This project was designed to sample the richness and abundance of birds on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge. Three types of habitat were surveyed: grassland, creosote shrubland and pinyon-juniper woodland.
Data was collected from 1991 through 1997. Each habitat was sampled on a single morning in winter, spring, summer, and fall, totalling three sampling efforts per year per site. Sampling was done in the last two weeks of February, May, August, and December. Year-to-year variation likely affected bird patterns relative to the schedule, but these dates generally enabled an accurate sampling of species richness and abundance. Weather permitting, each of the three habitats were surveyed over three consecutive days. Unseasonable conditions, windy mornings (7+ mph), and rain were avoided.
Bird densities were sampled using a Variable Circular Plot Census technique. There were eight sampling locations in each of the three habitat types. (However, the sampling design did not include replication, and, therefore, estimates of density should be considered tentative.) At each sampling location the observer stood at a stake for nine minutes and scanned for bird activity. All individuals seen and/or heard within a 200 meter radius were recorded.
For each bird observation these variables were recorded: species ID (according to the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU)), estimated distance from sampling location in meters, cardinal direction, and detection mode (sight or sound). The observer also tallied individuals flying over a sample area and included these in the data. Additional birds observed while travelling between sampling locations were noted but not included in the data set. Finally, weather conditions at the beginning and end of each daily sample were recorded. This included an estimate of wind speed (mph) and cloud cover (using an eight-point scale: 0 (clear) to 8 (completely overcast)), and a measurement of temperature.
*Disk given to James Brunt by Greg Farley. *File uploaded on 19 Feb 1993 by Melissa Chavez. *File checked for mistakes on same day. *Documentation started on 22 Feb 1993 by Melissa Chavez. Location and Procedures taken directly from sheets written by Greg Farley and Robert Parmenter. *Documentation entered completed on 24 Mar 1993 by Melissa Chavez and newest data entered, from March 1993. *Data from 1993 day 140 thru 1994 day 4 added on 17 Jan 1994 by Melissa Chavez. Check for dbf on same day. *Total updated file including 1994 data delivered by Greg Farley to James Brunt during the week of 10 October 1994. Data made into an archivable format by lining up the columns and checking for rdb workability and checking for other errors on 18 October 1994 by Melissa Chavez. The latest collection dates also added. *The the last dates from 1994 were added on 3 Jan 1995 and all checks were made and sent to James Brunt for archival. *Data from Spring 1995 was added on 11 July 1995 by Melissa Chavez from disk given to James by Greg Farley. Notes with disk: In addition, in the protocol the first two grassland sammpling stations should be changed as follows:
old # new # 138 146 139 147
The stations are in the same location, the tags have changed after the old ones were buried
*Data from fall 1995 through spring 1997 was collected and compiled by Mike Friggens. This data was added on September 12, 1997 by Mike Friggens. Some changes in the protocol were also made at this time, especially including a complete list of AOU codes for birds encountered on these transects to date. *Archived by Gregg MacKeigan on 19 Sep 1997 as bird_transect_91-97.dbf.
