reproduction

The Burden of Reproduction in Lizards: Changes in Respiratory Physiology Associated with Reduced Lung Volume at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (2007-2008)

Abstract: 

Previous morphological work on lizards suggests that the volume of growing eggs may result in a significant decrease in lung volume during gravidity. Iguanid lizard lungs are located within continuous thoracic and abdominal cavities and are highly distensible. Because of their distensible nature and lack of a diaphragm, both naturally occurring and introduced structures within the abdominal and thoracic cavities (i.e. organs, food, eggs) compress them and potentially reduce available lung volume for gas exchange. During reproduction, this decrease comes at a time of increased energetic demands, due to the cost of provisioning eggs and the physical burden of transporting the extra mass before laying. This means that females must increase the oxygen/carbon dioxide exchange with effectively smaller lung capacity than when they are not reproductive. Therefore, the way species compensate for this decrease affects performance, and ultimately the survival of individuals and their offspring.

Data set ID: 

211

Additional Project roles: 

308
309

Core Areas: 

Keywords: 

Purpose: 

This research has been focused on investigating how the burden of carrying eggs (gravidity) affects the respiratory physiology of two species of lizard, Crotaphytus collaris and Gambelia wislizenii. This work has been centered around two questions: 1) What is the respiratory response to morphological reductions in lung volume during reproduction in these two lizard species and, 2) Are these responses the same for two species of similar size and morphology but with differing activity levels?

Methods: 

Experimental Design:  

Lizards were housed outside in screen cages (LLL Reptile) to allow access to natural light and climatic conditions. Cages were outfitted with sand, wood and rock refugia, and one end of the cage was covered with 18 by 12” board to provide shade. Lizards were fed crickets every other day throughout the period of the study. Crotaphytus collaris were grouped as two females to every male and G. wislizenii as one male to every female, when possible, to provide mating opportunities for both species. Females estimated to be close to oviposition were placed in smaller cages filled with moist perlite to provide an appropriate substrate for laying. 

CO2 Production, Breathing Frequency and Tidal Volume Estimates:

Lizards were fasted for 48 hours prior to all measurements and placed in individual chambers in the dark at 33ºC for two hours to acclimate before recording. All procedures were performed between 2300 and 0400 during their normal resting phase, to minimize activity. We measured CO2 production using a flow-through respirometry system (Sable Systems, LI-COR). Following the recording of metabolic rate, tubing from each chamber was connected to a differential pressure transducer (Sable Systems), and breathing frequency and tidal (expired breath) volume were recorded. Tidal volumes were calibrated using a syringe to inject known volumes of air into an empty chamber and recording the resulting signal. Volumes approximating the lizards’ expected tidal volume range (from Templeton and Dawson 1963) were used for the calibration. The following day we recorded post-exercise tidal volumes (PETV) by placing an individual in a 3x2x3 plastic tub and encouraging the lizard to run for approximately one minute. Individuals who were reluctant to run were repeated placed on their back to force them to right themselves. These activities were used to induce active, forced breathing. Animals were immediately placed into chambers and tidal volume was recorded as above. PETV was measured at room temperature, which averaged 24.1 ± .12ºC (mean and SEM). Once all respiratory parameters were measured lizards were weighed, scanned with ultrasound imaging to determine reproductive stage (see Gilman and Wolf 2007 for procedures), fed, and returned to their respective cages. 

For analyses, females were placed into one of five categories, based on the size and stage off the eggs (early follicles, late-stage follicles, early egg, shelled egg, post laying). Statistical analyses were performed on non-gravid-mass-specific (when appropriate) values using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests and significance was determined as P<0.05. Tests of significance for CT estimates of lung volumes were performed using 2-sample and paired t-tests and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests (P<0.05). 

