.3 Goat Draw Well. Sample location is on small hill west of well near house ruins.
#123 Mileage = 1.7 Sample location is on hill to west.
#124 Mileage = 2.2 Sample location is on hill to west.
#125 Mileage = 2.7 Sample location is on hill to west.
#126 Mileage = 3.35 Sample location is to the east of road on ridgetop.
#127 Mileage = 3.7 Sample location is on top of hill by road.
#128 Mileage = 4.3 Sample location is at Meteorological Station approximately 150 meters to the west.
#129 Mileage = 4.7 Sample location is on hill to north (right side of road).

Here is a list of the AOU codes used:

	AOU#	Common Name

293 - Scaled Quail
295 - Gambel's Quail
309.1 - Ring-necked Pheasant
316 - Mourning Dove
331 - Northern Harrier
332 - Sharp-shinned Hawk
333 - Cooper's Hawk
337 - Red-tailed Hawk
360 - American Kestrel
342 - Swainson's Hawk
348 - Ferruginous Hawk
375 - Great Horned Owl
396 - Ladder-backed Woodpecker
413 - Red-shafted Flicker
418 - Common Poorwill
420 - Common Nighthawk
421 - Lesser Nighthawk
432 - Broad-tailed Hummingbird
447 - Western Kingbird
448 - Cassin's Kingbird
454 - Ash-throated Flycatcher
457 - Say's Phoebe
467.9 - unidentified Empidonax sp.
474 - Horned Lark
481 - Scrub Jay
486 - Common Raven
492 - Pinyon Jay
495 - Brown-headed Cowbird
501 - Eastern Meadowlark
501.1 - Western Meadowlark
504 - Scott's Oriole
508 - Bullock's Oriole
519 - House Finch
520 - Pine Siskin
530 - Lesser Goldfinch
538 - Chestnut-collared Longspur
539 - McCown's Longspur
540 - Vesper Sparrow
552 - Lark Sparrow
559 - American Tree Sparrow
560 - Chipping Sparrow
562 - Brewer's Sparrow
567.7 - Dark-eyed Sparrow (Junco)
573 - Black-throated Sparrow
574 - Sage Sparrow
578 - Cassin's Sparrow
581 - Song Sparrow
587 - Rufous-sided Towhee
590 - Green-tailed Towhee
591 - Brown Towhee
596 - Black-headed Grosbeak
597 - Blue Grosbeak
605 - Lark Bunting
607 - Western Tanager
612 - Cliff Swallow
615 - Violet-green Swallow
616 - Bank Swallow
617 - Rough-winged Swallow
622 - Loggerhead Shrike
629 - Solitary Vereo
655 - Yellow-rumped Warbler
668 - Townsend's Warbler
680 - MacGillivray's Warbler
702 - Sage Thrasher
703 - Northern Mockingbird
705 - Brown Thrasher
708 - Bendire's Thrasher
713 - Cactus Wren
715 - Rock Wren
719 - Bewick's Wren
721 - House Wren
727 - White-breasted Nuthatch
728 - Red-breasted Nuthatch
733 - Plain Titmouse
735 - Black-capped Chickadee
738 - Mountain Chickadee
743 - Bushtit
749 - Ruby-crowned Kinglet
751 - Blue-gray Gnatcatcher
754 - Townsend's Solitaire
761 - American Robin
767 - Western Bluebird
768 - Mountain Bluebird

Effects of Kangaroo Rats on Plant Species Dominance in a Chihuahuan Desert Grassland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1988)

Abstract: 

Our objective was to evaluate the effects of burrowing activities by banner-tail kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis Merriam) on plant community structure and species dominance for two patch types at an ecotone between shortgrass steppe and desert grasslands in New Mexico, USA. Ten mounds produced by kangaroo rats were selected in patches dominated by Bouteloua gracilis (the dominant in shortgrass steppe communities) and ten mounds were selected in patches dominated by Bouteloua eriopoda (the dominant in Chihuahuan desert grasslands). Plant cover and density by species were sampled from three locations associated with each mound: the mound proper, the edge of the mound in the transition area, and the off-mound vegetation. Similar cover of B. eriopoda for the edges of mounds in both patch types indicates the ability of this species to respond to animal disturbances regardless of the amount of cover in the surrounding undisturbed vegetation. By contrast, cover of B. gracilis was low for all mounds and mound edges in patches dominated by this species. Much higher cover of B. eriopoda on mound edges compared to the undisturbed vegetation in B. gracilis- dominated patches indicates that kangaroo rats have important positive effects on this species. Lower cover of perennial grasses and higher cover of forbs, shrubs, and succulents on the edges of mounds in B. eriopoda - dominated patches compared to patches dominated by B. gracilis indicate the importance of surrounding vegetation to plant responses on disturbed areas. Our results show that kangaroo rats have important effects on both species dominance and composition for different patch types, and may provide a mechanism for small-scale dominance patterns at an ecotonal boundary; thus providing further support for their role as keystone species in desert grasslands.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

144

Additional Project roles: 

190

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev144_kratdominance_08052003.txt

Methods: 

Study Description

Kangaroo rats have dramatic affects on vegetation structure in a number of patch types or landscape units including those dominated by various species of grasses and shrubs. As a result of these large effects on the vegetation relative to their low abundance, bannertail kangaroo rats have been identified as keystone species. At the ecotone between Chihuahuan desert grasslands and shortgrass steppe communities in central New Mexico, kangaroo rats affect patches dominated by Bouteloua eriopoda (Torr.) Torr. (black grama), the dominant grass in Chihuahuan desert grasslands, or Bouteloua gracilis (H. B. K.) Lag ex Steud. (blue grama), the dominant grass in shortgrass steppe communities. These two species differ in their life history traits, especially in response to disturbances that may affect their ability to dominate in the presence of small disturbances, such as mounds produced by banner-tail kangaroo rats. B. eriopoda is a short-lived grass that may respond rapidly to disturbance through the production of long stolons. By contrast, B. gracilis is a long-lived, slow-growing bunchgrass with limited ability to respond to disturbance either vegetatively or through seedling establishment. Differences in species or lifeform composition of patches dominated by one or the other Bouteloua species may result in patch-specific patterns in vegetation associated with mounds.
Study Begin Date: 1-Jun-1998
Study End Date: 1-Aug-1998

Research Methods

Study Methods: Mound selection: Banner-tail kangaroo rat mounds were selected from within patches dominated by either B. eriopoda or B. gracilis where dominance was based on average cover > 750f total plant cover. We identified a total of eight patches, four dominated by each Bouteloua species, from within a 400m x 1000 m area; each patch was ca 200 m x 200m in size. From within each patch, we identified five active kangaroo rat mounds where activity was determined by unobstructed entrances to burrows and/or fresh fecal material near a mound. Only active mounds were used in this study in order to minimize variation in vegetation and soil properties due to recovery processes that begin after a mound is abandoned. Although mound age could not be determined, mounds are sufficiently long-lived (> 30y) that differences in age are unlikely to affect vegetation dynamics. We then randomly selected a total of ten mounds to be sampled in each patch type. The area of each mound was estimated by measuring its outer length in two cardinal directions (north-south, east-west), and assuming an elliptical shape. Because average mound size was similar in B. eriopoda (11.3 m2) and B. gracilis (12.0 m2), mound size was not needed as a covariate in our analyses.

Vegetation sampling: Average mound radius was used to locate the center of each mound. Vegetation was sampled in July along four transects radiating within 5o of the four cardinal directions from the center of each mound, and extending to a distance of 25 meters away in vegetation considered typical of the patch type between mounds. Variation in the direction was necessary to avoid nearby mounds. Data were collected using a 2.0-m2 quadrat placed at nine locations along each transect (in m from the mound center): 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, and 25.0. Distance between quadrats was short near the mound to allow intense sampling of this area and to increase sample size; most of the length of each transect was contained in the typical patch vegetation, thus longer distances between quadrats were used. Each quadrat was recorded as occurring at one of three locations: on the mound ("mound"), at the edge of the mound in the transition area ("edge"), or off the mound in typical vegetation between mounds ("off-mound"). Locations were defined based upon the frequency and intensity of burrowing activities of kangaroo rats as well as the amount of bare ground. Mound locations were characterized by frequent, unobstructed entrances to burrows, predominantly bare ground, and elevated topography. Edges were defined as the transitional area surrounding mounds that contained few burrows with an intermediate amount of bare ground. Off-mound vegetation was characterized by no burrowing activity and low amounts of bare ground.

