litter

Rainfall Manipulation Study Vegetation Data from the Chihuahuan Desert Grassland and Creosote Shrubland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2003-2011)

Abstract: 

The overall goal of the rainfall manipulation project is to understand the coupled ecological and hydrological responses of a grassland, shrubland and a mixed grass-shrub vegetation community to extended periods of increased or decreased rainfall. Rainfall manipulation plots have been established in each of these three vegetation communities in the Five Points area of Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge. In each vegetation community, three control plots, three drought treatment plots, and three water addition plots have been installed, each approximately 10 x 15 m in size. In each plot, vertical profiles of soil moisture probes have been installed under each cover type (canopy and interspace in grassland and shrubland; grass canopy, shrub canopy and interspace at the ecotone (mixed grass-shrub) site). The probes measure differences in infiltration and soil water content and potential associations with these different cover types. In addition, TDR probes have been installed diagonally in each cover type to integrate the water content of the top 15 cm of soil. Each plot contains 18, 1m2 quads made up of 6, 1m2 quads along each of the 3 transects located across each plot. Each spring and fall, the following parameters are measured in every quad: live plant cover, height, and abundance by species; dead plant cover; soil cover; litter cover; and rock cover. Data collection began in the drought and control plots in the spring of 2002. Data collection began in the water addition plots in the spring of 2004.In the grassland and shrubland communities, all nine currently established plots are located together. The three drought plots were located under a single large roof with a 0.5 m path separating each plot (drought treatments ended in 2006). The control plots and water addition plots are similarly grouped, but without the shelter structure. In the ecotone community, the plots are in three groups; each group is comprised of one drought plot, one water addition plot, and one control plot. Control plots received no experimental treatment, while the sliding roofs over the drought plots were used to divert precipitation, producing a long-term drought. The roofs covering the drought plots were lowered when there was no precipitation so that the amount of sunlight received by the drought plots was minimally affected. Water addition was intended to impose a complementary increase in water supply on the water addition plots. 

Data set ID: 

147

Core Areas: 

Additional Project roles: 

336
337
338
339

Keywords: 

Methods: 

Quadrat measurements 

One meter2 vegetation quadrats are used to measure the cover and abundance of all plants present along each of the three transects across each plot.  These quadrats are also used to measure dead plant foliage, leaf litter, bare soil, and rock covers. One person works on each quad, recording the data into a palm top computer.  Two technicians may work independently along the same transect and alternate quadrats.    

To begin quadrat measurements, first locate the three pairs of rebar along the length (across the slope, perpendicular to the gutter edge) of each plot, which mark the endpoints of each transect. Once the transect has been located, run a string across the plot attaching it to the two transect endpoint rebar stakes to act as a guideline for measurements.  Each transect is measured from the left to the right side of the plot (where left and right are from the perspective of a person standing at the bottom edge of the plot where the gutters are located).  

Beginning at the left side of the transect, place the bottom edge of the quadrat along the guidline of the string with the quad pointing away from the gutter edge. After measuring the quadrat, advance the quadrat along the transect by moving the quadrat to the right so that the bottom left corner is moved to the position formerly occupied by the bottom right corner.  Repeat this process until the entire width of the transect has been measured.  *Note: Beginning in the spring of 2010 only quadrats 2-7 (or meters 2-7) were measured. Before the spring of 2010 there were a variable number of quadrats measured per transect.  If the last quadrat did not lie completely within the boundaries of the plot (within the metal edging), the percentage of the plot that lied within the plot boundary was recorded in the comments column of the data sheet and the vegetation data was recorded in the same manner as for the other quadrats.  If the last quadrat lied completely within the boundaries of the plot, 100%  was recorded in the comments section of the data sheet.  This was to ensure that the entire transect had been measured. 

General vegetation measurements

The cover, height, and abundance (standing biomass) are recorded for each species of plant inside the quadrat.  Vegetation measurements are taken in two layers: a ground level layer that includes all grasses, forbs, sub-shrubs, the bases of Larrea tridentata and bare soil and a “shrub” layer that includes the canopy of Larrea tridentata.  The purpose of this approach is to include Larrea canopies, while allowing the cover values of the ground level layer to sum to approximately 100%.    

The quadrat boundaries are delineated by the 1 m2 PVC-frame placed above the quadrat.   Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string.  The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 % of the total quadrat area or cover.  The cover and height of all individual plants of a species that fall within the 1m2 quadrat are measured.  Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares intercepted by all individual plants of a particular species, and/or partial cover for individual plants < 1%. 

When reading plant cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat.  If you are not directly centered over the vegetation, cover measurements can be over or underestimated by your angle of view (parallax).  If the surrounding plants prohibit you from leaning directly over the plants, use a tape measure to delineate a vertical column of intercept.  To do this, simply extend the tape measure vertically from the base of the plant up to the frame grid.  

Vegetation cover measurements

Cover measurements are made by summing the cover values for all individual plants of a given species that fall within an infinite vertical column that is defined by the inside edge of the PVC-frame. This includes vegetation that is rooted outside of the frame but has foliage that extends into the vertical column defined by the PVC-frame.  Again, cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares intercepted by each species.  Do not duplicate overlapping canopies, just record the total canopy cover on a horizontal plane when looking down on the quadrat through the grid.

Larger cover values will vary but the smallest cover value recorded should never be below 0.1%.  When dealing with individual plants that are < 1.00%, round the measurements to an increment of 0.1.  Cover values between 1.00 - 5.00% should be rounded to an increment of 0.5 and values > 5.00% are rounded to an increment of 5. 

Cover measurements should be calculated separately for living and dead individuals of each species.  However, because these measurements are made infrequently, vegetation should be considered live if it represents the current year’s growth (green and yellow).  This is particularly important for grasses that may have become senescent during the fall sampling of each year.

Creosote:

Two Larrea tridentata coverage measurements are taken (LATR2 for canopy and LATR2B for the basal cover).  The canopy level layer is estimated using the portion of the canopy that falls within the quadrat.  The canopy edge is defined by a straight gravity line from the canopy to the ground (i.e. imagine a piece of string with a weight on the end being moved around the canopy edge).  A basal cover is taken at the base of the shrub and includes all woody vegetation that stems from the ground.  The purpose of taking two measurements for Larrea is to assess changes in shrub canopy cover without confounding the percent cover estimates of other species obtained using the basal layer. For Larrea seedlings the code LSEED is used and is a separate measurement from the Larrea canopy and basal measurements.

Grasses:

To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends or more open upper regions of the plant.  Live tissue is frequently mixed with dead tissue in grass clumps.  Provide two sets of measurements for the dead and live foliage, if possible, especially for perennial grass species.  In the case that both live and dead are difficult to separate, measure all of the foliage as live.  Remember that vegetation should be considered live if it represents the current year’s growth.  In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and long-dead foliage is gray.  

Forbs:

The cover of forbs is the perimeter around the densest portion of the plant. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season including any recently dead (yellow) foliage.

Cacti and Yucca:

The cover of cacti and yucca is made by estimating a perimeter around the densest portion of the plant and recorded as a single cover.  For cacti that consist of a cluster of pads or jointed stems (i.e., Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata), estimate an average perimeter around the series of plant parts and record a single coverage measurement.

Vines:

Vine cover (and some forbs) is often convoluted.  Rather than attempt to estimate cover directly, take a frequency count of 10X10X10cm cubes that the vine is present in.

Seedlings:

As with other vegetation measurements, the smallest cover value for seedlings should never be <0.1.  If the value of seedling cover is less than 0.1, round up to 0.1.  In the comments write “SEEDLING.”    

Height measurements

Height is measured with a tape measure as a whole number in centimeters.  All heights are vertical heights that are defined as a line parallel to the pull of gravity; this is not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.  Measure the maximum height of each species identified in the quadrat.  Do not measure the heights of every individual plant for a particular species.

Creosote:

The height of Larrea is only taken only at the canopy level (LATR2). Measure the maximum height from the base of the woody vegetation that stems from the ground to the top of the green foliage.  No height measurement is needed at the basal level (LATR2B).   

Annual grasses and all forbs:

Measure the height from the base of the plant to the tallest part of foliage for that species in the quadrat.  Include the height of the inflorescence, if present.  