Total Lung Volume:

We used Computed-Tomography (NanoSPECT/CT®) imaging to estimate lung capacity at two points during the reproductive cycle (gravid, post-laying) in four females (two of each species), and one point in the males. Two females and one male from each species were imaged. Individuals were fasted for 48 hours at 30 ºC and placed within cloth bags in a standard lab refrigerator for ~20 minutes and/or freezer for ~5 minutes until cool, to reduce activity. Lizards were then be taped to a cardboard restraint board with surgical tape (about the head body and limbs), to allow respiration but restrict other movement, and placed within a cloth bag on the imaging tray. Lung volume was estimated using the reconstructed CT data (NanoSPECT/CT, Bioscan, Washington, DC) by fitting 3-dimensional volumes to the interior of the lungs. A series of smaller volumes were fitted to the inside of the lungs and then summed to determine an estimate of total volume. Each sub-region spanned 8 slices of the reconstructed CT volume. Within each 8-slice sub-region, the estimation volume was drawn using a sum of the 8 slices as a guide. The region followed the border between the lungs and the body cavity of the subject. The axial length of each region was 3.6 mm (0.4 mm x 8).

Field methods: 

Lizards were hand-caught or noosed and placed in cloth bags for transport to the lab.

Data sources: 

sev211_lizardphys_20130412.txt

Instrumentation: 

* Instrument Name: CO2/H2O analyzer

* Manufacturer: LI-COR Biotechnology, Lincoln, NE

* Model Number: LI-7000

* Instrument Name: Respirometry Multiplexer, Universal Interface, Pressure Meter  

* Manufacturer: Sable Systems, Las Vegas, NV

* Model Number: V2.0, UI2, PT-100B 

*Instrument Name: Omega flowmeters, 

* Manufacturer: Omega Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT

* Model Number: FL-3402C and FL-3403G

Quality Assurance: 

The range of data values were double-checked.

Burn Exclosure Rodent Population Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1991-1993)

Abstract: 

Small mammal densities were estimated from small mammal recapture data in burned and unburned grassland.

Data set ID: 

15

Additional Project roles: 

53

Core Areas: 

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Web trapping design:

Experimental units were established in a 4 x 4 grid as part of a burn and antelope exclosure experiment. Small mammals were trapped in fireblocks 1, 2, 3, and 4. Each fireblock contains four webs, for a total of 16 webs. Small mammal densities are estimated from recapture data.

Within each location four webs were established. Each web contains twelve 100m transects radiating from a central point in a spoke like fashion. Four "Sherman" traps were placed around this central point. Twelve traps are placed along each of the radiating lines, the first four are placed at 5m intervals, and the remaining eight placed at 10m intervals. Rebar were used to mark the location of trap placement. Each rebar was tagged with a number from 1 to 145, with trap number 1 at the north facing spoke and radiating out to trap number 12, with each spoke following with successive numbers increasing in a clockwise fashion. Trap number 145 includes the four traps placed in the center of the web. Traps were placed adjacent to rebar unless a shaded area could be found within a meter or so along an arc of equal radius from the center. The webs are separated by distances from approx. 100m to 600m. Within each fireblock, each web is marked with a number from 1-4.

Trapping times:

Each summer was divided into two periods: period 1 and period 2.
Mammals were trapped as follows:

1991: period 1: NA
         period 2: September 4 - October 4
1992: period 1: April 15 - May 8
         period 2: August 4 - September 17
1993: period 1: April 6 - 29
         period 2: September ??

Each location was trapped in the same order for each period.
The order is as follows:

1. Fireblock 1
2. Fireblock 2
3. Fireblock 3
4. Fireblock 4

Each trapping session consisted of placing and baiting traps on Monday, then checking the traps at dawn on both Tuesday (night 1), Wednesday (night 2), and Thursday (night 3). The traps were collected on Thursday after being checked for animals. A small handful of rolled oats was placed into each trap, with small amounts placed outside trap door. Animals were removed form closed traps with the aid of plastic bags. They were then identified to species. Weight was determined to the nearest gram using a pesola scale. Body, tail, foot, and ear measurements were taken for Peromyscus. Body and tail measurements were taken for Onychomys, Perognathus, and Reithrodomtomys. All measurments were taken to the nearest millimeter using a plastic ruler. Reproductive status was determined by examination of the genitalia. The animal was also sexed, aged, and marked. Marking was done to each animal on the first nights capture for each individual animal.

