Humans are creating significant global environmental change, including shifts in climate, increased nitrogen (N) deposition, and the facilitation of species invasions. A multi-factorial field experiment is being performed in an arid grassland within the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) to simulate increased nighttime temperature, higher N deposition, and heightened El Niño frequency (which increases winter precipitation by an average of 50%). The purpose of the experiment is to better understand the potential effects of environmental change on grassland community composition and the growth of introduced creosote seeds and seedlings. The focus is on the response of three dominant species, all of which are near their range margins and thus may be particularly susceptible to environmental change.
It is hypothesized that warmer summer temperatures and increased evaporation will favor growth of black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda), a desert grass, but that increased winter precipitation and/or available nitrogen will favor the growth of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), a shortgrass prairie species. Furthermore, it is thought that the growth and survival of introduced creosote (Larrea tridentata) seeds and seedlings will be promoted by heightened winter precipitation, N addition, and warmer nighttime temperatures. Treatment effects on limiting resources (soil moisture, nitrogen mineralization), species growth (photosynthetic rates, creosote shoot elongation), species abundance, and net primary production (NPP) are all being measured to determine the interactive effects of key global change drivers on arid grassland plant community dynamics.
To measure above-ground NPP (i.e., the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and foliage, over time), the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, are sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at permanent 1m x 1m plots. The data from these plots is used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV157, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." This biomass data is included in SEV205, "Warming-El Nino-Nitrogen Deposition Experiment (WENNDEx): Seasonal Biomass and Seasonal and Annual NPP."
This is a multi-factorial experiment with three fully crossed factors: warming, water addition, and nitrogen addition in a complete randomized design for a total of eight treatment combinations. There are five replicates for each of the eight treatment combinations and a total of 40 plots. Plots are 3 x 3.5 meters.
The warming system consists of automated nighttime warming roofs made of aluminum fabric. The fabric reflects longwave radiation from the ground that would otherwise be lost to the atmosphere. This treatment is fully automated.
Water is added using an overhead irrigation system. Water is trucked in, pumped from the road to storage tanks adjacent to the plots, and then pumped from the tanks to plots using a custom-designed overhead irrigation system that waters four plots at once. Sprinkler heads and orientation were chosen to mimic natural rain droplet size and velocity. From January through March there are 4x5mm applications, 1x10mm application and 1x20mm application. Exact timing of applications can vary based on weather and the necessary avoidance of temperatures below freezing and high wind.
Nitrogen is added at the rate of 2 g/m2/yr in two equal aliquots. Thus, 1 g/m2/yr is added in February and 1 g/m2/yr in early July, following the beginning of the monsoon. Nitrogen is added in the form of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) pellets. 2.86 grams of ammonium nitrate yields 1 gram of nitrogen. Thus, each application puts 30 grams of nitrogen over each plot. In an effort to get an even distribution, the nitrogen will be weighed out in several (4-6) portions and hand broadcast over the plot as evenly as possible. Measurements of soil moisture and temperature are automated, uploaded to a server, and made available on the Sevilleta LTER website. Measurements of nitrogen are performed using resin papers from Western Ag Innovations Inc. (http://www.westernag.ca/innov/main.html). Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) measurements will will be performed weekly or bi-weekly throughout the year using a handheld spectrometer.
August 2009 Burn:
On August 4, 2009, a lightning-initiated fire began on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge. By August 5, 2009, the fire had reached the Warming site, which was burned extensively though not entirely. Approximately 50% of plots burned on August 5 and those plots which did not burn were burned within three weeks by US Fish and Wildlife. Thus, the condition of all plots at the Warming site was comparable by early September 2009.
Collecting the Data:
Net primary production data is collected twice each year, spring and fall, for all sites. Spring measurements are taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals have reached peak biomass. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals have reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts.
Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.
The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit. It is possible to obtain a total percent cover greater than 100% for a given quadrat because vegetative units for different species often overlap.
Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.
It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection
Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.
Forbs-The cover of forbs is measured as the perimeter of the densest portion of the plant. If the forb is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement. If the forb is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.
Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest centimeter instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria vivipara, Schlerocactus intertextus, Echinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.
Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.
Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.
Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.
Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.
Perennial shrub and sub-shrubs-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground. Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat.
Recording the Data:
Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). Finally, the site abbreviation should be added (i.e., w). The final format should be as follows: npp_warm.mm.dd.yy.abc.xls. File names should be in lowercase.
Maintenance: 01/14/11-Spring and fall 2010 data was QA/QC'd and entered into Navicat. Metadata was updated and compiled for 2010. Winter 2010 data was not collected due to the fires of fall 2009. (JMM) 11/28/09-Quad data were QA/QC'd and put in Navicat. Metadata updated and compiled for 2006-2009. Fall 2009 data was not collected due to unexpected fire at Sevilleta NWR in Aug. 2009, and prescribed fire (Sep. 2009) at warming site. (YX) 01/06/09–Metadata created and compiled for 2006, 2007, 2008 data. (YX) 01/05/09–As of 2007, winter measurement are no longer being taken. I checked for duplicates and missing quads. (YX)
Other researchers involved with collecting samples/data: Chandra Tucker (CAT; 04/2014-present), Megan McClung (MAM; 04/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 09/2010-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2010-06/2013), Amaris Swann (ALS; 08/2008-01/2013), Maya Kapoor (MLK; 08/2003-01/2005, 05/2010-03/2011), Terri Koontz (TLK; 02/2000-08/2003, 08/2006-08/2010), Yang Xia (YX; 01/2005-03/2010), Karen Wetherill (KRW; 02/2000-08/2009); Michell Thomey (MLT; 09/2005-08/2008).Data updated 08/18/15: ARPUP6 changed to ARPU9; OEAL changed to OECA10; SPWR changed to SPPO6.
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