primary production

Below-Ground Net Primary Production (BNPP): Root Ingrowth Donuts

Investigators: 
Collins, Scott
Craig, John

In 2005, root ingrowth donuts were established on the Sevilleta NWR to monitor below ground biomass under different conditions and to compare estimates of root production between root ingrowth donut and mini-rhizonton tube methods at four sites on the east side of the refuge. Soil and roots are collected from the "donuts" annually in late fall after the growing season, and structures are then re-established in situ for consecutive harvests for the following years. Each structure allows roots to be harvested at two depths (0-15 and 15-30cm) to estimate root production, or "below ground net primary productivity".

Related Projects: 

Below-Ground Net Primary Production (BNPP): Root Ingrowth Donuts in Chihuahuan Desert Grassland and Creosote Shrubland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2005- )

SEV_ID: 
175
Dataset ID: 
175
Abstract: 

In 2005, annually harvested root ingrowth donut structures were co-located with previously established mini-rhizotron tubes established at four sites on McKenzie Flats located on the east side of Sevilleta NWR: 10 replicate structures in both burned and unburned blue and black grama dominated grassland plots at Deep Well, 10 replicates each on nitrogen fertilization plots and respective control plots on McKenzie Flats(20 total), 10 replicates in creosote dominated shrubland at the Five Points Creosote Core site and in 2011, 13 structures were put in the Monsoon site. Roots and soil are harvested annually in late fall after the growing season, and structures are reestablished in situ for consecutive harvests each year. Each structure allows roots to be harvested at two depths (0-15 and 15-30 cm) to estimate root production, or below ground net primary productivity. In order to compare estimates of root production from two methods, root ingrowth donuts were collocated with mini-rhizotron tubes at all localities except for the burned grassland plot at Deep Well.

Keywords: 
depth
field methods
cores
burning
harvesting
fertilizer
soil
grasslands
grasses
roots
vegetation
Additional Information: 

Additional Information on the personnel associated with the Data Collection / Data Processing

Sevilleta Field Crew Employee History

Megan McClung, April 2013-present, Stephanie Baker, October 2010-Present, John Mulhouse, August 2009-Present, Amaris Swann, August 25, 2008-January 2013, Maya Kapoor, August 9, 2003-January 21, 2005 and April 2010-March 2011, Terri Koontz, February 2000-August 2003 and August 2006-August 2010, Yang Xia, January 31, 2005-April 2009, Karen Wetherill, February 7, 2000-August 2009, Michell Thomey, September 3, 2005-August 2008, Jay McLeod, January 2006-August 2006, Charity Hall, January 31, 2005-January 3, 2006, Tessa Edelen, August 15, 2004-August 15, 2005, Seth Munson, September 9, 2002-June 2004, Caleb Hickman, September 9, 2002-November 15, 2004, Heather Simpson, August 2000-August 2002, Chris Roberts, September 2001-August 2002, Mike Friggens, 1999-September 2001, Shana Penington, February 2000-August 2000.

Maintenance: 

23 Jan 2009All data sets (2005-2008) were combined and checked for errors in excel and exported into Navicat. From the 2007 data, I converted the dry root mass from grams to milligrams and changed depth data to be 0-15 and 15-30 cm. QA/QC'd data. I deleted data line from DWB sample 7, depth 15-30 cm with volume 2600 ml because it was a duplicate. I also changed the depth of DWB sample 12, depth 15-30 cm with volume 2000 to the depth 0-15 cm because the depth 15-30 cm was duplicated. -Changed missing data on volume and weight due to plant being dead to -888. -Changed missing data on volume and weight due to human error to -999. --A. Swann

Personnel Involved
Data Manager: 
Geo Temporal Info
Publication Date: 
01/17/2011
Date Range: 
Tue, 11/01/2005 - Mon, 11/12/2012
Methods
Methods: 