Data sources: 

sev015_burnxrodentpop_10191995.txt

Maintenance: 

File created by Susan McKelvey 3/29/93. File supplemented by Rosemary Vigil 24 June 1993. Checked Oct 20, 1995; James Brunt

Quality Assurance: 

Data Entry

1. Data were entered at Biology Annex using data entry program "mammal-entry"
2. Data were checked for errors by comparing original data sheets with the
data entered into the computer.
3. After all errors were corrected, a dbf file was created using a Sun machine.
(/research/local/mammal/bin/SASmam2dbf filename > filename.dbf) This
modifies the comments, leaving out comments noted as "na".
4. A rdb file was then created using "arc2rdb filename.dbf > filename.rdb".
5. The rdb file was then checked for errors using "check < filename.rdb".
6. After errors were corrected, the rdb file was sorted using "sort
filename | uniq -c | page" to check that every entry was unique.
7. Duplications were investigated and corrected.
8. Dbf and rdb files were then copied to /research/archive/dbwork/vertebrate/
mammal/burnplot
9. From sevilleta, at burnplot>, the rdb file was run through a program called
webDist to create an input file as such: " webDist filename.rdb location
period > conventional input name. (naming conventions: site-season-year.in)
10.Input file was copied into /research/archive/dbwork/vertebrate/mammal/
burnplot
11.From a PC, the input file was run through a distance program in order to
get densities. (from dos: L:, cd distance, dist i=L:\burnplot/filename.in
o=L:\burnplot\filename.out)
12.Densities were cbtained from the output file and put into /mammal/data/
density-data/mammal_densities.data.burn which is a table containing the
following: year season location web n density stderr cv lcl ucl.
13.At this point, nothing further has been done.

Ocotillo Plant Demography Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, 2003

Abstract: 

In order to better understand the life history of Ocotillo, a re-sampling of Ocotillo plants originally marked and studied in 1991 was done in the southeast corner of the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge. All plants measured in 1991 were re-censused and re-tagged with new numbers. Measurements of plant height and branch number were repeated along with measurements pertaining to overall plant size.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

158

Additional Project roles: 

23
24
25
26
27
28
29

Keywords: 

Purpose: 

To compare Sevilleta Ocotillo populations with the population from 1991, documented in SEV054. The purpose of the study is to find out how the groups of Ocotillo measured
in 1991 have changed with respect to size (due to growth) and number. We are quite interested in looking at recruitment in the different groups because of geographical differences (soil, sunlight differences) between sites. Our hypothesis is that plants that can be re-identified will have increased in size since 1991. We also expect there to be recruitment in the groups of plants
sampled, but that this could vary from site to site.

Methods: 

Field Methods

We looked for plants with metal number tags given to them in 1991(#1-500), we recorded this number if it could be located, then placed a new metal number tag on the plant(#501-1199). Plants that had lost the 1991 tag were measured and given a new tag. Plants too young to have been measured in 1991 were also tagged and measured. Using a tape measure height and width of the base of the plant (diameter of base) measurements were made. The number of branches at the base of the plant and the number of branch tips were counted. The number of reproductive stems was determined by counting stems with evidence of flowering in that or a previous year. The proportion of dead stems was estimated as a function of the total number of stems on the plant. Plants at the periphery of each group or population were marked by GPS as well. Measurements from 1991 that were not repeated in 2003 were: "Population #" this was determined to be an arbitrary designation by Ms. Redfern.
"stems" was determined to be confusing and contradictory when combined with other measurements made in 1991. "buds" ; "flowers"; "fruit", all three were left out because it was decided a measure of reproductive stems present would be more informative in regard to reproduction within the groups of plants. "leaf" was not measured because leaves can come out many times a year as a function of precipitation. "dying" was instead measured as proportion of dead stems present on the plant. Dead stems on a plant do not indicate that the plant is dead or actively dying."#flowering stems" was measured as reproductive stems in 2003.

Data sources: 

sev158_ocotillodemography_09202005

Additional information: 

Additional Metadata

There are a number of plants sampled in 2003 that were not matched up to plants from 1991. There are also some plants that are presumed new since 1991, and therefore have no 1991 number. Sample 681 from 2003 was recorded 2 times. This error was not resolved.

It is important to note that not all measurements made in 1991 were repeated in 2003. This was because it was decided that a number of these measurements were not important given the ammount of time that had passed between the two measurement periods, and the life history of the plant. Also, in 2003 measurements were made that were not done in 1991. It was felt that measurements would be more informative in the long term for life history and demography of Fouquieria splendens.