For each quadrat, canopy cover only (to the nearest 1%) was estimated for bare ground and litter combined, and by species for perennial grasses where vegetative spread by tillers or stolons makes identification of individuals difficult, thus density estimates are imprecise. Data were collected by species for B. eriopoda, B. gracilis, and other frequently occurring grasses including Hilaria jamesii, Sporobolus flexuosus, and Aristida purpurea; all other perennial grasses were combined into one cover estimate for each quadrat. Canopy cover (%) and density (no./2 m2) were estimated for species where individual plants are easily determined, including shrubs (Gutierrezia sarothrae, Ephedra viridis) and succulents (Yucca glauca, Opuntia spp.). Cover and density of annual and perennial forbs and sub-shrubs including Psilostrophe tagetina, Glandularia wrightii, Hymenopappus filifolius, Sphaeralcea spp., Machaeranthera pinnitifida, Solanum elaeagnifolium, Plantago patagonica, Salsola kali, Astragalus spp., Chaetopappa ericoides, Cryptantha crassisepala, and Kraschninnikovia lanata were determined as a group for each quadrat due to low frequencies of occurrence. Because sampling was conducted in the middle of the growing season (July), cover of all species are likely under estimates of peak growth for that year.

Statistical analyses: The data were analyzed using analysis of variance to test for the significance of patch type (B. eriopoda- or B. gracilis - dominated) and sampling location (mound, edge, off-mound) on cover or density of the vegetation. The design included patch type as the between subjects factor and location as the within subject factor. Dependent variables were analyzed separately, and included cover of five species or species-groups: (1) B. eriopoda; (2) B. gracilis; (3) other grasses combined; (4) forbs, shrubs and succulents combined; and (5) the total. Species-groups were used for grasses other than the two Bouteloua species, and for forbs, shrubs and succulents due to small sample sizes for individual species. Density of the forbs, shrubs, and succulents group was also analyzed. Least significant difference (LSD) means comparison tests were used to identify significantly different means at the 0.05 level. Two separate means comparisons tests were conducted for each response variable. Effects of patch type were determined by comparing cover or density of each species or group within the three locations. A similar analysis was conducted for determining effects of location on cover or density within each patch type.

Maintenance: 

July 25, 2003 -- File created by Kristin Vanderbilt from Excel metadata and data files submitted by Deb Peters. -- KLV

Additional information: 

Additional Information on the personnel associated with the Data Collection / Data Processing

Other field crew members: Jon Erz & Teresa Seamster

Pinon Branch Demography Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1989-1993)

Abstract: 

This project was designed to investigate the response of plant growth and reproduction to short- and long-term variation in biotic and abiotic environmental variables. Several perennial taxa, including tree (Juniperus monsperma and Pinus edulis), shrub (Larrea tridentata) and bunch grasses (Oryzopsis hymenoides (now Achnaterum hymenoides) and Sporobolus contractus) species, were monitored at 1-3 sites differing in elevation and topography as well as edaphic variables and annual precipitation. The sites represented optimal or marginal/transitional zones for particular species. Demographic measurements were made biannually, after the 'wet' (fall) and 'dry' (spring) seasons. For tree and shrub species, estimates of growth and reproduction were based on branch demography, with ten branch tips from 10-20 individuals per species per site repeatedly measured from 1989-1993.  For J. monsperma, P. edulis and L. tridentata, vegetative growth (i.e., branch growth) as well as reproduction were monitored. Additional measurements included needle length for P. edulis and leaf production, leaf size and branchlet production for L. tridentata. For grasses, basal diameter, leaf length and reproduction were monitored for 100 individuals per species per site.

This project, SEV006, contains only data on pinon branch demography.  Data on other variables and species is contained in SEV024, SEV025, SEV026, SEV027, and SEV028.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

6

Additional Project roles: 

224

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev6_pinyondemography_20160303.txt

Methods: 

Tree Selection - Ten numbered pinon trees were randomly selected at each study site; five on the north slope of a canyon and five on the south slope.  Numbers were assigned to trees which were then sampled by random selection.

Branch Selection - Ten branches approximately 1.5 meters above the ground were chosen and assigned numbers (1-10).

Tag Placement - Tags were placed about six centimeters from the tip of a selected branch.

Blength - The length of the branch from the tag wire (or paint mark) to the branch apex.

Fascicles - The length of the most distal cluster of leaves on the branch, the present year's cohort of leaves.

Needle1 - The length, from tip to attachment point, of one needle in a cluster included in a length-with-fascicles measurement.

Needle2 - A measurement of second needle in a cluster.

Male - A measure of the length of a branch containing male cones. If the tagged branch diverged before reaching the apex, producing two or more male cones, the individual lengths were added together as one male cone branch length.

Female - The number of female cones on a measured branch.

Codes - The codes used for species in this study follow Kartesz abbreviation standards (Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Timber Press, Oregon). Codes consist of four-to-six characters and are alphanumeric .  A comprehensive list of all plant species found on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge and their associated codes can be found on the Sevilleta Information Management System (SIMS) at:

/export/db/local/plant/lib/species_kartesz_codes_.lst.

Maintenance: 

I. Condensed log of activity of plant demography data:
  a. Individual documentations iniatiated 1989; Troy Maddux
  b. File (combined documentations) 31 August 1990; Troy Maddux
  c. Abstract (Written by Diane Marshall and Charles Wisdom) put in documentation 31 August 1990; Troy Maddux
  d. Documentation expanded 2 September 1990; Troy Maddux
  e. Concatenation of individual documentations iniatiated September 1990, completed 17 December 1990; Michelle Murillo
  f. File expanded into rdb file 17 December 1990; Michelle Murillo
  g. Rdb file checked, and errors eliminated 18 December 1990; Michelle Murillo
  h. KEYWORDS added 19 December 1990; James Brunt
  i. Random error checking completed 20 December 1990; Michelle Murillo
  j. File complete and archived 21 December 1990; Michelle Murillo & Greg Shore
 
     Documentation changed to reflect changes in datafile structure; 1 March 91 T. Maddux  

II. Detailed log of alterations/modifications of plant demography data:

This portion of the log contains details of all alterations and modifications applied to this file by Michelle Murillo. The file demography.dat was initiated in September 1990 by concatenating individual files into the demography.dat file. A generic header was devised to apply to all individual files. The header reads as such: date season site species station plant# branch# #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8, and the detailed description of the numbers 1-8 are listed in the documentation section of this file. The individual files were then modified to follow this header, which entailed rearranging of columns (generally the season, site, species, station, plant#, and branch#) and the addition of the date column. As the columns numbered 1-8 did not pertain to all individual files, non-applicables (na) were inserted where necessary. Other alterations included:

    1. Juniper 1989: Sepultura Canyon; addition of na's to presence/absence of male or female cones, depending on sex of tree, i.e. if tree was female then na's were inserted in the male column. Goat Draw; same as Sepultura Canyon
    2. juniper 1990: (Sepultura Canyon site has been discontinued) Goat Draw (season 1); orginal file contained x,y and --'s; which were converted to 0 (absence) and 1 (presence) and appropriate na's were inserted, depending on sex of tree Goat Draw (season 2); orginal file contained +'s for presence of cones; which were converted to 1 (presence) and appropriate na's were inserted depending on sex of tree.

        NOTE: In 1989 width of branch was measured, and in 1990 this measurement was no longer taken. (The orginal data sheets for 1989-2 are unavailable at the time of archiving, assumption is that this measurement applies to season 2 also ).  In 1990 the length of branchlet was measured which was not measured in 1989. (See documentation).
        NOTE: In 1989 (both seasons) the variable, number of branchlets, was not included. In 1990 the variable was added, but measurements of this variable was sporadic, occuring only in a few plants.

    3. grasses 1989/1990: All sites: addition of na's to branch#

Error checking was done as follows:

Two files, grasses 1990-season 1, and creosote 1990-season 1, had not been entered at the time of concatenation of individual files, and were therefore entered by Michelle Murillo. These two files were error checked by Michelle Murillo by visual checking of original data sheets with the files on 18 December 1990. On 17 December 1990, the expand program was applied to the demography.dat file and placed into the demography.rdb file. The rdb file was then checked for various errors, and the elimination of these errors were completed on 18 December 1990. On 19-20 December 1990, random error checking was conducted by using 'Tables for Statistical Data-Analysis'. One hundred and fifty entries were checked and approximiately 45 percent of the numbers were from 1989-season 2, and because the data sheets were unavailable, the entries were not error checked. On 23 December 1990, visual checking with the original data sheets was conducted for an overall check.

File initiated June 1991: MLM
season 1 entered: MLM
season 2 entered: KPM
Black Butte, season 2 entered and error checked, 7 Jan 1992: MLM
data entry complete 25 October 1991:  KPM
data error checking completed 8 November 1991:  KPM

Documentation updated (New people and times added) on 29 Jan 1992 and inserted into data file by Troy Maddux.

  1992 log

    * Put the 1992 data in the data base on 22 Oct 1992 Troy Maddux.