Experimental Design
Annually harvested root ingrowth donut structures are co-located with previously established mini-rhizotron tubes established at four sites on the McKenzie Flats on the east side of Sevilleta NWR: 10 replicate structures in both burned and unburned blue and black grama dominated grassland plots at Deep Well, 10 replicates each on nitrogen fertilization plots and respective control plots on McKenzie Flats (20 total), and 10 replicates in creosote dominated shrubland at the Five Points Creosote Core site. Methods were adapted from Milchunas et al (2005). We use a formidable 10 diameter soil core to create cylindrical holes in the ground to a depth of 30cm without disturbing soil profile at the cylinder walls. The soil core was inserted with a slide hammer and had to be removed each time with a come-along mounted on a steel-pipe tripod. Walls were subsequently lined with plastic cross-stitch craft work canvas (macram mesh) which supports cylinder walls through time but allows roots to pass through. Two pieces of 6 diameter PVC were placed in the center of the larger cylindrical hole, set in place with bags filled with sand that act as ballasts. The two pieces of PVC were beveled on opposite ends to fit together and prevent movement of the donut center. The top cylinder went to a depth of 15 cm and the bottom piece went to a depth of 30 cm, representing 0-15 and 15-30 cm in the soil profile when stacked upon one another. Finally, sifted soil from the location was used to fill the space between the plastic canvas lining the hole wall and the PVC pipe placed in the center. It is this soil which is harvested annually at two depths. A PVC cap was placed on top of the PVC to eliminate water infiltration from rain through the donut center and to keep sunlight from disintegrating the sand bag ballast. All root ingrowth donuts were GPSed.

Sample Harvest
Root donuts are harvested annually in November after the growing season. Roots are harvested by first removing the sand bags from the top cylinder and placing a bowl into the center of the cylinder. The top cylinder is then removed. Soil and roots are cut away from the cylinder wall and collected. This harvest procedure is then repeated for the lower half of the donut structure. Soil and roots collected are placed in a separate plastic bag for each depth. Once the soil and roots are harvested, the root ingrowth structure is rebuilt. After harvest, soil and root samples are stored in a chest freezer until they can be processed.

Sample Processing
The total volume of soil from each sample is measured and recorded. Soils are filtered through a series of sieves in which to harvest the roots present in the sample. The roots are then repeatedly rinsed to remove all the soil from the sample, dried at 60 degrees C, and then weighed.

Quality Assurance: 

Filtered data in Excel then exported it into Navicat using the import wizard.

Biome Transition Along Elevational Gradients in New Mexico (SEON) Study: Flux Tower Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Quadrat Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2011- )

SEV_ID: 
253
Dataset ID: 
253
Abstract: 

The varied topography and large elevation gradients that characterize the arid and semi-arid Southwest create a wide range of climatic conditions - and associated biomes - within relatively short distances. This creates an ideal experimental system in which to study the effects of climate on ecosystems. Such studies are critical givien that the Southwestern U.S. has already experienced changes in climate that have altered precipitation patterns (Mote et al. 2005), and stands to experience dramatic climate change in the coming decades (Seager et al. 2007; Ting et al. 2007). Climate models currently predict an imminent transition to a warmer, more arid climate in the Southwest (Seager et al. 2007; Ting et al. 2007). Thus, high elevation ecosystems, which currently experience relatively cool and mesic climates, will likely resemble their lower elevation counterparts, which experience a hotter and drier climate. In order to predict regional changes in carbon storage, hydrologic partitioning and water resources in response to these potential shifts, it is critical to understand how both temperature and soil moisture affect processes such as evaportranspiration (ET), total carbon uptake through gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), and net ecosystem exchange of carbon, water and energy across elevational gradients.

We are using a sequence of six widespread biomes along an elevational gradient in New Mexico -- ranging from hot, arid ecosystems at low elevations to cool, mesic ecosystems at high elevation to test specific hypotheses related to how climatic controls over ecosystem processes change across this gradient. We have an eddy covariance tower and associated meteorological instruments in each biome which we are using to directly measure the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. This gradient offers us a unique opportunity to test the interactive effects of temperature and soil moisture on ecosystem processes, as temperature decreases and soil moisture increases markedly along the gradient and varies through time within sites.

This dataset examines how different stages of burn affects above-ground biomass production (ANPP) in a mixed desert-grassland. Net primary production is a fundamental ecological variable that quantifies rates of carbon consumption and fixation. Estimates of NPP are important in understanding energy flow at a community level as well as spatial and temporal responses to a range of ecological processes.

