This study is designed to look at community or population level fluctuations in bees over the season and on a long term basis, over years. Funnel traps are a very low maintenance method of trapping pollinators with zero human bias. The bias of the traps is that the color determines the species and sexes that it attracts. Therefore the traps provide relative abundance that can be compared over the season or year, but individual species cannot be compared within a season. This study is designed to be compared with the data from SEV137 Phenology, to look at spatial and temporal patterns within pollinator and flowering plant communities. Data is not available at this time, but the species list is.
Activating and collecting the traps
When the traps are activated, the worker need only a screwdriver to open the cans and a gallon of propylene glycol to fill the traps. After major rain events, the watered down glycol is collected for disposal and the trap is refilled with undiluted glycol.To collect the specimens, the worker carries 10 small kitchen strainers, a pint size plastic cup and a hammer. The specimens are strained and the old antifreeze is placed back in the paint can. The funnel is left inside the cage with the closed paint can for the inactive period.Back at the truck, the specimens are transferred into labelled vials with 70% ethyl alcohol and stored until they can be processed.Lab Processing
In the lab, the specimens are rinsed of any left over glycol and pinned and labelled according to museum standards. All of 2001 specimens were pinned. In 2002, some of the more common species or species groups were not pinned, but were stored in alcohol with the non-target specimens.Identifications
Identifications are done by Karen Wetherill (Sevilleta LTER) and Terry Griswold (USDA Bee Laboratory, Logan, Utah). Twenty specimens of each species or morphotype are deposited in the Museum of Southwestern Biology (MSB) and 20 are deposited in the arthropod collection of the Sevilleta Long Term Ecological Research Station which is a permanent loan from the MSB. Some specimens were retained by the USDA Bee Laboratory in Logan, Utah. Host codes are Kartez Plant codes as listed on the USDA Plants Database.Sampling design
One blue trap and one yellow trap were installed 10m north or 10m south of each phenology transect. The north or south location of each color of trap was decided by flipping a coin. The phenology transects are the north/south lines of each rodent trapping web and are 200m long. There are five rodent trapping webs at each of the three sites, totalling 30 traps, 15 of each color. One sample equals the sum of one yellow trap and one blue trap. The traps consist of a 2 foot high chicken wire cage with a platform 1 1/2 feet off the ground. The cage prevents wildlife from disturbing the traps. The trap itself rests on the platform and is made up of a one quart paint can with about an inch of propylene glycol and a yellow or blue automotive funnel with a heavy section of pipe glued around the spout to prevent the wind from blowing the funnel. The funnels have been sprayed with blue and yellow Krylon brand flourescent spray paint. The lid of the paint can is left in the cage to close the can when the trap is inactive.The traps are activated in March every year and are left open for 14 days at which point the specimens are collected and the traps are closed for another 14 days. This cycle repeats itself through the month of October.
This file was created on Jan. 14, 2003 by Kristin Vanderbilt. This study began in February of 2001. The first year is to be considered a pilot study as the methods changed for 2002. In the first year, pan traps were used. These were replaced by funnel traps for the year 2002.This file was updated by Karen Wetherill on March 10, 2004 and again on December 7, 2005 and again on July 9, 2008.
All identifications were verified at the USDA Bee Laboratories in Logan, Utah with the help of Dr. Terry Griswold.
Information on data collection
In 2001, the samples were collected once a month, during the same time as the phenology data. Yellow pan traps were put out for 48 hours (or shorter due to evaporation). In 2002, after the traps were replaced with funnel traps which use antifreeze rather than water, the traps were left open for two weeks and then closed for two weeks from February through October. In August 2002, the traps were accidentally closed one week early and then reset for an additional week (August 30th to September 6th) so these samples will be more like the September samples than they are like the July samples.
In 2004 the February collection was not taken.