THE FOLLOWING IS THE LOG FOR THE SPRING 1992 DEMOGRAPHY DATA


    * File initiated by Troy Maddux 24 Aug 1992
    * Goat Draw PIED information entered by Michael Bradley
    * and sent to Troy Maddux Wed Aug 19 15:31:03 1992 and these
    * data added to this file by T. Maddux on 15 Oct 1992
    * Black butte data added to this file 15 Oct 1992
    * Many SPCO4 plants in plots 2 and 3 of Five Points had no
    * data for the inflorescence # so this was added (it was 0)
    * on 15 Oct 1992 by Troy Maddux
    * Removed extra '0' from rs SPCO4 #531-534 - 16 Oct 1992, T.M.
    * Pulled \doc from 1991 demography data to change for 1992 data 16 Oct 1992; T.M.
    * Who and When data were collected was added 20 Oct 1992; T.M.  

THE FOLLOWING IS THE LOG FOR THE FALL 1992 DEMOGRAPHY DATA
    *File initiated 16 Sep 1992 by Tiffany Cotlar
    *Data file from Tiffany Cotlar and a data file from Robin Abell combined; also blank lines removed from both files; this was done by Troy Maddux on 20 Oct 1992.
    *File initiated 16 Sep 1992 by Robin Abell
    *PIED #'s 9,13,23,15,17,36,41,42 by Robin Abell 16 Sep 1992
    *JUMO #'s 26,23,24,28,49,5,8,17,13,22,36,41,47,4,15,27,32,46,42
    * by Robin Abell 16 Sep 1992
    *LATR2 #'s (Five Points) 2,3,5,26 by Robin Abell 23 Sep 1992
    *SPCO4 #'s (Station B) 61,92,93,94,95,99,101,103,104,105,108,109
    * 109.1,110,110.1,111,112,112.1,122,125,126,127,130,148,149,402
    * by Robin Abell 23 Sep 1992
    *LATR2 #'s (Five Points) 90,92,96 by Robin Abell 24 Sep 1992
    *LATR2#'s (Rio Salado) 1,14,17 by Robin Abell 1 Oct 1992
    *changed typo: juno to JUMO; 20 Oct 1992, T.M.
    *added additional field to grass data to make the field # correct 20 Oct 1992, TM.

File submitted for archival 22 OCT 1992 - Troy Maddux

File initiated by Troy Maddux 22 Apr 1993 combining data entered by Ursula Bonhage, Roger Stupf, Christian Heierli, Marilyn Altenbach, and
Eric Scherff.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
*Data for:    
*        PIED 28, 32, 36
*    entered by Ursula Bonhage 14 Apr 1993.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
*Data for:
*        PIED 4, 5, 8, 9, 13, 15
* entered by M. Altenbach & E. Scherff 14 April 93.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
*Data for:
*        pinyon 17,22,23,24 and
* entered by  M. Altenbach & 16 April 93.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
* Data entered for:
*        PIED 26,27,41,42,46,47,49
* by eric and marilyn on 13 and 14 April 1993
----------------------------------------------------------------------
* Documentation taken from 91-92 archive data set and modified for this data set.  18 Oct 1993, by Troy Maddux.
* Filled in "Who" and "When" sections from the data sheets - Troy Maddux - 16 Nov 1993.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
****************************************
    1993 FALL DATA
****************************************
File for Black Butte orhy data created by Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on September 21, 1993. Data collected by Marilyn Altenbach and Eric Scherff on September 14, 1993
****************************************
File for Five Points Sporobolus information created by Cynthia Gregoire & Eric Scherff on 21 September 1993. Data collected by Marilyn Altenbach & Eric Scherff on 14 September 1993 and 15 September 1993. File appended by Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on 22 September 1993. Changed "nd" representing "no data" to "na" to be consistent with other data bases. - Troy Maddux - 8 Nov 1993.
****************************************
File for pinyons created by Eric Scherff on 10 September 1993 File appended by Eric Scherff on 15 September 1993 Data collected by M. Altenbach & E. Scherff on 9 September, 10 September, and 13 September.
****************************************
Different fall plant data put together into single archive file by Troy Maddux on 8 Nov 1993.
****************************************
Spring and Fall data put together in Archive File format 17 Nov 1993. by Troy Maddux - also changed nd's and dashes to na's.            
****************************************
9 Dec 1993 - Demography file contained all species - all but the pinyon information was taken from this file by Troy Maddux.
****************************************
10 Dec 1993 - Documentation section changed to reflect only pinyon and not other measured species (e.g. jumo, latr, orhy, and spco). Troy Maddux
****************************************
10 Feb 1994 - Documentation section compared to Doc. Manual and necessary changes made by Rosemary Vigil; Troy Maddux replaced four occurances of "na" with 0.
****************************************

14 March 1994. Separated the big demography-89-90 file into four parts; grass, pinyon, creosote, and juniper.  Rupal Shah went through and separated the file and edited the documentation.

* 3 Jan 1995 - replaced a couple of enigmatic X's with "na"'s - Troy Maddux.

3/19/98 - Changed species codes to Kartesz. K. Taugher
    - Added a final line to dataset of: "{END OF DATA}". K. Taugher
    - Updated metadata to reflect species code changes. K. Taugher

9/23/09 - Added Kartesz reference. K. Taugher

Additional information: 

1989: First Census - May 8,9,11 of 1989; Second Census - September 5 of 1989.

1990: First Census - This equals season  1 in the header for the data.  The data were collected from 27 Apr 1990 to 17 May 1990. Second Census - This equals season  2 in the header for the data. The data were collected from 5 Sep 1990 - 20 Sep 1990.

1991: First Census - 16 Apr 1991 - 15 May 1991. Second Census - 4 Aug 1991 - 13 Sep 1991.

1992: First Census - The first census was performed on the following dates: 15 Apr, 16 Apr, 22 Apr, 23 Apr, 27 Apr, 28 Apr, 29 Apr, 30 Apr, 1 May, 19 May, 21 May, 27 May, 28 May, 1 Jun, 2 Jun, 12 Jun 1992. Second Census - The second census was performed on 14-17 Sep, 22-24 Sep, 29 Sep, 5-7 Oct 1992.

1993: First Census - Goat Draw pinyon and juniper were measured on: 14 Apr; and 15 Apr 1993. Second Census - Goat Draw pinyon and juniper were measured on: 9 Sep; 10 Sep; and 13 Sep 1993.

The data for the first census (May) were collected by Ann Evans (Asst. Professor/UNM), Troy Maddux (Head Plant Tech/LTER), Sam Loftin (Graduate Student/UNM), Marikay Ramsey (Head Animal Tech/LTER), Joran Viers (Plant Tech/LTER), Michelle Murillo (Plant Tech/LTER), Jennifer Franklin (Plant Tech/LTER), Amy Shortess (Plant Tech/LTER).  The data for the second census (September) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Tech/LTER), Amy Shortess (Plant Tech/LTER), David Keller (Plant Tech/LTER).

1991: The data for the first census  (May) were collected by Roger Mongold (Plant Technician), Brad Swanson (Plant Technician), Joran Viers (Plant Technician), Kathleen McGee (Plant Technician), Sam Loftin (Graduate Student Technician), and Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician).  The data for the second census (May) were collected by Jim Stanton (Plant Technician), Susan Prichard (Plant Technician), and Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician).
 
1992: The data for the first census (Apr-Jun) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician) and the following plant technicians: Marilyn Altenbach, Michael Bradley, Melissa Chavez, Anthony Collier, Julie Knight, Ivan Ortiz, Amanda Persaud, Monica Valdez.  The data for the second census (Aug-Oct) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician), Robin Abell (Plant Technician), and Tiffany Cotlar (Plant Technician).

1993: SPRING CENSUS - Roger Stupf (Volunteer from Switzerland), Ursula Bonhage (Volunteer from Switzerland), Christian Heierli (Volunteer from Switzerland), Marilyn Altenbach (Field Crew Chief), Eric Scherff (Field Tech), Troy Maddux (Vegetation Studies Program Manager). FALL CENSUS - Cynthia Gregoire (Volunteer from Vermont), Marilyn Altenbach (Field Crew Chief), Eric Scherff (Field Tech).

Ground Arthropod Community Survey in Grassland, Shrubland, and Woodland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1992-2004)

Abstract: 

This data set contains records for the numbers of selected groups of ground-dwelling arthropod species and individuals collected from pitfall traps at 4 sites on the Sevilleta NWR, including creotostebush shrubland, both black and blue grama grasslands, and a pinyon/juniper woodland. Data collections begin in May of 1989, and are represented by subsequent sample collections every 2 months. One site (Goat Draw/Cerro Montosa) was discontinued in 2001, and a new site (Blue Grama) was initiated . Only three sites, creosotebush, black grama, and blue grama were continued between 2001-2004.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

29

Additional Project roles: 

332
333
334
335

Keywords: 

Purpose: 

To monitor the species composition and relative abundance's of select ground dwelling arthropod taxa and trophic groups from principal long-term study sites/environments in relation to climate change and plant production. 