Additional Study Area Information

Study Area Name: South Gate

Study Area Location: Valle del Ojo de la Parrida - about 2km north of the south boundary on the east side of the refuge

Elevation: 1538 m

North Coordinate:34.2167

West Coordinate:106.7954

Tree Mast Production in Pinyon-Juniper-Oak Forests at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1997- present)

Abstract: 

The purpose of this study is to monitor the fruit production of three woody tree species that occur on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Two monoecious species, Pinus edulis and Quercus turbinella, are assessed, as is a dioecious species, Juniperus monosperma. In August, fruit production is estimated for the three species at five sites within the Sevilleta NWR. For each of the species different protocols are used for estimating fruit production: P. edulis estimates are made using the number of cones per mature tree, Q. turbinellla estimates utilize the number of acorns per 0.1m2 of canopy surface area, and J. monosperma estimates use the number of berries per twig on female trees. In addition, the age and/or size of each individual tree was assessed at the beginning of the study. For P. edulis and J. monosperma, distinctions continue to be made between young, medium, old, and very old trees; for Q. turbinella, canopy surface area is estimated.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

204

Keywords: 

Purpose: 

This study is designed to monitor the fruit production of three woody tree species that occur on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (NWR).

Data sources: 

sev204_mastproductionall_20150114.txt

Methods: 

Site information:

At each study site, four 1 ha plots were established. Each plot was divided into four subplots.

Spatial structure of juniper, pinon pine and oak populations:

All trees and shrubs within the 1 ha plots were tagged and mapped using either GPS cordinates or compass headings. Height, canopy diameter (in both north-south and west-east directions) and diameter-at-breast-height (DBH) of trunk were measured for all woody plants, including those that died during the drought of the 1950's. Juniper and pinon trees were subdivided into four age/size groups based upon mean canopy radius for juniper and DBH for pinon. For oak trees, the canopy surface area of all individual trees was measured.

Measuring mast production:

Berry, cone, and acorn production is measured in August when fruits are ripening. Three different methods were developed to estimate annual production.

For juniper, the percent of twigs with berries and the quantity of berries per twig are determined every year for all trees in each plot. The average twig has a length of 45 cm and trunk diameter of 12 mm. Estimates of berry production are made separately for the upper and lower halves of the crown, and for the northwestern, northeastern, and southern sectors and the mean number of berries per twig calculated.

To determine berry production per tree and per hectare, the average number of twigs on trees of different size groups is estimated. Samples of 500-800 berries from a plot are taken randomly each year to determine the percentage of developed and underdeveloped berries, as well as berries with the pericarp damaged by insects.

The absolute number of third-year, ripened, green cones is estimated on all trees within the 1 hectare plots. Young brown cones of the second year are also counted to predict the yield of cones the following year. Cones are counted with binoculars.  The unit of pinon mast production is cones/seeds per mature tree.

To estimate cone predation in the spring, the number of damaged female stems and the mortality of conelets are estimated. Then, in August of the following year, samples of 100 green ripened cones are collected randomly on 30-40 trees at each of three pinon sites, and the ratio of filled seeds to empty seeds, as well as the percentage of cones damaged by predatory insects, estimated.

Several hundred ripened cones and filled ripen seeds were initially measured to determine their average weight. The average dry weight of a ripened cone consisting of filled seeds was 3.5 g. The weight of a cone with no seeds was 2.1 g, representing 62% of total weight. The average number of filled seeds in a cone was six and the average dry weight of a filled seed 0.22 g, consisting of a seed shell of 0.13 g (59% of seed weight) and a seed core of 0.09 g (41% of seed weight).

A different method is used to estimate acorn production. First, the canopy surface area of each oak tree is determined. The number of acorns is counted separately for well-developed, undeveloped, and those damaged by Curculionidae beetle larvae within a 31 cm x 32 cm frame projected onto the crown surface of each oak tree in 3-5 repetitions. Acorns are subdivided into three size groups, small, medium, and large. Medium acorns are most common. To determine the weight of acorns, 100 acorns of each small, medium and large size were collected from 50 different trees.

A comparison of production of the three woody species was done on the basis of fruit biomass per unit of measure: well-developed, undamaged berries per twig for juniper, filled seeds per mature tree for pinon pine, and well-developed, undamaged acorns per 0.1 m2 of canopy surface for oak. Additionally, biomass of berries, pinon seeds and acorns per hectare was estimated in order to compare production at the five sites and quantify annual fluctuations.