Perennial grasses:

Measure the height from the base of the plant to the tallest part of green foliage for that species in the quadrat.  Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement..    

Plants rooted outside but hanging into the quadrat:

Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat.  In the comments section of the data sheet, record “Hang Over.” or “HO”.

Abundance measurements

Abundance is recorded as the number of individual plants that comprise the cover measurement.  For some species, individuals are hard to distinguish. If there is bare space between two units, they should be considered separate individuals.  

Creosote:

At the basal level (LATR2B) count the number of Larrea bases present in the quadrat.

Dead plant foliage:

For plants that are dead, but still attached to the soil and standing, just record the cover. Do not measure height or abundance for dead plants. Instead, record “-888” in these spaces on the spreadsheet to signify a value that was intentionally not recorded and enter DEAD in the comments. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares intercepted by each species. As with live vegetation, plant measurements that are < 1.00% should be rounded to an increment of 0.1.  Cover values between 1.00 - 5.00% should be rounded to an increment of 0.5 and values > 5.00% are rounded to an increment of 5.

Remember, if some of the individuals of a plant species, or if portions of the foliage of an individual plant on the quadrat are dead and some alive, provide two sets of measurements for the dead and living foliage. In the case that both live and dead foliage are intermixed and difficult to separate, as in some bunch grasses and shrubs, just record the foliage as live. Any dead plant foliage that is not still attached to the roots and standing is considered leaf litter.

Non-Vegetation Measurements

Materials other than vegetation that are measured in the drought plots include leaf litter, soil, rocks, and buckets (see below). Other than buckets, which occur in very few plots, values should always be recorded for these materials.  If they are not present in a given quad, put ”-888” for their cover values so that it is clear that these categories were not simply overlooked during data collection.  

Heights and abundances are not recorded for any of these materials. Instead, record “-888” for height and abundance and a numerical value for cover, where applicable (see below). If not recorded in the field, the data manager will do so during the QA/QC process.    

Leaf litter:

Leaf litter includes all detached dead plant material on the soil surface, including woody branches.  Cover is quantified by summing the number of 10cm x 10cm squares intercepted by patches of leaf litter.  Cover values < 5.00% should be rounded to increments of 1 and cover values > 5.00% should be recorded in increments of 5.  If there is no leaf litter in the quadrat, record “LITT” in the “species “ column and record “-888” in the cover, height, and abundance columns.    

Some leaf litter cover has distinctive margins and is easy to define and measure. However, leaf litter may occur in diffuse small patches that are separated by bare soil, and distributed throughout the quadrat. For such diffuse cover, determine the actual cover in one typical 10 by 10 cm square (e.g., 0.3), then count the number of squares with diffuse cover (e.g., 5), and multiply the number of squares by the actual cover for a typical square (e.g., 0.3 X 5 = 1.5, then round to 1.0 or 2.0, or if the value had been greater than 5, round to the nearest increment of 5.0) for the total leaf litter cover. All leaf litter measurements are pooled into one observation, and no height or abundance is measured.  Only measure leaf litter that is in the open, do not attempt to measure within clumps of grass, etc.     

Soil:

Measure the cover of the area occupied by abiotic substrates.  Cover is quantified by summing the number of 10cm x 10cm squares intercepted by abiotic substrates.  As with leaf litter, cover values < 5.00% should be rounded to increments of 1 and cover values > 5.00% should be recorded in increments of 5.  If there is no soil in the quadrat, record “SOIL” in the species column for that quadrat and record a “-888” for the height, cover, and abundance. Again, when soil is present, only the cover is recorded and “-888” should be entered for height and count.  

Rock:   

As a separate entry, estimate the cover of rock (particles >1 cm) occurring within the bare ground.  The rock cover estimate can be viewed as an index of how much of the soil surface is rocky or as a subset of the soil cover measurement.  The rock cover should still be measured as a sum of the number of 10cm x 10cm squares intercepted by rock.  Cover values < 5.00% should be rounded to increments of 1 and cover values > 5.00% should be recorded in increments of 5.  Enter “-888” for the height and count.  If there is no rock cover in the quadrat, record “ROCK” in the species column and enter “-888” for the height, count, and cover.

For Grass and for Creosote sites treatments are: Plots 1-4 Drought; plots 5-6 Control; Plots 7-9 Watered; For Mixed site treatments are: Plots 3,6,9 Drought; Plots 2,4,8 Control; Plots 1,5,7 Watered.

Data sources: 

sev147_droughtveg_11142011

Maintenance: 

File created 3/2/2005. -- Kristin VanderbiltUpdated 12/11/2006 --Karen Wetherill Data appended to file on 7/25/2005 -- KLV Data compiled into one file. Metadata entered in EML access database. TK 6 February 2009 data qa/qc in navicat. Made NONE measurements in the following format Cover 0 Height -888 Count -888. Corrected typos and errors. TLK 10 February 2009

Additional information: 

On Aug 4, 2009, a lightning strike ignited a fire in the area west of the road from Black Butte to Five-Points. The fire started around 3:30 PM on the 4th.  The fire was initially concentrated in the Grassland Drought, SMES, and Monsoon study areas. The next day the fire carried north and east to the Deep Well Meteorological station, Warming, and Nut-Net plot areas. The fire was finally contained by the end of the 5th covering  >7800 ha.

Starting in the spring of 2011, only the mixed shrub site will be measured in the spring and in the fall only the mixed shrub and creosote sites will be measured. Measurements at the drought grassland site was discontinued at this time.

Sevilleta Field Crew Employee History

Megan McClung, April 2013-present, Stephanie Baker, October 2010-Present, John Mulhouse, August 2009-Present, Amaris Swann, August 25, 2008-January 2013, Maya Kapoor, August 9, 2003-January 21, 2005 and April 2010-March 2011, Terri Koontz, February 2000-August 2003 and August 2006-August 2010, Yang Xia, January 31, 2005-April 2009, Karen Wetherill, February 7, 2000-August 2009, Michell Thomey, September 3, 2005-August 2008, Jay McLeod, January 2006-August 2006, Charity Hall, January 31, 2005-January 3, 2006, Tessa Edelen, August 15, 2004-August 15, 2005, Seth Munson, September 9, 2002-June 2004, Caleb Hickman, September 9, 2002-November 15, 2004, Heather Simpson, August 2000-August 2002, Chris Roberts, September 2001-August 2002, Mike Friggens, 1999-September 2001, Shana Penington, February 2000-August 2000.

Desertification/Bureau of Land Managment (BLM) Transects at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1976,1986,1996)

Abstract: 

Responses of plant communities to mammalian herbivores vary widely, due to variation in plant species composition, herbivore densities, forage preferences, soils, and climate. In this study, we evaluated simultaneous changes in 11 plant assemblages on the 100,000 ha Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in central New Mexico, USA, over a 20-yr period following removal of the major mammalian herbivores (livestock and prairie dogs) in 1972-1975. Thirty study sites were established in 1976 within and outside of the SNWR, and these sites were resampled in 1986 and 1996 using line transect methods. At the landscape scale, repeated measures ANOVA of percentage cover measurements showed no significant overall net changes in total perennial plant basal cover, either with or without herbivores present; however, there was an overall increase in annual forbs and plant litter from 1976 to 1996. At the site scale, significant changes in species composition and dominance were observed both through time and across the SNWR boundary; each plant assemblage exhibited varying degrees of change, with sites dominated by Bouteloua eriopoda (black grama grass) being the most dynamic and sites dominated by Scleropogon brevifolius (burro grass) being the most persistent. Species-specific changes also were observed across multiple sites: B. eriopoda cover increased while Gutierrezia sarothrae (a small, short-lived shrub) greatly decreased. The non-uniform, multi-directional changes of the different plant assemblages acted to prevent detection of overall changes in perennial vegetation at the landscape level. Some plant assemblages displayed significant changes after removal of herbivores, while others appeared to respond primarily to climate dynamics. Certain species (e.g., G. sarothrae) that were not preferred by livestock or prairie dogs showed overall declines during drought periods, while other preferred species (e.g., B. eriopoda) exhibited widespread increases during wetter periods regardless of herbivore presence. Therefore, the vegetation dynamics cannot be attributed solely to removal of mammalian herbivores, and in some cases can be explained by short- and long-term fluctuations in climate. These results emphasize the variety of responses of different plant assemblages to mammalian herbivores under otherwise similar climatic conditions, and illustrate the value of site- and landscape-scale approaches to understanding the impacts of plant-herbivore interactions.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

109

Additional Project roles: 

297
298
299
300
301

Keywords: 

Purpose: 

This data set contains observations of vegetation change in the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge of central New Mexico, USA, from 1976 to 1996 following the removal of all livestock and prairie dogs in 1972-75. Specifically, we addressed the following: (1) Would the removal of the two "keystone" mammal herbivores (livestock and prairie dogs) have significant effects on plant species composition or cover at the landscape level? (2) Would the various site-specific plant assemblages within the region exhibit similar changes through time and/or to herbivore removal? (3) What are the influences of species-specific dynamics in changing the landscape and site plant assemblages? (4) What are the relative roles of herbivory and climate dynamics in influencing vegetation change at both landscape and site-level scales?