Data sources: 

sev029_arthropop_02162009

Methods: 

Experimental Design

Arthropods have been collected from four subjectively chosen sites on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), representing the following habitat types:  pinyon-juniper (elev. 2195 m), black grama grassland, blue grama grassland, and creosotebush shrubland (elev. ~1400 m for all three). At each of the four sites there were 30 traps arranged in five replicate lines with six traps per line.  Each line was located outside a mammal trapping web, except at Goat Draw, where mammal trapping webs were installed three years after the arthropod traps.  In 1995 Robert Parmenter and Sandra Brantley decided to reduce the number of traps by half.  Comparative statistical tests run with data from 15 traps showed no difference in mean abundances of dominant species compared to tests with 30 traps. The interannual variability is high and it is hoped that the long-term aspect of the monitoring will produce clearer patterns than intensive sampling over a short period has done.  Traps 1, 3 and 5 were left and traps 2, 4 and 6 were removed.  The decision was also made to process samples from only the odd-numbered traps beginning with the 1993 samples. The experimental design was intended to provide data for long-term monitoring of ground arthropods in relation to climate and plant production. The traps within each trap line are subsamples, and data from those should be summed or averaged for a single value per line, per sample period. The lines are intended to serve as replicate samples for each habitat site, however, they were not randomly located. The lines were located to provide a systematic array with trap lines approximately 200 meters from each other on the landscape.

Field Methods

During a collection period the contents of each trap are strained out of the glycol so that it can be reused.  Glycol is replenished as needed to keep the cups about half full.  Arthropods are transferred from the strainers to glass vials containing site labels.  The contents of each trap are stored in a separate vial. Trap condition forms are filled out at the time of collection and kept with the samples. Any traps that are damaged or not functioning are re-set.

Sampling Design

Arthropods are collected in pitfall traps, made of a 15 oz. can (11 cm tall and 7.5 cm in diameter) dug into the ground so that the opening of the can is flush with the ground. A screen apron was fitted around the top of the can to prevent rodent digging. Plastic 10 oz. cups about half-full of propylene glycol (ethylene glycol prior to March 1994) are inserted in the can.  The glycol is a preservative; no live pitfall trapping of arthropods is done.  The traps are covered by raised ceramic lids, 15 cm x 15 cm in size.  The traps remain open all year, and samples are collected everly two months during the week of the 15th day of each months, for the months: February, April, Jun, August, October, and December.During a collection period the contents of each trap are strained out of the glycol so that it can be reused, using standard hand-held metal screen kitchen strainers approximately 3 inches diameter.  Glycol is replenished as needed to keep the cups about half full.  Arthropods are transferred from the strainers to glass vials containing site labels.  The contents of each trap are stored in a separate vial. Trap condition forms are filled out at the time of collection and kept with  the samples.

Laboratory Procedures

Specimens are stored in 70 % ethanol. Specimens are brought back to the UNM Museum of Southwestern Biology (MSB) wet lab for processing. Sample sorting, arthropod identification, and data tabulation are performed only by individuals trained as entomologists, or entomologically experienced graduate students trained in arthropod identification specifically for this project.  Individual arthropods are identified to morphospecies and counted.  Classifications generally follow Nomina Insecta Nearctica: a checklist of the insects of North America, Volumes 1-4, however, taxonomic levels above family follow Borror, DeLong and Triplehorn's An Introduction to Entomology, 5th edition.  Higher classification for Orthopteroids follow Arnett, 2000 (per DLC). And classification of Aranae follows Roth's Spider Genera of North America, 2nd and 3rd editions. The species code, number of individuals, site name and date of  collection are entered on a data sheet. After processing, all the samples from one site and date are pooled for long-term storage in sealed jars containing 70% ethanol, at the UNM Biology Field Station, located at the Sevilleta NWR.  Detailed procedures for sorting and identifying the arthropods are available from the Sevilleta data manager (data-use@sevilleta.unm.edu).  Reference collections are maintained at the Sevilleta Field Station and at the UNM Museum of Southwestern Biology Division of Arthropods. Voucher specimens are housed in the UNM MSB Division of Arthropods. 

Ground arthropod species in the following taxonomic groups are collected, counted and identified to morphospecies:-orthopterans, including grasshoppers, field crickets and camel crickets-blattarians, sand cockroaches-mantodeans, only ground mantids-phasmatodeans, walkingsticks-hemipterans, selected taxa only: lygaeids, alydids, one genus of mirid, thyreocorids, cydnids-coleopterans-microcoryphians, bristletails-chilopods-diplopods -isopods-arachnids, including spiders, scorpions, solpugids, uropygids, opiliones.

Specimens are pinned or placed in 70 % ETOH, labeled, and added to the LTER collection or to the UNM Division of Arthropods collection as needed.  If the specimens are not needed they are kept in alcohol storage and housed at the Sevilleta Field Station. See: /sevilleta/export/db/work/insect/specieslists/sevrefcoll for a list of specimens vouchered by the MSB. The focus of the pitfall collections is on the adult stage, but nymphs of orthopteroids and hemipterans and immature stages of arachnids are identified to genus or species if possible.  If not, these groups have species i.d. numbers for nymphal or immature stages. Larval beetles are not counted.  The aleocharine staphylinid species are grouped together under species number Co Sta 001 088.

Maintenance: 

January 2009Combined all data from 1992-2004. QA/QC'd data from 2001-2004 in excel using a filter and checking data line by line. All data were then imported into Navicat using the import wizard.

Data from 1989-1991 were removed and stored elsewhere. Contact data manager for data. --A.Swann

Additional information: 


Additional Information on the Data Collection Period

Field collections are made every even-numberedmonth as close to the 15th as possible. 

This study/data set is a subset of the original larger scale Sevilleta LTER data set #: SEV0029; "Arthropod Populations". The number of arthropod taxa included in this data set ("Sevilleta Ground Arthropods") has been reduced to those taxa that are appropriately sampled by pitfall traps, and those taxa or taxonmic ranks that can be easily identified and tabulated by expert technical staff. The number of study sites also was reduced from seven to four for this data set. Associated data sets include climate data from representative Sevilleta LTER meterological stations, and plant production data from Sevilleta LTER above ground net primary production plots, located on or near the arthropod pitfall trap sites.

Biannnual Creosote Branch Demography Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1989-1993)

Abstract: 

This project was designed to investigate the response of plant growth and reproduction to short- and long-term variation in biotic and abiotic environmental variables. Several perennial taxa, including tree (Juniperus monsperma and Pinus edulis), shrub (Larrea tridentata) and bunch grasses (Oryzopsis hymenoides (now Achnaterum hymenoides) and Sporobolus contractus) species, were monitored at 1-3 sites differing in elevation and topography as well as edaphic variables and annual precipitation. The sites represented optimal or marginal/transitional zones for particular species. Demographic measurements were made biannually, after the 'wet' (fall) and 'dry' (spring) seasons. For tree and shrub species, estimates of growth and reproduction were based on branch demography, with ten branch tips from 10-20 individuals per species per site repeatedly measured from 1989-1993.  For J. monsperma, P. edulis and L. tridentata, vegetative growth (i.e., branch growth) as well as reproduction were monitored. Additional measurements included needle length for P. edulis and leaf production, leaf size and branchlet production for L. tridentata. For grasses, basal diameter, leaf length and reproduction were monitored for 100 individuals per species per site.

This project, SEV026, contains only data on creosote branch demography.  Data on other variables and species is contained in SEV006, SEV024, SEV025, SEV027, and SEV028.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

26

Additional Project roles: 

180
181
182
183
184
185
186

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev026_creosotedemography_20160218.txt

Methods: 

Plant Selection - One hundred Larrea tridentata individuals were selected and numbered. Twenty individuals were randomly selected for measurement.

Branch Selection - Ten branches were numbered consecutively around each shrub to cover all exposures.

Tag Placement - Tags were placed about five centimeters from the tip of the branch at a node where the branch forked. Branches were also marked at that point with a paint pen so each tag could be tied loosely, thereby not restricting vascular flow.

If a tagged branch died the tag was placed on another branch using the same number with a ".1" suffix. For example if branch 4 was found dead, another branch was marked 4.1. If, in subsequent seasons, 4.1 was found dead another branch was marked 4.2.  

Plant Measurement:

1. Branch Length - This is the length from tag to tip of branch. If a tag was loose it was moved back toward the plant until stopped  by a node where two branches diverged. A paint mark indicated this location. If a paint mark was elsewhere then measurement was done from the paint mark and it was noted on the data sheet that the paint mark was not at a branching point.