Additional Study Area Information
Study Area 1
Study Area Name: Blue Grama Core Site
Study Area Location: The Blue Grama Core Site is one of 5 current core SEVLTER study sites. Core studies include meteorology, rodent abundance, pollinator diversity, monthly phenology, and NPP. Additional studies have examined the Bootleg Canyon fire of 1998 and grass patch dynamics.Elevation: 1670 m
Vegetation: Vegetation is characterized as Plains-Mesa Grassland, dominated by blue and black gramma (Bouteloua gracilis & B. eriopoda) and galleta grass (Hilaria jamesii)North Coordinate:34.3348South Coordinate:34.3348East Coordinate:106.631West Coordinate:106.631Study Area 2
Study Area Name: Five Points Creosote Core Site
Study Area Location: Five Points is the general area which emcompasses the Black Grama Grassland (known as Five Points Grassland) and Creosote Core (Five Points Larrea) study sites and the transition between Chihuahuan Desert Scrub and Desert Grassland habitats. Both core sites are subject to intensive research activities, including measurements of NPP, phenology, pollinator diversity, and ground dwelling arthropod and rodent populations. There are drought rain-out shelters in both the Grassland and Creosote sites, as well as another set in the mixed ecotone with co-located ET Towers. The grassland Small Mammal Exclosure Study is located here, as well as many plots related to patch mapping and biotic transitions.Elevation: 1615 m
Vegetation: The Creosote Core site is characterized as Chihuahuan Desert Scrub, dominated by a creosotebush overstory, with broom snakeweed, purple pricklypear (O. macrocentra) and soapweed yucca as notable shrubs. The site is also characterized by numerous, dense grass dominated patches, reflecting proximity to the Black Grama Core site and the presumably recent appearance of creosotebush. Dominant grasses were black grama, fluffgrass (Dasyochloa pulchellum), burrograss (Scleropogon brevifolia), bushmuhly (M. porteri), and galleta (Pleuraphis jamesii). Notable forb species included field bahia (Bahia absinthifolia), baby aster (Chaetopappa ericoides), plains hiddenflower, Indian rushpea (Hoffmannseggia glauca), Fendler’s bladderpod (Lesquerella fendleri), and globemallow.North Coordinate:34.3331South Coordinate:34.3331East Coordinate:106.736West Coordinate:106.736Study Area 3
Study Area Name: Five Points Grass Core Site
Study Area Location: Five Points is the general area which emcompasses the Black Grama Grassland (known as Five Points Grassland) and Creosote Core (Five Points Larrea) study sites and the transition between Chihuahuan Desert Scrub and Desert Grassland habitats. Both core sites are subject to intensive research activities, including measurements of NPP, phenology, pollinator diversity, and ground dwelling arthropod and rodent populations. There are drought rain-out shelters in both the Grassland and Creosote sites, as well as another set in the mixed ecotone with co-located ET Towers. The grassland Small Mammal Exclosure Study is located here, as well as many plots related to patch mapping and biotic transitions.Elevation: 1616 m
Vegetation: Desert Grassland habitat is ecotonal in nature and the Black Grama Core site is no exception, bordering Chihuahuan Desert Scrub at its southern boundary and Plains-Mesa Grassland at its northern, more mesic boundary. There is also a significant presence of shrubs, dominantly broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), along with less abundant fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), Mormon tea (Ephedra torreyana), winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata), tree cholla (Opuntia imbricata), club cholla (O. clavata), desert pricklypear (O. phaeacantha), soapweed yucca (Yucca glauca), and what are presumed to be encroaching, yet sparsely distributed, creosotebush (Larrea tridentata). Characteristically, the dominant grass was black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda). Spike, sand, and mesa dropseed grasses (Sporobolus contractus, S. cryptandrus, S. flexuosus) and sand muhly (Muhlenbergia arenicola) could be considered co-dominant throughout, along with blue grama (B. gracilis) in a more mesic, shallow swale on the site. Notable forb species included trailing four o’clock (Allionia incarnata), horn loco milkvetch (Astragalus missouriensis), sawtooth spurge (Chamaesyce serrula), plains hiddenflower (Cryptantha crassisepala), blunt tansymustard (Descarania obtusa), wooly plaintain (Plantago patagonica), globemallow (Sphaeralcea wrightii), and mouse ear (Tidestromia lanuginosa).North Coordinate:34.3381South Coordinate:34.3381East Coordinate:106.717West Coordinate:106.717