Site abbreviations are as follows:

CM=Cerro Montosa

GD=Goat Draw

FS=Field Station

MF=McKenzie Flats

222=222/Red Tank

WM=West Mesa

Plot:

Plot refers to the 1 ha area and associated subplots where data is collected. Values range from I1-I4, II1-II4, III1-III4, IV1-IV4.

Maintenance: 

Data were compiled into a single file for all years. In addition, a year column was added. Cells that had a period (.) or were blank were changed to NA. Abbreviations were given for sites and Kartez codes assigned for juniper, pine, and oak. File was saved as CSV. TK. 6 February 2009. Data were qa/qc'd for obivous errors and metadata was updated. Added West Mesa site. 11 January 2010. tlk. Changed the order of variables so that "year" is first and "site" is second. The order of the other variables has not been changed, only shifted. Added information to West Mesa site. Added Biome Transition Area site, replacing previous name, McKenzie Flats. 8 March 2010, tlk. Kristin updated Roman's personal information. 12 March 2010, tlk.

Quality Assurance: 

 Datasheets were visually assessed for any errors.

Additional information: 

Data collection began in 1997 and is ongoing.

Ocotillo Plant Dimensions in the Chihuahuan Desert at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1991)

Abstract: 

This study looks at Ocotillo (Fouqieria splendens) at the northern extent of its range in New Mexico. Gross morphological and phenological measurements are made in the field and leaves are collected for isozyme work. Questions that this study may address are: Do individuals at range edges show reduced genetic diversity relative to individuals in the heart of the range? Do population age structures(Can we age them?) differ at edges. Can we, in time, determine stasis or movement of populations? Are demographics germane to the study questions? What other methods, in addition to isozyme work will we use to get at the relative genetics of these populations?

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

54

Additional Project roles: 

165
166
167
168

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev054_ocotillodimensions_09082011.txt

Methods: 

Five hundred ocotillo individuals were tagged and measured in the ways described below. The plants follow the south-facing slopes of a ridgeline near the southern boundry of the Sevilleta. The plants were marked starting at the easternmost population and numbered consecutively as one moves west along the ridge.

DESCRIPTION OF EACH MEASUREMENT

1] PLANT# - this is the number on the tag attached to the plant.

2] POP# - Represents the population number which is simply which group of plants encountered. Each population is separated by an area along the ridge that does not have ocotillo growing on it.

3] PHENOLOGY - Phenology is measured by circling one of the following codes for each plant. If the code was circled on the data sheet it is given a value of "y" in the data base, if not circled, the value is "n" in the data base.

  • St = Stems only (i.e. plant is alive but no leaves or reproductive structures are present)
  • B = Flower Buds - Flower buds are present.
  • Fl = Flowers - Flowers are present.
  • Fr = Fruit - Fruit is present. Fruit is considered   to be present when the ovary has expanded and the perianth has senesced.
  • L = Leaves - Leaves are present.
  • D = Senescence/Plant is dying(Plant has dead stems attached.)

4] #/STEM - this measurement is the number of stems Son the plant at the highest order of branching, i.e. if a stem branches near the base and each of those two stems branch once then a person counts four stems, the first branching does not matter in the count.

5] #/FLOWERING STEMS - simply the number of stems with reproductive structures, counted as above.

6] HSTEM - this is the longest stem measured from the base to the apical tip of the stem.

7] NOTES - any comments or qualifiers that need to be made. Notes are put in curly brackets '{}' on the next line.

Maintenance: 

File initiated 11 Jun 1991. Data entered by 3 Nov 1992 by Rupal Shah Errors changed on 5 Nov 1992 by Rupal Shah More Errors corrected on 9 Nov 1992 by Rupal Shah 8 Feb 1993 - Added a date to documentation from data sheets recently found by Rupal Shah - Troy Maddux. 11/12/98 - Added final line of "END OF DATA" to dataset. K. Taugher - Aligned columns to right justification. K. Taugher doc

Additional information: 

Additional Information on the personnel associated with the Data Collection / Data Processing

 The data were collected by the 1991 plant crew: Troy Maddux (Head Plant Technician), Sam Loftin (Plant Research Assistant), Joran Viers, (Plant Technician), Kathleen McGee (Plant Technician).