2. Leaf - This is the number of leaves between tag (or tag mark) and tip of branch. Creosote has compound leaves so two leaflets usually comprised one leaf. If one leaflet was missing the leaf was still counted as one. If leaf status was uncertain, the petiole or point of attachment to the stem was used as verification.

3. Leaf Length1 - This is the length of one leaf on a tagged branch. This measurement was considered to be the length of the blade of one leaflet NOT including the petiole.

4. Leaf Length2 - This is the same measurement as Leaf Length1 performed on a different leaf.

5. Bud - The number of buds between the tag (or tag mark) and the tip of the branch.

6. Flower - The number of flowers between the tag (or tag mark) and the tip of the branch.

7. Fruit - The number of fruits between the tag (or tag mark) and the tip of the branch.

8. Branchlet - The number of branchlets between the tag (or tag mark) and the tip of the branch.

Maintenance: 

I. Condensed log of activity of plant demography data:a. Individual documentations initiatiated 1989; Troy Madduxb. File (combined documentations) 31 August 1990; Troy Madduxc. Abstract (Written by Diane Marshall and Charles Wisdom) put in documentation 31 August 1990; Troy Madduxd. Documentation expanded 2 September 1990; Troy Madduxe. Concatenation of individual documentations iniatiated September 1990, completed 17 December 1990; Michelle Murillof. File expanded into rdb file 17 December 1990; Michelle Murillog. Rdb file checked, and errors eliminated 18 December 1990; Michelle Murilloh. KEYWORDS added 19 December 1990; James Brunti. Random error checking completed 20 December 1990; Michelle Murilloj. File complete and archived 21 December 1990; Michelle Murillo & Greg Shore. Documentation changed to reflect changes in datafile structure; 1 March 91 T. Maddux.II. Detailed log of alterations/modifications of plant demography data: This portion of the log contains details of all alterations and modifications applied to this file by Michelle Murillo. The file demography.dat was initiated in September 1990 by concatenating individual files into the demography.dat file. A generic header was devised to apply to all individual files. The header reads as such:date season site species station plant# branch# #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8and the detailed description of the numbers 1-8 are listed in the documentation section of this file. The individual files were then modified to follow this header, which entailed rearranging of columns (generally the season, site, species, station, plant#, and branch#) and the addition of the date column. As the columns numbered 1-8 did not pertain to all individual files, non-applicables (na) were inserted where necessary. Other alterations included:1. juniper 1989: Sepultura Canyon; addition of na's to presence/absence of male or female cones, depending on sex of tree, i.e. if tree was female then na's were inserted in the male column Goat Draw; same as Sepultura Canyon2. juniper 1990: (Sepultura Canyon site has been discontinued) Goat Draw (season 1); orginal file contained x,y and --'s; which were converted to 0 (absence) and 1 (presence) and appropriate na's were inserted, depending on sex of tree Goat Draw (season 2); orginal file contained +'s for presence of cones; which were converted to 1 (presence) and appropriate na's were inserted depending on sex of tree.NOTE: In 1989 width of branch was measured, and in 1990 this measurement was no longer taken. (The orginal data sheets for 1989-2 are unavailable at the time of archiving, assumption is that this measurement applies to season 2 also). In 1990 the length of branchlet was measured which was not measured in 1989. (See documentation).NOTE: In 1989 (both seasons) the variable, number of branchlets, was not included. In 1990 the variable was added, but measurements of this variable was sporadic, occuring only in a few plants.3. grasses 1989/1990: All sites: addition of na's to branch#Error checking was done as follows: Two files, grasses 1990-season 1, and creosote 1990-season 1, had not been entered at the time of concatenation of individual files, and were therefore entered by Michelle Murillo. These two files were errored checked by Michelle Murillo by visual checking of original data sheets with the files on 18 December 1990. On 17 December 1990, the expand program was applied to the demography.dat file and placed into the demography.rdb file. The rdb file was then checked for various errors, and the elimination of these errors were completed on 18 December 1990. On 19-20 December 1990, random error checking was conducted by using 'Tables for Statistical Data-Analysis'. One hundred and fifty entries were checked and approximiately 45 percent of the numbers were from 1989-season 2, and because the data sheets were unavailable, the entries were not error checked. On 23 December 1990, visual checking with the original data sheets was conducted for an overall check.File initiated June 1991: MLM season 1 entered: MLM season 2 entered: KPM Black Butte, season 2 entered and error checked, 7 Jan 1992: MLM data entry complete 25 October 1991: KPM data error checking completed 8 November 1991: KPM Documentation updated (New people and times added) on 29 Jan 1992 and inserted into data file by Troy Maddux. 1992 log * Put the 1992 data in the data base on 22 Oct 1992 Troy Maddux.THE FOLLOWING IS THE LOG FOR THE SPRING 1992 DEMOGRAPHY DATA: File initiated by Troy Maddux 24 Aug 1992. Goat Draw pied information entered by Michael Bradley and sent to Troy Maddux Wed Aug 19 15:31:03 1992 and these data added to this file by T. Maddux on 15 Oct 1992. Black butte data added to this file 15 Oct 1992. Many SPCO4 plants in plots 2 and 3 of Five Points had no data for the inflorescence # so this was added (it was 0) on 15 Oct 1992 by Troy Maddux. Removed extra '0' from rs spco #531-534 - 16 Oct 1992, T.M. Pulled doc from 1991 demography data to change for 1992 data 16 Oct 1992; T.M. Who and When data were collected was added 20 Oct 1992; T.M.THE FOLLOWING IS THE LOG FOR THE FALL 1992 DEMOGRAPHY DATA: File initiated 16 Sep 1992 by Tiffany Cotlar. Data file from Tiffany Cotlar and a data file from Robin Abell combined; also blank lines removed from both files, this was done by Troy Maddux on 20 Oct 1992.File initiated 16 Sep 1992 by Robin Abell PIED #'s 9,13,23,15,17,36,41,42 by Robin Abell. 16 Sep 1992 JUMO #'s 26,23,24,28,49,5,8,17,13,22,36,41,47,4,15,27,32,46,42 by Robin Abell 16 Sep 1992. LATR2 #'s (Five Points) 2,3,5,26 by Robin Abell 23 Sep 1992. SPCO4 #'s (Station B) 61,92,93,94,95,99,101,103,104,105,108,109 * 109.1,110,110.1,111,112,112.1,122,125,126,127,130,148,149,402 by Robin Abell 23 Sep 1992. LATR2 #'s (Five Points) 90,92,96 by Robin Abell 24 Sep 1992 *LATR2 #'s (Rio Salado) 1,14,17 by Robin Abell 1 Oct 1992 changed typo: juno to jumo; 20 Oct 1992, T.M. added additional field to grass data to make the field # correct 20 Oct 1992, TM. File submitted for archival 22 OCT 1992 - Troy Maddux.File initiated by Troy Maddux 22 Apr 1993 combining data entered by Ursula Bonhage, Roger Stupf, Christian Heierli, Marilyn Altenbach, and Eric Scherff.File initiated by M. Altenbach 22 April 93 , fp LATR2 2, 3, & 5. Data altered to archive format by Troy Maddux - 16 Nov 1993. Data for larrea tridentata (numbers 13, 20, 23, 26, 28, 30, 51, 75, 76, 79, 82, 89, 90, 92, 96) for Five Points.Data entered 29 apr 93 by ubonhage, rstupf data taken by altenbach, bonhage, hierli, scherff, stupf on 20 apr 93 'na' for station. Data for LATR2 numbers 97 and 100 entered by Troy Maddux and error-checked by Troy and Doug Moore on 16 Nov 1993. Data for Rio Salado demography, all 20 LATR2, data collected from 4/22-4/29. From altenbac Wed May 5 12:01:08 1993; initiated by M. Altenbach 3 May 93. Documentation taken from 91-92 archive data set and modified for this data set. 18 Oct 1993, by Troy Maddux. Filled in "Who" and "When" sections from the data sheets - Troy Maddux - 16 Nov 1993. Data entered for Oryzopsis adult measurements--Rio Salado 23 April & 4 May 1993 maps not edited; From escherff Wed May 5 12:27:02 1993 File initiated by E. Scherff on 3 May 1993.1993 FALL DATA File appended by Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on 22 September 1993. Changed "nd" representing "no data" to "na" to be consistent with other data bases. - Troy Maddux - 8 Nov 1993. File for Rio Salado information created by Cynthia Gregoire & Eric Scherff on 24 September 1993. Data collected by Marilyn Altenbach, Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on 21 September 1993 and 22 September 1993. File for Five Points Creosote created by Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on 27 September 1993. Data collected by M. Altenbach, E. Scherff, C. Gregoire, and T. Maddux on 15 September 1993, 16 September 1993, and 20 September 1993. File Rio Salado creosote data created by Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on September 27, 1993. Data collected by Marilyn Altenbach, Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on September 22, 23 & 24 1993. Spring and Fall data put together in Archive File format 17 Nov 1993. by Troy Maddux - also changed nd's and dashes to na's.14 March 1994. Separated the big demography-89-90 file into four parts; grass, pinyon, creosote, and juniper. Rupal Shah went through and separated the file and edited the documentation.28 March 1994. Rupal Shah edited this file and changed the 1989 fp plant # 51 from season 1 to 2. Rupal Shah kept on changing and working on it until 5-4-94.11-april, 1994. The data sheets for plant numbers 96, 97, 100 for season 1, fp, 1991 and plant numbers 2, 3, and 5 for season 2, fp, 1991 are missing. RS. Rupal Shah changed and worked on it until 5-4-94. Changed a couple of uppercase "na"s to lowercase.3/18/98 - Changed species codes to Kartesz codes. K. Taugher - Updated metadata section on plant codes to reflect this new coding scheme. K. Taugher - Added a final line to the dataset of: "{END OF DATA}" K.Taugher - Realigned columns to right justification. K. Taugher.9/23/98 - Added reference for Kartesz. K. Taugher doc.