Data sources: 

sev109_blmtransects_02252000.txt

Methods: 

Study Design

This study takes advantage of a series of events during the mid-1970's that coincided to create a unique opportunity for evaluating multi-scale responses of plant communities to the removal of keystone mammalian herbivores. The Sevilleta NWR, a 100,000 ha former Spanish land grant and cattle ranch containing a wide range of vegetation communities, was created in December, 1973. The Sevilleta land grant had been heavily grazed by cattle since the late 1800's, and prairie dogs had been present even earlier. As part of its new "wildlife reserve" status, the entire refuge was fenced and all livestock were removed during 1974-75. In summer 1972, coincidentally just prior to the creation of the SNWR, rangeland pest control agents eradicated virtually all prairie dogs through an intensive poisoning campaign. Livestock and prairie dogs remained in areas outside the SNWR. Since 1973, the SNWR has been without livestock and prairie dogs, although prairie dogs have just recently begun to return to portions of the refuge.

These events created a unique situation in which to evaluate the roles of keystone mammalian herbivores on different vegetation communities that (1) were subjected to similar climatic dynamics (i.e., all sites experienced the same high and low rainfall periods), (2) were formerly grazed at high densities by the same species of mammalian herbivores, and (3) were released and protected from grazing during the same time periods.

In 1976, range scientists of the United States Bureau of Land Management (BLM) established and sampled 30 "range trend plots" (described below) in and around the SNWR to monitor the influences of cattle grazing on the vegetation; however, the plots were never resampled by the BLM. In 1986, ecologists from the University of New Mexico's Technical Applications Center resampled the sites. In 1988, the SNWR became the main study site of the Sevilleta Long-Term Ecological Research program (LTER); as part of this LTER program, in 1996 we returned to the sites for a 20-yr sample. These samples over two decades allowed us to evaluate the changes in plant cover and species composition at both a landscape scale (SNWR and bordering regions) and at individual sites representing multiple plant assemblages.

Vegetation Sampling

Study sites (n=30) are widely distributed and encompass a variety of plant assemblages. Biomes represented included desert, grassland, shrub-steppe, and woodlands. A line transect was established at each site by BLM range scientists in 1976; transects are 30.48 m (100 ft) in length and marked with permanent steel stakes at each end of the transect. The transects are sampled with a "line loop" technique (Parker 1951), a modification of the line point method. Instead of a point, a steel loop with an inner diameter of 1.91 cm (0.75 inch) is used. At every 0.305 m (1 foot) interval of the measuring tape, the loop is placed on the ground and the contents inside the loop recorded. Perennial plants in the loop are identified, and if two species were present, both are recorded. Overhanging shrub canopies are counted, but perennial grasses and forbs are recorded only if the base or stem fell inside the loop. It is important to note that this method does not include measurements of plant height and canopy cover for grasses and forbs, and thus prevents an assessment of plant assemblage architectural changes through time or across the SNWR fence lines.

Annual forbs are classified as "litter" in the August 1976 data set (as per BLM field methods). The 1986 measurements were conducted in January-March when annual forbs were dead, and hence were also categorized as "litter"(perennial plants were still present and easily identifiable). The 1996 samples were collected in August, near the peak of the growing season. Although we identified every plant to species, for consistency of comparisons we also pooled annual forbs and litter in our analyses. If no plants were present, the point was recorded as soil, rock, or litter. Rock or litter need to occupy at least the opening of the loop to be counted. Soil is recorded if no plants are present and the loop is not occupied by rock or litter.

We have located 29 of the original 30 transects, and resampled 28 of the still-existing sites. Photographs and GPS locations were taken of the transects for documentation and comparison with photographs taken in 1976.

Plant codes in the following data file correspond to the old Sevilleta plant code list.

Maintenance: 

File created 15 August 1996 by Dan Ryerso.n2/18/00 Metadata added to data files by Robert Parmenter.

Additional information: 

When the Samples/Data were Collected

August, 1976; Winter of 1986, August 1996, August 2006.

Additional Information on the personnel associated with the Data Collection / Data Processing

Employee History for Sevilleta Field Crew: Mike Friggens, 1999-September 2001;Karen Wetherill, February 7, 2000-Present; Terri Koontz, February 2000-August 2003, August 2006-Present; Shana Penington, February 2000-August 2000;Heather Simpson, August 2000-August 2002; Chris Roberts, September 2001-August 2002; Caleb Hickman, September 9, 2002-November 15, 2004; Seth Munson, September 9, 2002-June 2004; Maya Kapoor, August 9, 2003- January 21, 2005;Tessa Edelen, August 15, 2004-August 15, 2005; Charity Hall, January 31, 2005-January 3, 2006; Yang Xia, January 31, 2005-Present; Michell Thomey, September 3, 2005-August 2008; Jay McLeod, January 2006-August 2006;Amaris Swann, August 25, 2008-Present

Additional Study Area Information

The study was conducted on rangelands within and adjacent to the SNWR, Socorro County, New Mexico. Elevations of the study sites ranged from 1400 to 1870 m. Annual precipitation records of Socorro, New Mexico (30 km south of SNWR) from 1973 to 1996 ranged from a minimum of 150 mm to a maximum of 367 mm. The average annual precipitation during the first decade of this study (1976--1986) was 266 mm, and in the second decade (1986--1996) was 245 mm. During 1976, precipitation was slightly below average and had been preceded by a year of high precipitation. Precipitation in 1985, prior to the 1986 sample, also had been above average. Measurements taken in 1996 followed a 2-yr period of low precipitation, but the summer monsoons of 1996 produced above-average moisture. Mean monthly temperatures ranged from 2.7C during January to 24.3C in July.

Site Location Description

Table 1. Locations, soils, and commuity classification of study sites Community type is defined by species composition in 1996. Of the original 30 transects established in 1976, only 28 were resampled in 1996. Site #3 was not found, and Site #24 had been destroyed by road construction.