Population Ecology of Banner-Tailed Kangaroo Rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) in a Chihuahuan Desert Grassland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2005-2009)

Abstract: 

From March 2005-Februaury 2009, a population of banner-tailed kangaroo rats was monitored using mark-recapture methods. All active kangaroo rat mounds on the 18-ha Nunn Flats site were trapped monthly. All captured individuals were marked and reproductive status and mass were recorded. From February to July 2008 a subset of adult females received supplemental food. This dataset was collected to observe the survivorship, reproduction, and dispersal of banner-tailed kangaroo rats in response to changes in resources and density. Both observational and experimental methods were used to observe how ecological constraints affected juvenile dispersal.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

228

Additional Project roles: 

113
114

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev228_dipodomys_07132009.txt

Methods: 

Sampling Design: 

Site was 18 ha with 167 mounds of varying condition. Mounds with activity and previous captures were trapped for 3 consective nights each month from March 2005-February 2009. No trapping occurred during January 2007 and only two nights were trapped during February 2006. A small subset of the study area was trapped for two days in February 2005. Beginning on February 28, 2008 through July 3, 2008, I gave additional food to 12 adult females. 500 ml of mixed birdseed was placed at their mounds (805, 3405, 5405, 6105, 5905, 16105, 8105, 11205, 11905, 9005, 7505, and 12705) each week.

Field methods: 

Each month all kangaroo rat mounds on study area were censused for signs of activity (digging, feces, etc.). At all active mounds 2-4 sherman live traps (Model XLK folding trap) were placed and baited with sweet feed each month. Traps were open at dusk and check 3-6 hours later. Captured animals were marked with an implantable PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder, Biomark, 12mm x 2.1mm) tags using a sterile, 12-gauge needle. A small piece of ear tissue was removed for parentage analysis. Mound location, reproductive status, mass, and gender were also recorded. Mass was recorded using a Pesola spring scale with two-gram increments.

Experimental Design: 

Mark-recapture techniques were used to monitor a population of banner-tailed kangaroo rats.

Maintenance: 

File created on 7/10/20009 by Andrew Edelman

Quality Assurance: 

Double-checked data entry, range checks, and filter for incorrect codes

Additional information: 

Location for kangaroo rat mounds on site are as follows:

Mound_ID, X-coordinate,Y-coordinate

105, 352503.9892, 3808241.885; 205, 352525.5627, 3808287.548; 305, 352570.9041, 3808275.161; 405, 352604.7456, 3808294.961; 505, 352629.4991, 3808271.97; 605, 352638.9185, 3808289.196; 705, 352676.4955, 3808253.037; 805, 352690.6156, 3808239.471; 1405, 352754.6148, 3808242.11; 1505, 352567.9148, 3808248.665; 1605, 352627.1008, 3808233.377; 2205, 352714.549, 3808207.317; 2305, 352629.9582, 3808209.434; 2405, 352543.9326, 3808203.806; 2505, 352622.2806, 3808176.221; 2605, 352708.2039, 3808172.118; 2705, 352747.7158, 3808144.423; 2805, 352717.027, 3808143.893; 2905, 352645.8878, 3808163.344; 3005, 352636.0028, 3808147.234; 3105, 352565.561, 3808176.402; 3205, 352659.8099, 3808118.744; 3305, 352594.1649, 3808129.295; 3405, 352573.6373, 3808122.966; 3505, 352602.1479, 3808094.571; 3605, 352676.4075, 3808087.583; 3705, 352697.0906, 3808070.22; 3805, 352776.9342, 3808068.001; 3905, 352565.897, 3808084.946; 4005, 352531.943, 3808112.611; 4105, 352541.9398, 3808054.878; 4205, 352622.8705, 3808053.028l; 4305, 352622.0738, 3808028.535; 4405, 352646.2122, 3808029.777; 4505, 352702.4195, 3808010.261; 4605, 352722.5738, 3808003.011; 4705, 352726.0852, 3807967.214; 4805, 352735.6813, 3807956.005; 4905, 352701.5839, 3807965.009; 5005, 352666.7307, 3807962.113; 5105, 352616.4892, 3807985.21; 5205, 352588.4674, 3808002.536; 5305, 352576.02, 3807992.674; 5405, 352573.3435, 3808029.269; 5505, 352553.9491, 3808025.108; 5605, 352534.1924, 3807997.763; 5705, 352490.5472, 3808213.478; 5805, 352525.0938, 3808187.967; 5905, 352522.6641, 3808145.351; 6005, 352509.8883, 3808117.726; 6105, 352505.0531, 3808101.211; 6205, 352521.9385, 3808072.918; 6305, 352518.887, 3808034.597; 6405, 352519.7183, 3807992.202; 6505, 352497.9711, 3808029.333; 6605, 352504.866, 3808002.134; 6705, 352483.0641, 3808028.276; 6805, 352463.465, 3808051.454; 6905, 352481.8474, 3808138.632; 7005, 352493.2206, 3808175.412; 7105, 352461.0621, 3808272.282; 7205, 352457.2138, 3808238.92; 7305, 352479.1736, 3808234.496; 7405, 352477.7054, 3808205.118; 7505, 352461.6341, 3808130.171; 7605, 352439.3231, 3808139.125; 7705, 352434.9805, 3808069.117; 7805, 352462.7142, 3807998.416; 7905, 352434.2928, 3808014.946; 8005, 352414.7125, 3808016.338; 8105, 352432.807, 3808189.745; 8205, 352427.7251, 3808277.535; 8305, 352596.9099, 3808148.502; 8405, 352709.7385, 3807998.427; 8505, 352400.1611, 3808298.874; 8605, 352398.5307, 3808248.954; 8705, 352394.3053, 3808208.421; 8805, 352417.9864, 3808188.141; 8905, 352406.4311, 3808100.084; 9005, 352401.2777, 3808073.217; 9105, 352407.0647, 3807993.695; 9205, 352441.1366, 3807969.265; 9305, 352623.8184, 3807941.002; 9405, 352572.2549, 3807954.936; 9505, 352531.5816, 3807930.321; 9605, 352537.1572, 3807956.557; 9705, 352516.2851, 3807954.407; 9805, 352498.9044, 3807921.374; 9905, 352471.7008, 3807914.814; 10005, 352428.8454, 3807951.271; 10105, 352615.8191, 3808050.934; 10205, 352457.815, 3808210.194; 10305, 352452.3605, 3808075.721; 10405, 352393.2227, 3808080.432; 10505, 352557.3549, 3808223.781; 10605, 352543.0582, 3808238.651; 10705, 352608.6243, 3808082.288; 10805, 352649.4858, 3808003.175; 10905, 352376.8146, 3808274.972; 11005, 352358.009, 3808262.493; 11105, 352362.6989, 3808238.361; 11205, 352354.0334, 3808218.96; 11305, 352370.3111, 3808150.713; 11405, 352355.1366, 3808145.786; 11505, 352360.3909, 3808135.233; 11605, 352374.776, 3808138.831; 11805, 352353.9627, 3808123.151; 11905, 352361.656, 3808104.919; 12105, 352388.6764, 3808099.17; 12205, 352387.6862, 3808092.404; 12305, 352385.1667, 3808068.472; 12405, 352358.8095, 3808049.446; 12505, 352379.636, 3808045.292; 12605, 352387.5078, 3808009.062; 12705, 352375.7426, 3808008.156; 12805, 352370.1777, 3807970.257; 12905, 352387.0447, 3807928.725; 13005, 352365.9785, 3807918.332; 13105, 352337.32, 3808042.976; 13205, 352341.5856, 3808082.154; 13305, 352328.0572, 3808086.752; 13405, 352317.8053, 3808135.964; 13505, 352326.374, 3808154.05; 13605, 352309.5057, 3808177.251; 14305, 352330.4228, 3808235.091; 14805, 352324.8689, 3808306.724; 15205, 352327.447, 3808258.302; 15305, 352766.2299, 3807926.185; 15405, 352757.0983, 3807985.024; 15505, 352754.8304, 3807916.482; 15605, 352733.2479, 3807913.721; 15705, 352635.7949, 3807912.246; 15805, 352571.2985, 3807913.307; 15905, 352318.4586, 3807942.625; 16005, 352710.9642, 3808069.875; 16105, 352513.9661, 3808208.744; 16205, 352443.9532, 3808282.427; 16305, 352322.4644, 3808178.238; 16405, 352364.5514, 3808306.333; 16505, 352414.567, 3808305.998; 16605, 352438.2848, 3808151.926; 16705, 352523.5656, 3808028.616; 16805, 352522.1139, 3807922.294; 16905, 352560.1849, 3808287.788; 17005, 352669.4834, 3808111.969; 17105, 352655.9275, 3808141.497; 17205, 352748.7156, 3808109.527; 17305, 352740.3857, 3808201.324; 17405, 352431.366, 3808209.557; 17505, 352423.3768, 3808239.328; 17605, 352565.2638, 3808301.369; 17705, 352652.5885, 3808291.679; 17805, 352768.6501, 3808259.716; 17905, 352617.484, 3808240.296; 18005, 352751.0705, 3807948.828; 18105, 352669.6594, 3808065.887; 18205, 352461.7935, 3807910.937; 18305, 352614.9054, 3808276.152; 18405, 352731.8798, 3808163.722; 18505, 352537.3102, 3808037.032; 18605, 352513.9187, 3808018.297; 18705, 352493.6612, 3807972.886; 18805, 352570.2421, 3808263.099; 18905, 352334.4577, 3807922.277; 19006, 352505.5826, 3808089.875; 19108, 352363.57, 3808021.04; 19208, 352721.704, 3808278.087