Additional information: 

The data for the first census (May 1989) were collected by Ann Evans (Asst. Professor/UNM), Troy Maddux (Head Plant Tech/LTER), Sam Loftin (Graduate Student/UNM), Marikay Ramsey (Head Animal Tech/LTER), Joran Viers (Plant Tech/LTER), Michelle Murillo (Plant Tech/LTER), Jennifer Franklin (Plant Tech/LTER), Amy Shortess (Plant Tech/LTER).

The data for the second census (September 1989) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Tech/LTER), Amy Shortess (Plant Tech/LTER), David Keller (Plant Tech/LTER).

1991: The data for the first census (May) were collected by Roger Mongold (Plant Technician), Brad Swanson (Plant Technician), Joran Viers (Plant Technician), Kathleen McGee (Plant Technician), Sam Loftin (Graduate Student Technician), and Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician).

1991: The data for the second census (May) were collected by Jim Stanton (Plant Technician), Susan Prichard (Plant Technician), and Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician).

1992: The data for the first census (Apr-Jun) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician) and the following plant technicians: Marilyn Altenbach, Michael Bradley, Melissa Chavez, Anthony Collier, Julie Knight, Ivan Ortiz, Amanda Persaud, Monica Valdez.

1992: The data for the second census (Aug-Oct) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician), Robin Abell (Plant Technician), and Tiffany Cotlar (Plant Technician).

1993: SPRING CENSUS - Roger Stupf (Volunteer from Switzerland), Ursula Bonhage (Volunteer from Switzerland), Christian Heierli (Volunteer from Switzerland), Marilyn Altenbach (Field Crew Chief), Eric Scherff (Field Tech), Troy Maddux (Vegetation Studies Program Manager).

1993: FALL CENSUS - Cynthia Gregoire (Volunteer from Vermont), Marilyn Altenbach (Field Crew Chief), Eric Scherff (Field Tech).

Small Mammal Mark-Recapture Population Dynamics at Core Research Sites at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1989 - present)

Abstract: 

This file contains mark/recapture trapping data collected from 1989-2012 on permanently established web trapping arrays at 8 sites on the Sevilleta NWR. At each site 3 trapping webs are sampled for 3 consecutive nights in spring and fall. Not all sites have been trapped for the entire period. Each trapping web consists of 145 rebar stakes numbered from 1-145. There are 148 traps deployed on each web: 12 along each of 12 spokes radiating out from a central point (stake #145) plus 4 traps at the center point. The trapping sites are representative of Chihuahuan Desert Grassland, Chihuahuan Desert Shrubland, Pinyon-Juniper Woodland, Juniper Savanna, Plains-Mesa Sand Scrub and Blue Grama Grassland.

Data set ID: 

8

Core Areas: 

Additional Project roles: 

517
518

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Sampling Design
Permanent capture-mark-release trapping webs were used to estimate density (number of animals per unit area) of each rodent species at each site. The method makes use of concepts from distance sampling, i.e., point counts or line-intercept techniques. The method makes no attempts to model capture-history data, therefore it was not necessary to follow individuals through time (between sessions). Distance sampling methods allow for sighting or detection (capture) probabilities to decrease with increasing distance from the point or line. The modeling of detection probability as a function of distance forms the basis for estimation. Trapping webs were designed to provide a gradient of capture probabilities, decreasing with distance from the web center. Density estimation from the trapping web was based on three assumptions:1. All animals located at the center of the web were caught with probability 1.0; 2. Individuals did not move preferentially toward or away from the web center; 3. Distances from the web center to each trap station were measured accurately. Each web consisted of 12 trap lines radiating around a center station, each line with 12 permanently-marked trap stations. In order to increase the odds of capturing any animals inhabiting the center of a web, the center station had four traps, each pointing in a cardinal direction, and the first four stations of each trap line were spaced only 5 m apart, providing a trap saturation effect. The remaining eight stations in a trap line were spaced at 10 m intervals. The web thus established a series of concentric rings of traps. Traps in the ring nearest the web center are close together, while the distances separating traps that form a particular ring increase with increasing distance of the ring from the web center. The idea is that the web configuration produces a gradient in trap density and, therefore, in the probability of capture. Three randomly distributed trapping webs were constructed at each site. The perimeters of webs were placed at least 100 m apart in order to minimize homerange overlap for individuals captured in the outer portion of neighboring webs.

Measurement Techniques

Each site containing three webs was sampled for three consecutive nights during spring (in mid May or early June) and summer (in mid July or early August for years 1989 to 1993, then mid September to early October for years 1994 through 2000). In that rodent populations were not sampled monthly over the study period, there is no certainly that either spring or summer trapping times actually captured annual population highs or lows. Based on reproductive data in the literature, an assumption was made that sampling times chosen represent periods of the year when rodents have undergone, and would register, significant seasonal change in density. During each trapping session, one Sherman live trap (model XLF15 or SFAL, H. B. Sherman Traps, Tallahassee, FL) was placed, baited with rolled oats, and set at each permanent, numbered station (four in the center) on each web, for a total 444 traps over three webs. Traps were checked at dawn each day, closed during the day, and reset just before dusk. Habitat, trap station number, species, sex, age (adult or juvenile), mass, body measurements (total length, tail length, hind foot length, ear length), and reproductive condition (males: scrotal or non-scrotal; females: lactating, vaginal or pregnant) were recorded for each initial capture of an individual. Each animal was marked on the belly with a permanent ink felt pen in order to distinguish it from other individuals during the same trapping session. The trap station number for an initial capture related to a particular trapping ring on a web and, therefore, to a particular distance from the center of the web. The area sampled by a ring of traps was computed based on circular zones whose limits are defined by points halfway between adjacent traps along trap lines; an additional 25 m radius was added to the outer ring of traps in order to account for homerange size of individuals caught on the outer ring.

Analytical Procedures
Area trapped and number of individuals caught for each ring of traps was the basis for estimating the probability density function of the area sampled. The program DISTANCE produced the estimators used to calculate density. Where sample size for a particular species and web was less than an arbitrarily chosen n=10, the number of individuals captured during that session was simply divided into the area of the web plus the additional 25 m radius (4.9087 ha). This dataset includes only the raw capture data.

Data sources: 

sev008_rodentpopns_20161027

Instrumentation: 

 

Sherman live traps: model XLF15 or SFAL, H. B. Sherman Traps, Tallahassee, FL

Maintenance: 

Trap sets require care and cleaning as well as proper storage. Otherwise, webs are made up of durable rebar and aluminum tags which only need repair if disturbed. Tools used in the field - scales and rulers, pouches, trap bags and ziplock supply must be maintained on hand at SevFS for trapping events.

Additional information: 

Additional Information on the personnel associated with the Data Collection / Data Processing

Sevilleta Field Crew Employee History

Chandra Tucker April 2014-present, Megan McClung, April 2013-present, Stephanie Baker, October 2010-Present, John Mulhouse, August 2009-June 2013, Amaris Swann, August 25, 2008-January 2013, Maya Kapoor, August 9, 2003-January 21, 2005 and April 2010-March 2011, Terri Koontz, February 2000-August 2003 and August 2006-August 2010, Yang Xia, January 31, 2005-April 2009, Karen Wetherill, February 7, 2000-August 2009, Michell Thomey, September 3, 2005-August 2008, Jay McLeod, January 2006-August 2006, Charity Hall, January 31, 2005-January 3, 2006, Tessa Edelen, August 15, 2004-August 15, 2005, Seth Munson, September 9, 2002-June 2004, Caleb Hickman, September 9, 2002-November 15, 2004, Heather Simpson, August 2000-August 2002, Chris Roberts, September 2001-August 2002, Mike Friggens, 1999-September 2001, Shana Penington, February 2000-August 2000.