Location Predominant
Transect Latitude Longitude Soil Type Species
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
01 34 24' 37" 106 55' 49" Turney loam Burrograss
02  34 24' 47" 106 55' 43" Turney loam Burrograss
04 34 25' 45" 106 55' 27" Turney loam Burrograss
05 34 26' 02" 106 59' 47" Nickel-Caliza very gravelly sandy Galleta grass loam
06 34 25' 10" 107 01' 07" Nickel-Caliza very gravelly sandy Blue grama grassloam
07 34 15' 46" 106 56' 55" Armijo-Glendale-Bluepoint Galleta grass association
08 34 15' 05" 106 56' 01" Arizo-Riverwash complex Black grama grass
09 34 13' 46" 106 55' 40" Arizo-Riverwash complex Broom dalea
10 34 13' 29" 106 55' 37" Arizo-Riverwash complex Broom dalea
11 34 13' 27" 106 56' 44" Nickel-Caliza very gravelly sandy Broom dalea loam
12 34 13' 17" 106 47' 08" Bucklebar sandy clay loam Burrograss
13 34 11' 49" 106 48' 28" Barana loam Burrograss
14 34 13' 09" 106 47' 20" Bucklebar sandy clay loam Galleta grass
15 34 11' 48" 106 48' 44" Barana loam Black grama grass
16 34 24' 35" 106 32' 16" Sedillo-Clovis association Blue grama grass
17 34 23' 16" 106 31' 05" Ponciano very bouldery clay loam Black grama grass
18 34 24' 11" 106 40' 07" Turney loamy sand Black grama grass
19 34 24' 08" 106 40' 08" Turney loamy sand Galleta grass
20 34 24' 14" 106 40' 21" Turney loamy sand Black grama grass
21 34 24' 12" 106 40' 22" Turney loamy sand Black grama grass
22 34 23' 42" 106 40' 40" Turney loamy sand Black grama grass
23 34 21' 00" 106 37' 22" Sedillo-Clovis association Blue grama grass
25 34 20' 15" 107 00' 59" Armijo-Glendale-Bluepoint Saltbush/dropseed association grass
26 34 20' 17" 107 01' 09" Armijo-Glendale-Bluepoint Saltbush/dropseed association grass
27 34 20' 20" 107 01' 31" Armijo-Glendale-Bluepoint Saltbush/dropseed association grass
28 34 15' 55" 106 43' 52" Campana Yesum association Burrograss
29 34 16' 18" 106 44' 56" Elbutte-Courthouse Variant-Rock Galleta grass outcrop complex
30 34 16' 07" 106 44' 05" Campana Yesum association Black grama grass

Small Mammal Exclosure Study (SMES) Leaf Litter Study in the Chihuahuan Desert Grassland and Shrubland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico

Abstract: 

The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not the activities of small mammals regulate plant community structure, plant species diversity, and spatial vegetation patterns in Chihuahuan Desert shrublands and grasslands. What role if any do indigenous small mammal consumers have in maintaining desertified landscapes in the Chihuahuan Desert? Additionally, how do the effects of small mammals interact with changing climate to affect vegetation patterns over time?

This is data for cover of dead plant leaf litter accumulations on soil surfaces measured on each of the SMES study plots. Leaf litter cover was measured from each of the 36 one-meter2 quadrats twice each year when vegetation was measured.

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

96

Additional Project roles: 

122
124

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev096_smeslitter_20160308.csv

Methods: 

Experimental Design:

There are 2 study sites, the Five Points grassland site, and the Rio Salado creosotebush site. Each study site is 1 km by 0.5 km in area. Three rodent trapping webs and four replicate experimental blocks of plots are randomly located at each study site to measure vegetation responses to the exclusion of small mammals. Each block of plots is 96 meters on each side. Each block of plots consists of 4 experimental study plots, each occupying 1/4 of each block. The blocks of study plots are all oriented on a site in a X/Y coordinate system, with the top to the north. Treatments within each block include one unfenced control plot (Treatment: C), one plot fenced with hardware cloth and poultry wire to exclude rodents and rabbits (Treatment: R), and one plot fenced only with poultry wire to exclude rabbits (Treatment: L). The three treatments were randomly assigned to each of the four possible plots in each block independently, and their arrangements differ from block to block. Each of the three plots in a replicate block are separated by 20 meters.

Each experimental measurement plot measures 36 meters by 36 meters. A grid of 36 sampling points are positioned at 5.8-meter intervals on a systematically located 6 by 6 point grid within each plot. A permanent one-meter by one-meter vegetation measurement quadrat is located at each of the 36 points. The 36 quadrats are numbered 1-36, starting with number 1 in the top left corner (north-west) of each plot (top being north), and running left (west) to right (east), then down (south) one row, and then right (east) to left (west), and so on Quadrat/rebar number one is in the northwest corner of each plot, and numbers 1-6 are across the north side of the plot west to east, then quadrat/rebar number 7 is just south of quadrat/rebar number 6, and rebar numbers increase 7-12 east to west, and so on. 3-inch nails were originally placed in the top left(north-west) corner of each quadrat. These may be difficult to see. A 3-meter wide buffer area is situated between the grid of 36 points and the perimeter of each plot.

While measuring vegetation on each quad, the total amount of leaf litter cover on the soil surface that was seen on each quadrat was measured. "Leaf litter cover(n)" for the cover of leaf litter on the soil surface of the quadrat was stated in terms of the 10 cm squares. For cover values less than 5, increments of 1.0 were used. For cover values greater than 5, increments of 5.0 were used. Leaf litter included all detached dead plant material on the soil surface, including woody branches. Only leaf litter cover that is in the open was measured, not within clumps of grass, etc. Some leaf litter cover had distinctive margins and was easy to define and measure. However, much leaf litter consisted of many diffuse small patches that are separated by bare soil, and distributed throughout the quadrat. For such diffuse cover, the actual cover in one typical 10 by 10 cm square (e.g., 0.3) was determined, the number of squares with diffuse cover (e.g., 5) was counted, then the number of squares was multiplied by the actual cover for a typical square (e.g., 0.3 X 5 = 1.5, then round to 1.0 or 2.0, or if the value had been greater than 5, round to the nearest increment of 5.0) for the total litter cover. All litter cover was pooled into one observation, and no height was measured.

Maintenance: 

SEVILLETA SMES LEAF LITTER DATA 1998 log Updat03/09/06 Status DONE 01/31/06 - Checked data for missing data points, doubles, and errors. Missing data points were recorded using -999 (Human Error) or -888 (-888), duplicates of data points were removed, and errors were corrected. If a data point contained a measurement and a measurement with a count, the zero observation was removed. - Removed Species, and Per fields. Tape field was changed to ID# and observations made in the Per field were moved to the new ID# field. No observations were made in the tape field. EC field was added and NA was recorded in this field for this year. Date MM/DD/YY field was changed to just DATE. Other changes in the fields include PLT to PLOT, BLK to BLOCK, and SPECICOV to COVER. - Any empty cells were filled in with -999 (or -888) for missing data or an NA for not applicable. - Yang Xia 02/24/06 - Checked data for missing data points, doubles, and errors. Missing data points were recorded using -999 (Human Error) or -888 (-888), duplicates of data points were removed, and errors were corrected. If a data point contained a measurement and a measurement with a count, the zero observation was removed. - Removed Species, Comments, and Per fields. Tape field was changed to ID# and observations made in the Per field were moved to the new ID# field. No observations were made in the tape field. EC field was added and NA was recorded in this field for this year. Date MM/DD/YY field was changed to just DATE. Other changes in the fields include PLT to PLOT, BLK to BLOCK, and SPECIcOV to COver. - In the spring, Missing all Plots for Block 1 at the Grassland site. There are missing data in Site G Block 2 Plot 3 Treatment C, Site G Block 3 Plot 3 Treatment R, and Site G Block 4 Plot 2 Treatment C. - For the fall, All plots are presented, but with several data points missing. - Any empty cells were filled in with -999 (or -888) for missing data or an NA for not applicable. - Yang Xia 03/03/06 - Changed data to fit parameters. For example if a measurement was 6 it was rounded to the closest appropriate value, which in this case is 5. See 'Variable Descriptions' Variable 7. Also, if a measurement was less than 0.5 it was rounded to 1 to indicate that an occurence was present. - Yang Xia 03/06/06 - Quads 21-24 were originally classified as Trt C in the spring at the Grass site for Blk 4 Plt 3, Changed to Trt L. - Quads 10-17 were originally classified as TRT C in the spring at the Creosote Site for BLOCK 2 PLOT 2, changed the TRT to TRT L. - Quads 11-14 were originally classified as TRT C in the spring at the Creosote Site for BLOCK 3 PLOT 4, changed TRT to TRT L. 03/08/06 - Modified metadata to correct format. - Yang Xia 03/09/06 - changed EC variable data to "1" with the comments, and "0" for no comments. NA for not applicable. 03/09/06 - changed start date from september 1995 to May 1995 in the research Hypotheses, since the data collection was starting on 05/02/95. doc

Additional information: 

Additional Information on the personnel associated with the Data Collection / Data Processing

Sevilleta Field Crew Employee History

Megan McClung, April 2013-present, Stephanie Baker, October 2010-Present, John Mulhouse, August 2009-Present, Amaris Swann, August 25, 2008-January 2013, Maya Kapoor, August 9, 2003-January 21, 2005 and April 2010-March 2011, Terri Koontz, February 2000-August 2003 and August 2006-August 2010, Yang Xia, January 31, 2005-April 2009, Karen Wetherill, February 7, 2000-August 2009, Michell Thomey, September 3, 2005-August 2008, Jay McLeod, January 2006-August 2006, Charity Hall, January 31, 2005-January 3, 2006, Tessa Edelen, August 15, 2004-August 15, 2005, Seth Munson, September 9, 2002-June 2004, Caleb Hickman, September 9, 2002-November 15, 2004, Heather Simpson, August 2000-August 2002, Chris Roberts, September 2001-August 2002, Mike Friggens, 1999-September 2001, Shana Penington, February 2000-August 2000.

