This study originated with the objective of parameterizing riparian evapotranspiration (ET) in the water budget of the middle Rio Grande of New Mexico. We hypothesized that flooding and invasions of non-native species would impact the ecosystem's use of water. Our objectives were to measure and compare the ET of native (Rio Grande cottonwood, Populus deltoides ssp. wizleni) and non-native (saltcedar, Tamarix chinensis, Russian olive, Eleagnus angustifolia) bosque (woodland) communities and to evaluate how water use is affected by climatic variability resulting in high river flows and flooding as well as drought conditions and deep water tables. This data set contains water table levels monitored at nine sites along the Rio Grande riparian corridor between Albuquerque and Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. Data date to 1999. Two sites remain active and are well into their second decade of monitoring. One is in a xero-riparian, non-flooding, saltcedar woodland within the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge. The other is in a dense, monotypic saltcedar thicket at the Bosque del Apache NWR that is subject to flood pulses associated with high river flows.
Well Design: Water table monitoring wells are installed ~1 m below the baseflow water table. Wells are constructed of 5 cm inner diameter PVC pipe with approximately 1 m long, 0.25 mm slot screen lengths, capped at the bottom.Each site has a network of five wells: A central well (C) and four wells ~40 m from the center well in the four cardinal directions (N, S, E, W). Pressure transducers to log water table levels at 30 minute intervals were deployed in most of the wells at various times.
Water Table Data:
Site data are listed by acronyms, see above, e.g., BDASn = Bosque del Apache south site, north well. Variables include date, time, groundwater temperature recorded by the transducer, if applicable (gw temp, °C), depth to water table from grade at the well (DWT, cm), water table elevation above sea level (WT elev, m, except for the unsurveyed La Joya site), and a quality check (qc) column to indicate estimated data (see below).
Groundwater temperatures range from 8° to 20° C with precision to the nearest tenth of a degree. Water table levels range from 4 m depth to 0.5 m above the surface (inundation) with precision to the nearest mm.
Water table levels collected with the following pressure transducers:
1. Solinst model 3001 LT M10 Leveloggers and model 3001 LT M1.5 Barologgers*, Solinst Canada Ltd., Georgetown, ON, Canada.2. Schlumberger model DI501 Mini-, model DI701 Cera-, and model DI501 Baro*-Divers, Schlumberger Water Services,Tucson, AZ.3. EEI Submersible Sensor models 2.0 (2 m) and 5.0 (4m), Electronic Engineering Innovations, Las Cruces, NM. These transducers are vented (no barometric correction required) and do not measure temperature.*Solinst and Schlumberger submersible transducers measure total pressure (barometric and hydraulic). Barometric transducers suspended above the water column in a well record barometric pressure, which is subtracted from the total pressure readings to arrive at hydraulic pressure, or well head.
With all data collections, well water levels are manually measured with a Solinst or TestWell sounder and offset-corrected. Thirty-minute data missing from a time series indicate that a logger was not deployed or a malfunction occurred. Missing water table data are estimated in some cases, especially when data are lost during the Apr 1 -- Nov 15 growing season and at wells with long-term records. Estimates are made by:1. The average rate of change within a time series from data existing before and/or after the gap (e1 in the qc column).2. The average rate of change from one or more nearby well logs during the gap (e2 in the qc column).3. Linear regression with one or more of the nearby well logs from data existing before and after the gap (e3 in the qc column).
Survey of location and elevation of wells:
Survey data collected by D. McDonnell, UNM Biology, Feb-Mar 2002, UTM NAD83. Equipment loaned by University NAVSTAR Consortium (UNAVCO), Boulder, CO. Equipment used: Trimble 4000 Receiver Systems (2) $24,000 Trimble 4700 Reciever System (1) $8,000 Trimble Removable Groundplane Antennas (3) $9,000 TSC-1 Controller (1) $5,000 Misc. ancillary equipment $1,000
LARO site only: GPS data collected by J Thibault & J Cleverly, UNM Biology. Garmin Etrex and Garmin III+, WGS 84. Data not suitable for use in elev calculations at these wells. Coordinates and c well elev are approximations.
SEV--wells associated with the active ET tower at the Sevilleta NWR saltcedar no flood site near San Acacia 1999--present.
BDAS--wells associated with the active ET tower at the Bosque del Apache south NWR saltcedar flood site, 1999--present.
SHK--wells associated with ET tower (2000--2007) at the Albuquerque South Valley (access from Shirk Lane) cottonwood no flood site, 1999-2013.
LARO--wells associated with ET tower (2003--2008) at the La Joya State Refuge Russian olive and willow flood site, 2003-2009.
BLN-- wells associated with ET tower (2000--2003) at the Belen cottonwood flood site, 1999--2008.
RGNC--wells (no tower) at the Albuquerque Rio Grande Nature Center cottonwood no flood site, 1999--2005.
LL-- wells (no tower) at the Los Lunas cottonwood flood site, 1999--2005.
BDO--wells (no tower) at the Bernardo saltcedar no flood site, 1999--2005.
BDAN--wells (no tower) at the Bosque del Apache north NWR saltcedar flood site, 1999-2005.