Grassland: The sampling locations for the grassland habitat are located along the road between Black Butte and 5-Points. Stations are numbered as follows, from north to south: 146, 147, 140, 141 142, 143, 144 and 145. All stakes are located on the east side of the road. As one drives south from Black Butte, Station #138 (changed to 146 in the spring of 1995 because old tag lost) is located 1.2 miles south of the road intersection immediately east of Black Butte. Stations are then located at 0.5 mile intervals. There are eight total stations.Creosote: The sampling locations for the creosote shrubland are located on or near the road that runs along the north rim of Palo Duro Canyon (east and west of 5-points). Stakes are numbered from #130 through #137, and are located on the north side of the road. Stake locations are as follows: #130 West of 5-points at Pipeline Road; mileage = 0.0 #131 Heading east, site is on road; mileage = 0.3 #132 Heading east, site is on road; mileage = 0.6 #133 Turn south on "Neck Road", site is on road (stake is on west side of road); mileage = 1.0 from # 130 #134 Return to main east-west read, turn east and proceed to intersection of road coming from north (the "common garden" road). Keep going east 0.1 mile, and look for flagged stake on south side of road. Sample point is 200 meters south of road near the tall "A-100" rebar post of the rodent trapping web. #135 At 5-points, in the center of the triangle formed by the three main roads. Flagged stake is on the east-west road, north side. Sample point is 50 meters north of road. Zero odometer here for next two stations. #136 Proceed east on road 0.3 miles from #135. Flagged stake in on north side of road, and sample point is 50 meters north of road. #137 Proceed east on road 0.7 miles from # 135. Flagged stake is on north side of road. Sample point is on road.Pinyon-Juniper: Sample locations are in Goat Draw. All sample points are off the main road, on high ground to one side or the other. Flagged stakes mark parking positions on road, and flagged, numbered stakes mark sampling points. Stations are numbered from #121 in the lower canyon to #129 in the upper canyon. There are nine total staions (eight regular stations and one station at the Goat Draw well site). Odometer is zeroed at sign-in box near entrance gate. Stake locations are as follows: #121 Mileage = 0.7 Sample location is on hill to west. #122 Mileage = 1.3 Goat Draw Well. Sample location is on small hill west of well near house ruins. #123 Mileage = 1.7 Sample location is on hill to west. #124 Mileage = 2.2 Sample location is on hill to west. #125 Mileage = 2.7 Sample location is on hill to west. #126 Mileage = 3.35 Sample location is to the east of road on ridgetop. #127 Mileage = 3.7 Sample location is on top of hill by road. #128 Mileage = 4.3 Sample location is at Meteorological Station approximately 150 meters to the west. #129 Mileage = 4.7 Sample location is on hill to north (right side of road).
Here is a list of the AOU codes used:
AOU# Common Name 293 - Scaled Quail 295 - Gambel's Quail 309.1 - Ring-necked Pheasant 316 - Mourning Dove 331 - Northern Harrier 332 - Sharp-shinned Hawk 333 - Cooper's Hawk 337 - Red-tailed Hawk 360 - American Kestrel 342 - Swainson's Hawk 348 - Ferruginous Hawk 375 - Great Horned Owl 396 - Ladder-backed Woodpecker 413 - Red-shafted Flicker 418 - Common Poorwill 420 - Common Nighthawk 421 - Lesser Nighthawk 432 - Broad-tailed Hummingbird 447 - Western Kingbird 448 - Cassin's Kingbird 454 - Ash-throated Flycatcher 457 - Say's Phoebe 467.9 - unidentified Empidonax sp. 474 - Horned Lark 481 - Scrub Jay 486 - Common Raven 492 - Pinyon Jay 495 - Brown-headed Cowbird 501 - Eastern Meadowlark 501.1 - Western Meadowlark 504 - Scott's Oriole 508 - Bullock's Oriole 519 - House Finch 520 - Pine Siskin 530 - Lesser Goldfinch 538 - Chestnut-collared Longspur 539 - McCown's Longspur 540 - Vesper Sparrow 552 - Lark Sparrow 559 - American Tree Sparrow 560 - Chipping Sparrow 562 - Brewer's Sparrow 567.7 - Dark-eyed Sparrow (Junco) 573 - Black-throated Sparrow 574 - Sage Sparrow 578 - Cassin's Sparrow 581 - Song Sparrow 587 - Rufous-sided Towhee 590 - Green-tailed Towhee 591 - Brown Towhee 596 - Black-headed Grosbeak 597 - Blue Grosbeak 605 - Lark Bunting 607 - Western Tanager 612 - Cliff Swallow 615 - Violet-green Swallow 616 - Bank Swallow 617 - Rough-winged Swallow 622 - Loggerhead Shrike 629 - Solitary Vereo 655 - Yellow-rumped Warbler 668 - Townsend's Warbler 680 - MacGillivray's Warbler 702 - Sage Thrasher 703 - Northern Mockingbird 705 - Brown Thrasher 708 - Bendire's Thrasher 713 - Cactus Wren 715 - Rock Wren 719 - Bewick's Wren 721 - House Wren 727 - White-breasted Nuthatch 728 - Red-breasted Nuthatch 733 - Plain Titmouse 735 - Black-capped Chickadee 738 - Mountain Chickadee 743 - Bushtit 749 - Ruby-crowned Kinglet 751 - Blue-gray Gnatcatcher 754 - Townsend's Solitaire 761 - American Robin 767 - Western Bluebird 768 - Mountain Bluebird