Water Balance Modeling Project at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico: Vegetation Plot Data (1995-1998)

Abstract: 

The water balance vegetation plots were part of a larger water balance monitoring project at the Sevilleta LTER. The plots were designed to measure the percent cover of photosynthetic/transpiring (green) plant species at specific sites where time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes and weather stations were already installed.  In 1995, there were three sites (Field Station, Deep Well and Rio Salado). A 30m x 30m plot was installed at each site, and collection of vegetation data commenced in July 1995. Percent cover (green) and species identities were recorded monthly at a representative sample of 1m square quadrats within each plot.  

Core Areas: 

Data set ID: 

81

Additional Project roles: 

89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102

Keywords: 

Data sources: 

sev081_waterbalance_03022011

Methods: 

Study Plots - Each of the three plots was 30m x 30m (900 m squared). Eleven lines and eleven rows of small wooden pegs were placed in an evenly-spaced manner, as shown in the diagram below. Each peg was about 3 meters from the next in the grid. Therefore, the lines and rows were numbered by 3's. For monthly data collection, a one meter square quadrat was placed so that the peg was at the northeast corner. The 0th line and 0th row of pegs served as borders on two sides of the plot and also as anchors for the NE corners of quadrats. The 30th line and 30th row of pegs served only as borders on the other two sides of the plot.

The Field Station (fs) and Deep Well (dw) sites were oriented as in the diagram below. The Rio Salado (rs) plot was a mirror image of this, so that row '0' is on the west side of the plot and rows run from west to east. The lines remained the same, running from north to south.

                                  N

Row
30 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 0
* * * * * * * * * * 0
| * * * * * * * * * * 3
| * * * * * * * * * * 6
| * * * * * * * * * * 9
| * * * * * * * * * * 12 L
W | * * * * * * * * * * 15 i E
| * * * * * * * * * * 18 n
| * * * * * * * * * * 21 e
| * * * * * * * * * * 24
| * * * * * * * * * * 27
|________________________________30

S

Sample frequency and size - Plots were sampled once per month, near the middle of the month, from January through December (in 1995, sampling did not begin until July.).

To obtain accurate estimates of the mean percent green cover of each guild, including annuals, perennials, grasses, forbs, and creosote bush, with the least amount of effort and time, both running means and boot strap analyses were performed. This was originally proposed by Bruce Milne (for detail, see /research//local/plant/src/plantcover/field_methods) and implemented by Yeulong Yang using SAS. The SAS program used to determine the sample size is called "swb_size.sas", located at /research/local/plant/src/plantcover.

Documentation can be found at the beginning of the SAS program. Based on the results of the running mean analyses, a minimum of 60 quads was needed. From that point on, only 60 quads per plot were sampled by the field crew.

Equipment - Equipment included meter quadrat frames, tape recorders, and microcassettes. Quadrat frames were made of 1/2 " PVC and PVC corners, with 10 cm lengths marked using black electrical tape. Each 10 cm square within the quadrat would therefore comprise 1% of the area.

Recording data - The person recording data first placed the quadrat frame on the ground with the NE corner inside of the wooden peg and the SW corner inside of a PVC peg placed as a marker. A brief note was left on the microcasette and a similar introductory statement taped at the beginning of data collection (e.g. "Jan. 18. 1996, Susan Geer, Rio Salado water balance plot").

Only species which had some green were identified. Many times it was hard to tell whether foliage was green. It was easier to determine foliage color when the sun was not directly overhead. Geen foliage was mentally combined and tallyed to the nearest percent. Anytime green foliage occupied less than half of a 10 cm square area (less than 0.5%), it was classified as "trace." If between 0.5% and 1% was occupied, cover was rounded up to 1%. All foliage that was not green at the time of sampling was classified as "litter." The following is an example of what might have been recorded for one quadrat: "Begin quad 0 0. Gutierrezia sarothrae 5, Dalea jamesii 1, Psilotrope tagetina +, litter 45. End quad 0 0".

Consistency of estimates - To ensure that cover estimates were always made in the same way, the crew leader served as the standard. Before gathering data, each group of plant crew members had a training session in which the crew leader demonstrated collection of percent cover for green foliage only.  The crew did about 10 quadrats as a group, and then members all gathered data independently for another set of quadrats. A crew member estimating cover differently would recieve extra training and practice. Data were compared to detect differences between crew members in September.

The SAS program used to estimate the differences among crew members is called PerDiff.sas, located at /research/local/plant/src/plantcover. Based on the results of such analyses, differences in percent cover were mainly due to site and guild and there were no significant differences among the crew members. A brief documentation can be found at the beginning of the PerDiff.sas program.

Data entry - Data were entered by each crew member using dictaphones to transcribe the microcassttes directly to the computer. The dictaphones were equipped with footpedals and headphones. Therefore, hands were free for data entry. Data were entered using the "emacs" text editor. Each entry line consisted of line, row, plant or litter code, and percent cover.

Codes - Sevilleta plant codes for 1995 (Appendix B) were used, as well as the code "LITT" for litter. The definition of litter for this particular data set is simply non-green organic matter. This non-green organic matter is often part of a plant that is green as well. In fact, during the winter months only a few plants had green foliage on them. Here is an example of data entered from one quadrat at line 0, row 0: 0 0 GUSA2 5

0 0 DAJA 1

0 0 PSTAT +

0 0 LITT 45.

Lineup program - Data for each site were compiled by the crew leader. Date and site were added to all entries, and spacing standardized, using a program called "lineup." After compiling data for a site, the following command was entered: >lineup filename yyyymmdd si > tempfile in which "filename" was the name of the file, "yyyy" was the full year, "mm" was a two number code for month, "dd" the date, "si" a two letter code for location, and "tempfile" a temporary file to hold the modified data. After scanning for errors, the data for each site was appended to the file "water_balance_1995."

Maintenance: 

08/08/95 - File created. JWB
09/01/95 - Searched and replaced the following:
ATCA2 = atca, crna = chna, daji = daja, euph = eupho, euph? = eupho
gipi = gapi, hij = hija, hopdr = hodr, hifi = hyfi, saki = saka
spcp = spco, spha = sphae, spor = sporo, spsp = sporo, stepha =
stpa. S. Geer.
09/11/95 - Corrected a few typing errors, such as row=5,or line=14.
Yang.
***Have added data once per month, July to Dec. 15 December 1995. S. Geer.***

1/22/96 - File created. S. Geer
Note: Aristida purpurea var. longiseta changed from arlo to arpul 5/96.
C.Buxbaum.

1/3/97 - Data for May, 1996 Rio Salado entered. K. Taugher
- Data for May, 1996 Field Station entered. K. Taugher
- Data for June, 1996 Rio Salado entered. K. Taugher
- Data for June, 1996 Field Station entered. K. Taugher
1/6/97 - Data for July, 1996, all sites, entered. K. Taugher
1/7/97 - Data for August, 1996, all sites, entered. K. Taugher
- Data for Sept., 1996, all sites, entered. K. Taugher
- Data for Oct. 1996, Field Station entered. K. Taugher
- Data for Oct. 1996, Rio Salado entered. K. Taugher
1/8/97 - Data for Dec. 1996, all sites, entered. K. Taugher
1/10/97 - Species codes changed to Kartez. K. Taugher
1/22/97 - Changed sphae to Sphae for 19950813 dw 27 3. K. Taugher
- Changed entries that read UNK {grass seedling} to GRASS {seedling}.
(to be more specific). K. Taugher
- Corrected entries that in the process of changing species codes to
Kartez with the "global replacement" command, some codes carried
an extra character. For example arpup was changed to ARPUP6 but in
some cases, ARPUP6 was replaced as ARPUP6 6. I'm not sure why this
happened, but those entries were cleaned up. K. Taugher
2/19/97 - Added Nov and Dec data. K. Taugher
- Realigned columns. K. Taugher
3/12/97 - Changed sedo to SEFLF. K. Taugher
- Changed gaco to GACO5 for Feb. fs plot 3.0. K. Taugher
5/12/97 - Fixed records that had comment fields (i.e., {.*}) inline with
data line, by simply moving comment field to next line below
data line.
Added .dbf extension to file name.
Changed row number from 14 to 24 for the following entries.
19960717 dw 21 24 ARPUP6 6
19960717 dw 21 24 CADR6 1
19960717 dw 21 24 BOER4 12
19960717 dw 21 24 LITT 10
Added missing "}" on comment line. G. Shore.