Trap nights are as follows:

2/19/2005, 2/20/2005, 3/17/2005, 3/18/2005, 3/19/2005, 4/22/2005, 4/23/2005, 4/24/2005, 5/27/2005, 5/28/2005, 5/29/2005, 6/20/2005, 6/21/2005, 6/22/2005, 7/28/2005, 7/29/2005, 7/30/2005, 8/26/2005, 8/27/2005, 8/28/2005, 9/23/2005, 9/24/2005, 9/25/2005, 10/21/2005, 10/22/2005, 10/23/2005, 11/18/2005, 11/19/2005, 11/20/2005, 12/16/2005, 12/17/2005, 12/18/2005, 1/20/2006, 1/21/2006, 1/22/2006, 2/17/2006, 2/18/2006, 3/25/2006, 3/26/2006, 3/27/2006, 4/14/2006, 4/15/2006, 4/16/2006, 5/19/2006, 5/20/2006, 5/21/2006, 6/19/2006, 6/20/2006, 6/21/2006, 7/18/2006, 7/19/2006, 7/20/2006, 8/24/2006, 8/25/2006, 8/26/2006, 9/21/2006, 9/22/2006, 9/23/2006, 10/26/2006, 10/27/2006, 10/28/2006, 11/24/2006, 11/25/2006, 11/26/2006, 12/15/2006, 12/16/2006, 12/17/2006, 2/16/2007, 2/17/2007, 2/18/2007, 3/23/2007, 3/24/2007, 3/25/2007, 4/27/2007, 4/28/2007, 4/29/2007, 5/29/2007, 5/30/2007, 5/31/2007, 6/25/2007, 6/26/2007, 6/27/2007, 7/23/2007, 7/24/2007, 7/25/2007, 8/23/2007, 8/24/2007, 8/25/2007, 9/20/2007, 9/21/2007, 9/22/2007, 10/26/2007, 10/27/2007, 10/28/2007, 11/24/2007, 11/25/2007, 11/26/2007, 12/20/2007, 12/21/2007, 12/22/2007, 1/18/2008, 1/19/2008, 1/20/2008, 1/21/2008, 2/21/2008, 2/22/2008, 2/23/2008, 3/14/2008, 3/15/2008, 3/16/2008, 4/11/2008, 4/12/2008, 4/13/2008, 5/8/2008, 5/9/2008, 5/10/2008, 6/12/2008, 6/13/2008, 6/14/2008, 7/7/2008, 7/8/2008, 7/9/2008, 8/4/2008, 8/5/2008, 8/6/2008, 9/12/2008, 9/13/2008, 9/14/2008, 10/17/2008, 10/18/2008, 10/19/2008, 11/21/2008, 11/22/2008, 11/23/2008, 12/18/2008, 12/19/2008, 12/20/2008, 1/16/2009, 1/17/2009, 1/18/2009, 2/13/2009, 2/14/2009, 2/15/2009.

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