*In fall 2013, the Grassland Core site was not able to be trapped due to government shutdown. 

Biannual Grass Demography Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1989-1993)

Abstract: 

This project was designed to investigate the response of plant growth and reproduction to short- and long-term variation in biotic and abiotic environmental variables. Several perennial taxa, including tree (Juniperus monsperma and Pinus edulis), shrub (Larrea tridentata) and bunch grasses (Oryzopsis hymenoides (now Achnaterum hymenoides) and Sporobolus contractus) species, were monitored at 1-3 sites differing in elevation and topography as well as edaphic variables and annual precipitation. The sites represented optimal or marginal/transitional zones for particular species. Demographic measurements were made biannually, after the 'wet' (fall) and 'dry' (spring) seasons. For tree and shrub species, estimates of growth and reproduction were based on branch demography, with ten branch tips from 10-20 individuals per species per site repeatedly measured from 1989-1993.  For J. monsperma, P. edulis and L. tridentata, vegetative growth (i.e., branch growth) as well as reproduction were monitored. Additional measurements included needle length for P. edulis and leaf production, leaf size and branchlet production for L. tridentata. For grasses, basal diameter, leaf length and reproduction were monitored for 100 individuals per species per site.

This project, SEV027, contains only data on grass demography.  Data on other variables and species is contained in SEV006, SEV024, SEV025, SEV026, and SEV028.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

27

Additional Project roles: 

67
68
69

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev027_grassdemography_20130412.txt

Methods: 

Plant Selection - Three plots were established at each grassland site. Plants to be measured were randomly selected from tagged plants in each of the three plots.

Tag Placement - Tags were tied around a part of the grass clump.

Circumference - This is the circumference around a grass clump at 10 cm. above the ground. A tailor's tape was wrapped around the grass clump and pulled tight to bring the grass stems together in a single bunch. Then the circumference measurement was taken.

Leaf Length1 - This is the length of the first leaf on the plant being measured, including the sheath and the blade. The measurement went from the ground to the tip of one of the longest leaves on the individual. In 1993 leaf lengths were measured to the nearest .5 cm.

Leaf Length2 - This measurement is the same as leaf length1, done on a different leaf on the same plant.  In 1993 leaf lengths were measured to the nearest .5 cm.

Inflorescences - This is the number of green or living inflorescences on the plant being measured. If any portion of the inflorescence was green, it was considered alive. This included young stalks that hadn't yet emerged from the sheath.

Maintenance: 

I. Condensed log of activity of plant demography data:
a. Individual documentations iniatiated  1989; Troy Maddux.
b. File (combined documentations) 31 August 1990; Troy Maddux.
c. Abstract (Written by Diane Marshall and Charles Wisdom) put in documentation 31 August 1990; Troy Maddux.
d. Documentation expanded 2 September 1990; Troy Maddux.
e. Concatenation of individual documentations iniatiated September 1990, completed 17 December 1990; Michelle Murillo.
f. File expanded into rdb file 17 December 1990; Michelle Murillo.
g. Rdb file checked, and errors eliminated 18 December 1990; Michelle Murillo.
h. KEYWORDS added 19 December 1990; James Brunt.
i. Random error checking completed 20 December 1990; Michelle Murillo.
j. File complete and archived 21 December 1990; Michelle Murillo & Greg Shore.

Documentation changed to reflect changes in datafile structure; 1 March 91 T. Maddux

II. Detailed log of  alterations/modifications of plant demography data:

This portion of the log contains details of all alterations and modifications applied to this file by Michelle Murillo. The file demography.data was initiated in September 1990 by concatenating individual files into the demography.dat file. A generic header was devised to apply to all individual files. The header reads as such:

date season site species station plant# branch# #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8

and the detailed description of the numbers 1-8 are listed in the documentation section of this file. The individual files were then modified to follow this header, which entailed rearranging of columns (generally the season, site, species, station, plant#, and branch#) and the addition of the date column. As the columns numbered 1-8 did not pertain to all individual files, non-applicables (na) were inserted where necessary. Other alterations included:

1. juniper 1989: Sepultura Canyon; addition of na's to presence/absence of male or female cones, depending on sex of tree, i.e. if tree was female then na's were inserted in the male column. Goat Draw; same as Sepultura Canyon.

2. juniper 1990: (Sepultura Canyon site has been discontinued) Goat Draw (season 1); orginal file contained x,y and --'s; which were converted to 0 (absence) and 1 (presence) and appropriate na's were inserted, depending on sex of tree. Goat Draw (season 2); orginal file contained +'s for presence of cones; which were converted to 1 (presence) and appropriate na's were inserted depending on sex of tree.

NOTE: In 1989 width of branch was measured, and in 1990 this measurement was no longer taken. ( The orginal data sheets for 1989-2 are unavailable at the time of archiving, assumption is that this measurement applies to season 2 also ). In 1990 the length of branchlet was measured which was not measured in 1989. (See documentation).

NOTE: In 1989 (both seasons) the variable, number of branchlets, was not included. In 1990 the variable was added, but measurements of this variable was sporadic, occuring only in a few plants.

3. grasses 1989/1990: All sites: addition of na's to branch#.

Error checking was done as follows: Two files, grasses 1990-season 1, and creosote 1990-season 1, had not been entered at the time of concatenation of individual files, and were therefore entered by Michelle Murillo. These two files were errored checked by Michelle Murillo by visual checking of original data sheets with the files on 18 December 1990. On 17 December 1990, the expand program was applied to the demography.dat file and placed into the demography.rdb file. The rdb file was then checked for various errors, and the elimination of these errors were completed on 18 December 1990. On 19-20 December 1990, random error checking was conducted by using 'Tables for Statistical Data-Analysis'. One hundred and fifty entries were checked and approximiately 45 percent of the numbers were from 1989-season 2, and because the data sheets were unavailable, the entries were not error checked. On 23 December 1990, visual checking with the original data sheets was conducted for an overall check.

File initiated June 1991: MLM season 1 entered: MLM season 2 entered: KPM.
Black Butte, season 2 entered and error checked, 7 Jan 1992: MLM.
data entry complete 25 October 1991: KPM; data error checking completed 8 November 1991: KPM.
Documentation updated (New people and times added) on 29 Jan 1992 and inserted into data file by Troy Maddux.

1992 log

Put the 1992 data in the data base on 22 Oct 1992 -Troy Maddux.


THE FOLLOWING IS THE LOG FOR THE SPRING 1992 DEMOGRAPHY DATA
* File initiated by Troy Maddux 24 Aug 1992.
* Goat Draw pied information entered by Michael Bradley and sent to Troy Maddux Wed Aug 19 15:31:03 1992 and these data added to this file by T. Maddux on 15 Oct 1992.
* Black butte data added to this file 15 Oct 1992.
* Many SPCO4 plants in plots 2 and 3 of Five Points had no data for the inflorescence # so this was added (it was 0) on 15 Oct 1992 by Troy Maddux.
* Removed extra '0' from rs spco #531-534 - 16 Oct 1992, T.M.
* Pulled \doc from 1991 demography data to change for 1992 data 16 Oct 1992; T.M.
* Who and When data were collected was added 20 Oct 1992; T.M.

THE FOLLOWING IS THE LOG FOR THE FALL 1992 DEMOGRAPHY DATA
*File initiated 16 Sep 1992 by Tiffany Cotlar
*Data file from Tiffany Cotlar and a data file from Robin Abell combined; also blank lines removed from both files, this was done by Troy Maddux on 20 Oct 1992.
*File initiated 16 Sep 1992 by Robin Abell
*PIED #'s 9,13,23,15,17,36,41,42 by Robin Abell 16 Sep 1992
*JUMO #'s 26,23,24,28,49,5,8,17,13,22,36,41,47,4,15,27,32,46,42 by Robin Abell 16 Sep 1992
*LATR2 #'s (Five Points) 2,3,5,26 by Robin Abell 23 Sep 1992
*SPCO4 #'s (Station B) 61,92,93,94,95,99,101,103,104,105,108,109,109.1,110,110.1,111,112,112.1,122,125,126,127,130,148,149,402 by Robin Abell 23 Sep 1992
*LATR2 #'s (Five Points) 90,92,96 by Robin Abell 24 Sep 1992
*LATR2#'s (Rio Salado) 1,14,17 by Robin Abell 1 Oct 1992
*changed typo: juno to jumo; 20 Oct 1992, T.M.
*added additional field to grass data to make the field # correct 20 Oct 1992, TM.