05/27/97 - Fixed records whose number of columns did not equal the headline
columns for entries:

19960915 fs 3 0 CHNA2 2 1
Changed to : fs 3 0 CHNA2 1
19960915 fs 24 18 CHNA2 2 1
Changed to: fs 24 18 CHNA2 1
19960916 rs 6 24 GUSA2 2 1
Changed to: rs 6 24 GUSA2 1
19960916 rs 24 9 CADR6 6 1
Changed to: rs 24 9 CADR6 1

Changes were made as indicated above as most likely the numerical value
in the Kartez code was somehow carried over/repeated into the next column.
K. Taugher

05/27/97 - Made changes to "UNK" entries when {comments} gave information
which put the "UNK" into a guild. I changed "UNK" to either "FORB" "shrub"
etc...

19960915 fs 3 0 UNK {shrub}
**changed to** 19960915 fs 3 0 SHRUB

19961015 dw 12 6 UNK {forb seedling}
**changed to** 19961015 dw 12 6 FORB

19961015 dw 12 15 UNK {forb}
**changed to ** 19961015 dw12 15 FORB

19961015 dw 15 15 UNK {forb}
**changed to** 19961015 dw 15 15 FORB

19961015 dw 15 18 UNK {forb}
**changed to** 19961015 dw 15 18 FORB

19961015 dw 0 6 UNK {Fabaceae forb}
**changed to 19961015 dw 0 6 FORB

K. Taugher

6/30/97 - Changed ARDI5+ to ARDI5 with a cover value of + for entry
19970716 rs 6 12. K. Taugher

6/30/97 - Changed sphae to Sphae for all August entries. K. Taugher
6/30/97 - Data were added for Aug. Field Station plots #: 0 3, 0 6, 0 9, 0 12, 0 15, 0 18, 0 24,
3 0, 3 3, 3 12, 3 15, 6 3, 6 9 , 6 18, 6 21, 9 0, 9 12, 9 15, 9 21, 9 27 as it was previously missing. K. Taugher

6/30/97 - Changed "DACS4" entries to "DASC4". K Taugher

6/30/97 - Changed "HOGL" entries to "HOGL2". K Taugher
Changed "CAJA" entries to "CAJA6". K. Taugher
Changed "Euho" entry to "Eupho". K. Taugher
Changed "ARCO" entry to "ATCO". K. Taugher
Changed "ATPUP6" entry to "ARPUP6". K. Taugher
Changed "LTIT" entry to "LITT". K. Taugher

1/21/97 - Changed species codes to Kartez.
- Changed solan to Solan for entries:
199509?? rs 6 16, 6 21, 6 18, 3 6, 3 9, 3 15, 0 18
- Changed unkwo to UNK for 19951016 fs 0 12
- Changed saki to SAKA for 19950729 dw 18 12
- Changed euph to Eupho in various places
- Changed eupho to Eupho in various places
- Changed unkno to UNK in various places
- Changed daji to DAJA for 19950724 dw 0 3
- Changed spor to Sporo in various places
- Changed linum to Linum for 19950919 rs 3 18, 0 18
- Changed ???1 to UNK for 19950719 rs 6 12
- Changed penst to Penst for 19950814 dw 0 0
- Changed arist to Arist for 19950919 rs 12 9
- Changed hopdr to CADR6 (formerly hodr) for 19950724 dw 15 21
- Changed gipu to GAPU for 19950814 dw 24 0
- Changed hifi to HYFIC for 19950714 fs 9 18
- Changed stepa to STPA4 for 19950813 rs 18 9
- Changed Spaer to Sphae in various places
- Changed crna to CHNA2 for 19950714 fs 15 9, 3 15
- Cleaned up \log section to make it easier to read (i.e. without
changing any information, I entered the date first, followed
by the action performed on that date). K. Taugher

05/12/97 - Fixed records that had comment fields (i.e., {.*}) inline with
data line by simply moving comment field to next line below
data line.
Removed blank lines at end of file.
Added .dbf extension to file name.
G. Shore.

05/12/97 - Added extra column width to species code field.
Realigned columns.
G. Shore.

06/30/97 - Changed ASNU to ASNU4 and arlo to ARPUL K. Taugher
- Changed spsp codes to Sporo (as indicated by comment made
09/1/95) K. Taugher
- Changed thlo to THLO. K. Taugher
- Changed buer to BOER4, gaura to Gaura, latr to LATR2,
lit to LITT, saki to SAKA, solan to Solan, spsu to SPHA,
forb1 to FORB with a comment of {FORB#1}, forb2 to FORB
with a comment of {FORB#2}, forb3 to FORB with a comment
of {FORB#3}, spta to STPA4. K. Taugher

07/03/97 - Changed "herb" entry to "FORB" (for consistency). K. Taugher
- Changed "huja" entries to "HIJA". K. Taugher.
02/15/97 - Date file created. K. Taugher
09/05/97 - Aligned columns to right justification. K. Taugher
- Imported data for months May, June, July. K. Taugher
09/09/97 - Began error-checking for missing plots. K. Taugher
- Added {}'s around comments for may dw entry that were
previously missing. K. Taugher
- Changed "CADR6+" entry for dw may plot 6 15 to CADR6 +.
K. Taugher
- GUSA2 entry for fs June plot 3 18 had no cover value. In order
to leave GUSA2 represented, I added a cover value of "+".
I attempted to leave the species and/or guild member but not
add much cover (which could potentially artificially increase
the true cover value). Same was done for "GRASS" entry
for July at fs plot 21 3. K. Taugher
- Changed cover value from "=" to "+" for GUSA2 in July at
rs plot 0 0 . K. Taugher
- Changed "LIT" entry for Jan. dw plot 9 6 to "LITT". K. Taugher
and for dw Feb. plot 24 9 . K. Taugher
- Changed "ATC0" to "ATCO" (changed a zero to an O) for Mar.
fs plot 21 15. K. Taugher
- Changed "ARPUP" entry to "ARPUP6" for May rs plot 27 24.
and "ARPU6" entry to "ARPUP6" for May rs plot 27 24. K. Taugher
09/10/97 - Changed "DNANA" entry for dw May plot 6 6 to "DANAN". K. Taugher
- Changed "ERPU4" entries to "ERPU8" for May rs plots 9 0,
6 24, and 6 27. K. Taugher
- Changed various "EUPHO" entries to "Eupho", "SPHAE" entries to
"Sphae" , "SPORO" to "Sporo" and "LINUM" to "Linum" to be
consistent with naming/coding protocol. K. Taugher
- Changed various "GUSA" entries to "GUSA2". K. Taugher
- Changed "HELIA" entry for May fs plot 9 0 to "Helia" to be
consistent with naming/coding protocol (NOTE: this is most
likely HEPE, Helianthus petiolaris). K. Taugher
- Changed "Euphoy" entry to "Eupho" for July rs plot 24 0 .
K. Taugher
- Changed "SPCO" entry to "SPCO4" for Jul dw plot 18 24. K. Taugher
- Changed "OPPO" entry to "OPPOP" for Jul rs plot 15 9 . K. Taugher
09/11/97 - Changed "DAJA6" entry to "DAJA" for Jul dw plot 6 12
and for Jul dw plot 27 27. K. Taugher
- Changed various July entries from "HELIA" to "Helia". K. Taugher
- Changed "MELE" entry to "MELE2" for Jult fs plot 21 3. K. Taugher
- Changed "MEPU" entries to "MEPU3" for July fs plots 15 27
and 18 24. K. Taugher
- Changed "DALEA" entry to "Dalea" for July dw plot 18 24. K.Taugher
- Changed incorrect plot # for June rs from 24 26 to 24 27.K.Taugher
- Changed various entries of "ERPUP8" to "ERPU8". K. Taugher
- Changed "CAJA" entry for June dw plot 27 0 to "CAJA6". K. Taugher
- Changed "HIFIC" entries to "HYFIC" for June fs plots:
0 3, 0 6, and 9 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "SPCO2" entry to "SPCO4" for June dw plot 9 0 . K.Taugher
- Added 11 plots of data for June for fs site that were missing.
K. Taugher
09/12/97 - Added data for June dw that were missing. K. Taugher
- Realigned columns to right justification (again). K.Taugher
- Changed June dw plot entry from "12 O" to "12 0" (i.e.
from the letter O to the number zero (0). K. Taugher
- Changed June dw plot 12 0 entry from "CADR2" to "CADR6"
K. Taugher
- Changed other various "MEPU" entries to "MEPU3" for May. K.Taugher
- Changed "CRCR" entry for May fs plot 21 18 to "CRCR3". K.Taugher
- Changed "DALEA" entry for May dw plot 18 24 to "Dalea". K. Taugher
- Changed "GAC05" entry for May fs plot 0 0 to "GACO5" (a zero
was substituted for the O). K. Taugher
- Changed "HIFIC" entries to "HYFIC" for May dw plot 18 15 and
May rs plot 18 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "DAJA6" entry for Feb dw plot 12 6 to "DAJA". K. Taugher
09/18/97 - Added missing dw data for R. Conn for May. K. Taugher
- Changed various entries for May rs site: Changed "EUPHO" entries
to "Eupho", "LINUM" to "Linum", "SPHAE" to "Sphae", and
"SPORO" to "Sporo" to conform to naming/coding protocol. K. Taugher
- Added missing fs data for July for K. Taugher. K. Taugher
- Added August data. K. Taugher
09/29/97 - Added September data. K. Taugher
- Moved comments from along the righthand side of entry to
the following line. K. Taugher
10/13/97 - Made the following corrections to the data for Sept:
- Changed "EUPUP" to "ERPU8" in various places.
- Changed "GUSA" to "GUSA2" in various places.
- Changed "CEDR6" to "CADR6" in various places.
- Changed "ARPUP" to "ARPUP6" in various places.
- Changed "ERPU" to "ERPU8" in various places.
- Changed "CRCIJJ" to "CRCIJ" for fs 21 27.
- Changed "CRCIR" to "CRCIJ" for fs 21 9 .
- Changed "DIWI" to "DIWI2" for fs 21 12.
- Changed "ERPU2" to "ERPU8" for dw 12 0.
- Changed "ARDI" to "ARDI5" for rs 21 6.
- Changed "ARPO" to "ARPUP6" for rs 21 9.
- Changed "BOGR" to "BOGR2" for fs 21 9.
- Changed "BUER4" to "BOER4" for dw 21 18.
- Changed "BUGR" to "BOGR2" for fs 18 0.
- Changed "CHER6" to "CHER2" for dw 12 24.
- Changed "CRCI" to "CRCIJ" FOR FS 18 9.
- K. TAUGHER
12/12/97 - Imported data for April. K. Taugher
- Added a space between species code and % cover entry for
19970418 fs 3 15 STPA4+. K. Taugher
- Added missing % cover entry for 19970418 dw 12 0 LITT 15.
K. Taugher
- Corrected date entry for X19970922 fs 18 0 EUPU +
to "19970922" as an "X" must have been added in error. K. Taugher
- Changed "ARUP6" to "ARPUP6" for 19970418 rs 6 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "ATCA" to "ATCA2" for 19970418 rs 0 15. K. Taugher
- Changed "CHNA" to "CHNA2" for 19970418 fs 3 15 and
19970418 fs 24 24. K. Taugher
12/15/97 - Changed "PSSC" to "PSSC6" for 19970922 fs 15 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "PSSC" to "PSSC6" for 19970922 fs 18 24. K. Taugher
- Changed "SCBR" to "SCBR2" for 19970923 dw 21 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "MAPI" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 18 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "MAPI" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 18 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "MAPI" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 18 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "MAPI" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 21 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "MIP1C" to "MAPIP" for 19970922 fs 18 0. K. Taugher
- Changed "GUSA24" to "GUSA2" for 19970923 dw 21 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "STPA" to "STPA4" for 19970922 fs 18 9. K. Taugher
- Changed "Forb" to "FORB" for 19970923 rs 21 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "Forb" to "FORB" for 19970923 rs 27 0. K. Taugher
- Changed "Euphor" to "Eupho" for 19970923 rs 9 15. K. Taugher
- Changed "HIFIC" to "HYFIC" for 19970923 dw 9 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 15 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 0. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 6. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 9. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970922 fs 18 24. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 21 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 21 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 24 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 27 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "EUPU" to "ERPU8" for 19970923 rs 27 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "HEPE" to "HEPEP" for 19970923 dw 27 0. K. Taugher
- Changed "HEPE" to "HEPEP" for 19970922 fs 18 27. K.Taugher
- Changed "Spor" to "Sporo" for 19970923 dw 6 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "Spor" to "Sporo" for 19970923 dw 6 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "THFI" to "HYFIC" for 19970922 fs 18 6. K. Taugher
- Added missing data for Sept. fs. K. Taugher
- Changed "DASC42" with no cover value to "DASC4" with a
cover value of "2". K. Taugher
- Changed "DIXI2" to "DIWI2" for 19970922 fs 6 6. K. Taugher
1/9/97 - Added October data. K. Taugher
- Adjusted positioning of comments to correspond with correct
entry. K. Taugher
- Changed brackets on comments from "]" to "}" for
19971016 dw 15 15 FORB + K. Taugher
and for 19971016 dw 18 6 Sporo 1. K. Taugher
- Changed plot # for 19971016 rs 0 18 CHSE7 + to read "0 18"
from "O 18" (i.e. from a letter O to a zero). K. Taugher
- Added a space between species code and cover value for
19971016 fs 21 6 STPA4 +....It previously read:
19971016 fs 21 6 STPA4+. K. Taugher
- Changed species code from "ARPUP8" to the correct code of
"ARPUP6" with a "query-replace" for entries :
19971016 rs 0 0, 0 3, 0 6, 0 12, 0 15, 0 18, 0 27, 3 21,
19971016 rs 3 18, 3 15. K. Taugher
- Changed species code from "ATCA" to the correct code o
"ATCA2" with a "query-replace" for entries:
19971016 rs 0 15, 0 21. K. Taugher
- Changed "CARD6" to "CADR6" for 19971016 dw 21 3. K. Taugher
- Changed "CEDR6" to "CADR6" for 19971016 rs 3 3. K.Taugher
- Changed "CHNA" to "CHNA2" for 19971016 fs 24 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "DAJA6" to "DAJA" with a "query-replace" for entries:
19971016 dw 0 0 , 0 3, 0 6, 3 0, 3 12, 12 9, 12 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "EPRU8" to "ERPU8" for 19971016 fs 21 27. K. Taugher
- Changed "ERPUP" to "ERPU8" for 19971016 fs 3 3. K. Taugher
- Changed "Euphor" to "Eupho" for 19971016 rs 0 18. K. Taugher
- Changed "ZIGR2" to "ZIGR" for 19971016 fs 0 27, 15 12. K. Taugher
- Changed "STPA2" to "STPA4" for 19971016 fs 3 18, 3 3. K. Taugher
- Changed "Guara" to "Gaura" for 19971016 dw 18 15. K. Taugher
- Changed "LIAS" to "LIAUA" for 19971016 rs 21 0. K. Taugher
1/14/97 - Added December data. K. Taugher
1/21/97 - Added November data. K. Taugher
- Justified columns to right justification. K. Taugher