File submitted for archival 22 OCT 1992 - Troy Maddux

File initiated by Troy Maddux 22 Apr 1993 combining data entered by Ursula Bonhage, Roger Stupf, Christian Heierli, Marilyn Altenbach, and Eric Scherff.
*data entered for:Black Butte Oryzopsis by Roger Stupf and Christian Heierli, on 21 April 1993.
* data entered for: grass plots A,B,C for five Points (4/20/93) by Eric Scherff on 21 April 93.
* data file for: five points Sporobolus data - five points grass plot "c" initiated by M. Altenbach 22 April 93 , fp LATR2 2, 3, & 5
* Data altered to archive format by Troy Maddux - 16 Nov 1993.
* Documentation taken from 91-92 archive data set and modified for this data set. 18 Oct 1993, by Troy Maddux.
* Filled in "Who" and "When" sections from the data sheets - Troy Maddux - 16 Nov 1993.Data entered for Oryzopsis adult measurements--Rio Salado 23 April & 4 May 1993 maps not edited; From escherff Wed May 5 12:27:02 1993.

File initiated by E. Scherff on 3 May 1993

Data for Sporobolus adult measurements at Rio Salado data entered for 23 April & 4 May 1993 maps not edited

File initiated by E. Scherff on 3 May 1993 From escherff Wed May 5 12:17:39 1993

1993 FALL DATA
File for Black Butte orhy data created by Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on September 21, 1993. Data collected by Marilyn Altenbach and Eric Scherff on September 14, 1993. File for Five Points Sporobolus information created by Cynthia Gregoire & Eric Scherff on 21 September 1993. Data collected by Marilyn Altenbach & Eric Scherff on 14 September 1993 and 15 September 1993. File appended by Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on 22 September 1993 Changed "nd" representing "no data" to "na" to be consistent with other data bases. - Troy Maddux - 8 Nov 1993.

File for Rio Salado information created by Cynthia Gregoire & Eric Scherff on 24 September 1993 Data collected by Marilyn Altenbach, Eric Scherff and Cynthia Gregoire on 21 September 1993 and 22 September 1993.

Different fall plant data put together into single archive file by Troy Maddux on 8 Nov 1993.

Spring and Fall data put together in Archive File format 17 Nov 1993. by Troy Maddux - also changed nd's and dashes to na's.

9 Dec 1993 - Demography file contained all species - all but the grass information only was taken from this file by Troy Maddux.

14 March 1994. Separated the big demography-89-90 file into four parts; grass, pinyon, creosote, and juniper. Rupal Shah went through and separated the file and edited the documentation.

* Changed >1 to 1 in the data - Troy Maddux 3 Jan 1995.

11/12/98 - Changed species codes to Kartesz. K. Taugher - Changed species codes in metadata to Kartesz. K. Taugher - Added Kartesz code description and reference to metadata. K. Taugher.
- Added final line of "{END OF DATA}" to dataset. K. Taugher
- Added my name and email address under "WHO COLLECTED THE DATA - Kartesz code conversion Data Manager" should any questions arise. K. Taugher
- Realigned columns to right justification. K. Taugher

Additional information: 

1989 and 1990: The data for the first census (May) were collected by Ann Evans (Asst. Professor/UNM), Troy Maddux (Head Plant Tech/LTER), Sam Loftin (Graduate student/UNM), Marikay Ramsey (Head Animal Tech/LTER), Joran Viers (Plant Tech/LTER), Michelle Murillo (Plant Tech/LTER), Jennifer Franklin (Plant Tech/LTER), Amy Shortess (Plant Tech/LTER). The data for the second census (September) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Tech/LTER), Amy Shortess (Plant Tech/LTER), David Keller (Plant Tech/LTER).

1991: The data for the first census (May) were collected by Roger Mongold (Plant Technician), Brad Swanson (Plant Technician), Joran Viers (Plant Technician), Kathleen McGee (Plant Technician), Sam Loftin (Graduate Student Technician), and Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician). The data for the second census (May) were collected by JimStanton (Plant Technician), Susan Prichard (Plant Technician), and Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician).

1992: The data for the first census (Apr-Jun) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician) and the following plant technicians: Marilyn Altenbach, Michael Bradley, Melissa Chavez, Anthony Collier, Julie Knight, Ivan Ortiz, Amanda Persaud, Monica Valdez. The data for the second census (Aug-Oct) were collected by Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician), Robin Abell (Plant Technician), and Tiffany Cotlar (Plant Technician).1993: SPRING CENSUS - Roger Stupf (Volunteer from Switzerland), Ursula Bonhage(Volunteer from Switzerland), Christian Heierli (Volunteer from Switzerland), Marilyn Altenbach (Field Crew Chief), Eric Scherff (Field Tech), Troy Maddux (Vegetation Studies Program Manager). FALL CENSUS - Cynthia Gregoire (Volunteer from Vermont), Marilyn Altenbach (Field Crew Chief), Eric Scherff (Field Tech). Kartesz code conversion Data Management - Kimberly Taugher (Head Plant Technician, Sevilleta LTER).

1993: SPRING CENSUS - Roger Stupf (Volunteer from Switzerland), Ursula Bonhage (Volunteer from Switzerland), Christian Heierli (Volunteer from Switzerland), Marilyn Altenbach (Field Crew Chief), Eric Scherff (Field Tech), Troy Maddux (Vegetation Studies Program Manager). FALL CENSUS - Cynthia Gregoire (Volunteer from Vermont), Marilyn Altenbach (Field Crew Chief), Eric Scherff (Field Tech).

Pino Gate Prairie Dog Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico: Landscape Plot Lizard Data (2001-2002)

Abstract: 

Keystone species have large impacts on community and ecosystem properties, and create important ecological interactions with other species. Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) and banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) are considered keystone species of grassland ecosystems, and create a mosaic of unique habitats on the landscape. These habitats are known to attract a number of animal species, but little is known about how they affect lizard communities. Our research evaluated the keystone roles of prairie dogs and kangaroo rats on lizards at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico, USA. We evaluated the impacts of these rodents on lizard communities in areas where prairie dogs and kangaroo rats co-occurred compared to areas where each rodent species occurred alone. Our results demonstrate that prairie dogs and kangaroo rats have keystone-level impacts on these lizard communities. Their burrow systems provided important habitats for multiple lizard species, especially the lesser earless lizard (Holbrookia maculata). At the landscape-scale, the total number of lizards was two-times greater on the where both prairie dogs and banner-tailed kangaroo rats co-occurred than where only kangaroo rats occurred.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

173

Additional Project roles: 

340
341

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev173_pdoglizardplot_01312006.txt

Methods: 

Sampling Design

The landscape-scale plots were 180 m x 180 m. Lizards were visually sampled along strip transect lines established along each gridline of the landscape-scale plots, using a 5 x 5 grid array. Strip transects on the landscape-scale plots measured 1 m x 30 m.

Methods & Experimental Design

Landscape-scale plots: We compared lizards on plots occupied by: 1) both species (Pdog+Krat plot); 2) only kangaroo rats (Krat plot); and 3) both species, but where prairie dogs inhabited one half of the plot and kangaroo rats inhabited the other half (Transition plot).

Field Methods

Lizards were sampled by walking slowly along each transect, and individuals were counted and  identified to species. Lizards were always sampled in the morning between 9:00 - 11:00 am. Lizards were sampled throught the springand summer from spring 2000 through late summer 2002.

Maintenance: 

These metadata were obtained from Ana Davidson in a Word File. The data are in an Excel file that accompanies the metadata. -- KLV 1/31/2006

Additional information: 

Additional Information on the personnel associated with the Data Collection / Data Processing

Field Crew Member: Julie McIntyre

Additional Study Area Information

Study Area Name: Pino Gate

Study Area Location: The study site was located near the base of the Los Pinos mountains and directly adjacent to the nothern fencline of the SNWR at Pino Gate

Elevation: 1600 m

Vegetation: Burrograss (Scleropogon brevifolius), sand dropseed (Sporobolus ryptandrus), and black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) were the dominant vegetation.

Soils: Deep clayey loam soils

Geology: On an upper bajada slope, in a broad swale

Climate: Long-term mean annual precipitation is 243 mm, about 60% of which occurs during the summer. Long-term mean monthly temperatures for January and July are 1.5°C and 25.1°C, respectively.

Site history: Historically, prairie dogs were common throughout the area, but were exterminated by the early 1970’s (John Ford, United States Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services, personal  communication). Gunnison’s prairie dogs began to re-colonize the study site from adjacent private land in 1998. During our study, the colony occurred within a 5 ha area, near the base of the Los  Piños Mountains in an area with deep clayey loam soils. The site has been long inhabited by kangaroo rats, and represents typical northern Chihuahuan Desert grassland.

North Coordinate:34.406954
South Coordinate:34.406954
East Coordinate:106.606269
West Coordinate:106.606269

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