09/14/98 - Date file created. K. Taugher
- Documentation section imported from 1997 file. K. Taugher
- Collection dates added to March, May, June, July, August
and data for those months imported to this file. K. Taugher
- Changed percent cover entries of "0.5" to "+" for the following
data:
For July: rs 15 27 CHLA10 rs 15 24 ARPUP6
rs 18 0 SOEL rs 21 9 DIWI2 rs 21 3 MELE2
dw 15 3 MAPIP dw 15 24 HYFIC dw 18 12 Sphae
fs 15 9 MAPIP fs 15 18 MAPIP fs 18 24 CRCIC
fs 18 21 GUSA2 fs 18 15 DANAN fs 18 9 SPFL2
fs 18 0 BAABA fs 18 0 HYFIC fs 18 0 DANAN
fs 18 0 MELE2 fs 21 3 ZIGR fs 21 3 MELE2
fs 21 9 STPA4 fs 21 9 BAABA fs 21 12 HIJA
fs 21 12 CRCIC fs 21 12 MAPIP fs 21 21 SPFL2

For August: rs 6 9 SOEL rs 6 9 Sporo
rs 6 0 MELE2 rs 9 18 CHAL11 rs 12 24 LIAUA
dw 6 0 CADR6 dw 6 9 Sporo dw 6 12 CHER2
dw 9 18 ERPU8 dw 12 3 CADR6 dw 12 6 GAPI
dw 12 9 DANAN dw 12 21 CADR6 fs 6 0 GACO5
fs 6 12 BAABA fs 6 12 MAPIP fs 9 18 MAPIP
fs 9 9 SPFL2 fs 12 6 PSTAT fs 12 6 ARPUP6
fs 12 24 Poace K. Taugher

- Made the following changes to percent cover entries as only integers
are suitable data:
For July: dw 21 3 ARPUP6 1.5 to 2
dw 21 9 MAPIP 2.5 to 3 fs 15 24 MAPIP 1.5 to 2
fs 21 3 MAPIP 1.5 to 2

For August: rs 6 12 GUSA2 1.5 to 2
rs 6 0 GUSA2 1.5 to 2 rs 9 12 ARPUP6 2.5 to 3
rs 12 9 Sphae 1.5 to 2 rs 12 6 LIAUA 1.5 to 2
rs 12 3 ARPUP6 2.5 to 3 dw 6 27 ERPU8 1.5 to 2
dw 9 3 MAPIP 1.5 to 2 dw 12 3 DAJA 1.5 to 2
dw 12 9 PSTAT 1.5 to 2 fs 12 9 DANAN 2.5 to 3
fs 12 21 MAPIP 1.5 to 2 fs 12 21 DANAN 1.5 to 2
K. Taugher
- Moved various comments to their appropriate lines (i.e. each comment
should occupy its own line immediately following the data it
refers to). K. Taugher
- Removed comments of "unknown Sphaeralcea" from entries of "Sphae"
as these comments are redundant and unnecessary. Comments removed
from the following entries:
For June: rs 0 6, rs 0 9, rs 0 18, rs 3 15, rs 3 18, rs 6 3
and fs 3 24
- Removed comments of "unknown Sporobolus" from entries of "Sporo"
as these comments are redundant and unnecessary. Comments removed
from the following entries:
For June: rs 0 21, rs 3 27, fs 3 6.
- Removed comment of "unknown Fabaceae" from entry of "Fabac"
as this comment is redundant and unnecessary. Comment removed
from: June dw 0 9.
K. Taugher
3/31/99 - Added data for Jan, Feb. and April. K. Taugher
- Changed codes of "GUA2" for January entries of rs 0 9 and
rs 0 18 to "GUSA2" and changed code of "GUAS2" for entry of Jan.
dw 0 21 and dw 6 21 to "GUSA2". K. Taugher
- Changed code of "GRASS SP" for July rs 9 3 to "GRASS". k. Taugher
4/1/99 - Changed code of "ERPUP8" to "ERPU8" for Mar fs 6 21. K. Taugher
- Changed code of "DAJA6" to "DAJA" for Feb dw 12 6. K. Taugher
- Changed the following codes for the month of May:
dw 0 24 Sprae to "Sphae"
dw 18 3 OECEC to "OECEC2"
dw 0 9 LUPIN to "Lupin"
fs 3 24 HIFIC to "HYFIC"
dw 6 9 ERPU9 TO "ERPU8"
fs 15 6 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 9 9 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 9 6 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 9 3 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 9 0 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
dw 6 27 ERPU6 TO "ERPU8"
rs 18 21 ERP8 TO "ERPU8"
dw 15 3 CYCAF TO "CYACF"
rs 15 24 ATCA TO "ATCA2"
- Changed the following codes for the month of June:
fs 27 27 PSSC to "PSSC6"
4/2/99 - Changed the following codes for the month of July:
dw 9 0 ARIST to "Arist"
rs 9 12 ARIST to "Arist"
rs 9 15 ARIST to "Arist"
rs 15 18 ARPUP8 to "ARPUP6"
rs 18 12 ARPUP to "ARPUP6"
dw 24 15 Forb to "FORB"
fs 15 3 PSSC to "PSSC6"
fs 15 27 PSSC to "PSSC6"
rs 18 9 PSSC to "PSSC6"
rs 9 6 SPHAE to "Sphae"
rs 9 12 SPHAE to "Sphae"
rs 12 9 SPHAE to "Sphae"
dw 9 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 6 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 12 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 15 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 18 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 9 21 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 12 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 12 9 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 12 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
dw 15 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 6 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 12 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 15 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 18 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 9 24 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 6 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 9 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 24 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 12 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
fs 15 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 6 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 12 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 15 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 18 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 9 18 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 3 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 6 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 9 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 24 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 12 27 SPORO to "Sporo"
rs 15 0 SPORO to "Sporo"
K. Taugher
-Changed the following codes for August:
rs 12 24 ARPU6 to "ARPUP6"
fs 3 27 Asclep to "FORB" {Asclepias}
- Added 15 quads to rs data for June as these were missing. K.T.

2/15/00 - Added some standard metadata, and corrected year references. G.Shore.




Additional information: 

Sampling Dates:

1995, Jul 14, 19, 24: fs, rs, dw
1995, Aug 13, 14: fs, rs & dw
1995, Sep 18, 19: fs, rs & dw
1995, Oct 16: all
1995, Nov 17: all
1995, Dec 15: all

Jan: 1/18/96 fs, rs, dw.
Feb: 2/14/96 rs; 2/19/96 dw, fs.
Mar: 3/14/96 dw, rs; 3/15/96 fs.
Apr: 4/17/96 fs, rs; 4/16/96 dw.
May: 5/16/96 dw, rs; 5/15/96 rs.
Jun: 6/13/96 rs, dw; 6/12/96 fs.
Jul: 7/16/96 rs; 7/17/96 dw; 7/18/96 fs.
Aug: 8/12/96 rs; 8/13/96 dw; 8/14/96 fs.
Sept: 9/15/96 fs; 9/16/96 rs; 9/18/96 dw.
Oct: 10/14/96 rs; 10/15/96 fs;
Nov
Dec: 12/16/96 fs, rs, dw.

Jan: 1/20/97 fs, rs, dw.
Feb: 2/12/97 rs, dw, fs.
Mar: 3/17/97 dw, rs, fs.
Apr: 4/18/97 fs, rs, dw.
May: 5/25/97 dw, rs, fs.
Jun: 6/19/97 rs, dw; 6/23/96 fs.
Jul: 7/16/97 rs, dw, fs.
Aug: 8/04/97 rs, dw, fs.
Sept: 9/22/97 fs; 9/23/96 rs, dw.
Oct: 10/16/97 rs, fs, dw.
Nov: 11/17/97 fs, dw, rs.
Dec: 12/17/97 fs, rs, dw.

Jan: 1/10/98 fs, rs, dw.
Feb: 2/15/98 rs, dw, fs.
Mar: 3/25/98 dw, rs, fs.
Apr: 4/11/98 fs, rs, dw.
May: 5/17/98 dw, rs, fs.
Jun: 6/16/98 rs, dw, fs.
Jul: 7/13/96 rs, dw, fs.
Aug: 8/17/98 rs, dw, fs.



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