Above-ground net primary production is the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and foliage, over time and incorporates growth as well as loss to death and decomposition. To measure this change the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, are sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at permanent 1m x 1m plots. The data from these plots is used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV157, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." This biomass data is included in SEV292, "Flux Tower Seasonal Biomass and Seasonal and Annual NPP Data."

Keywords: 
measurements
climate
elevation
plants
foliage
grasses
forbs
vegetation
stems
Personnel Involved
Owner: 
Data Manager: 
Geo Temporal Info
Date Range: 
Fri, 01/06/2012
Methods
Methods: 

Above-Ground Net Primary Productivity (ANPP) measurements:

Above-ground net primary production data is collected two times each year, spring, and fall. Spring measurements are taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals have reached peak biomass. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals have reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. 

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit. It is possible to obtain a total percent cover greater than 100% for a given quadrat because vegetative units for different species often overlap.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that can help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs-The cover of forbs is measured as the perimeter of the densest portion of the plant. If the forb is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement. If the forb is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest cm instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria vivipara, Schlerocactus intertextus, Echinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrub and sub-shrubs-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground. Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat.

Recording the Data:

Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). The final format should be as follows: npp_flux.mm.dd.yy.abc.xls. File names should be in lowercase.

Biome Transition Along Elevational Gradients in New Mexico (SEON)

Flux Tower near the Five Points Creosote Site
Investigators: 
Litvak, Marcy

The varied topography and large elevation gradients that characterize the arid and semi-arid Southwest create a wide range of climatic conditions - and associated biomes - within relatively short distances. This creates an ideal experimental system in which to study the effects of climate on ecosystems. Such studies are critical givien that the Southwestern U.S. has already experienced changes in climate that have altered precipitation patterns (Mote et al. 2005), and stands to experience dramatic climate change in the coming decades (Seager et al. 2007; Ting et al. 2007).

New Mexico Vegetation Map, Including Tower Site Locations

Biome Transition Along Elevational Gradients in New Mexico (SEON) Study: Flux Tower Seasonal Biomass and Seasonal and Annual NPP Data at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico

SEV_ID: 
292
Dataset ID: 
292
Abstract: 

The varied topography and large elevation gradients that characterize the arid and semi-arid Southwest create a wide range of climatic conditions - and associated biomes - within relatively short distances. This creates an ideal experimental system in which to study the effects of climate on ecosystems. Such studies are critical givien that the Southwestern U.S. has already experienced changes in climate that have altered precipitation patterns (Mote et al. 2005), and stands to experience dramatic climate change in the coming decades (Seager et al. 2007; Ting et al. 2007). Climate models currently predict an imminent transition to a warmer, more arid climate in the Southwest (Seager et al. 2007; Ting et al. 2007). Thus, high elevation ecosystems, which currently experience relatively cool and mesic climates, will likely resemble their lower elevation counterparts, which experience a hotter and drier climate. In order to predict regional changes in carbon storage, hydrologic partitioning and water resources in response to these potential shifts, it is critical to understand how both temperature and soil moisture affect processes such as evaportranspiration (ET), total carbon uptake through gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), and net ecosystem exchange of carbon, water and energy across elevational gradients.

We are using a sequence of six widespread biomes along an elevational gradient in New Mexico -- ranging from hot, arid ecosystems at low elevations to cool, mesic ecosystems at high elevation to test specific hypotheses related to how climatic controls over ecosystem processes change across this gradient. We have an eddy covariance tower and associated meteorological instruments in each biome which we are using to directly measure the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. This gradient offers us a unique opportunity to test the interactive effects of temperature and soil moisture on ecosystem processes, as temperature decreases and soil moisture increases markedly along the gradient and varies through time within sites.

This dataset examines how different stages of burn affects above-ground biomass production (ANPP) in a mixed desert-grassland. Net primary production is a fundamental ecological variable that quantifies rates of carbon consumption and fixation. Estimates of NPP are important in understanding energy flow at a community level as well as spatial and temporal responses to a range of ecological processes.  Above-ground net primary production is the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and foliage, over time and incorporates growth as well as loss to death and decomposition. To measure this change the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, are sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at permanent 1m x 1m plots. Volumetric measurements are made using vegetation data from permanent plots (SEV253, "Flux Tower Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Quadrat Study") and regressions correlating species biomass and volume constructed using seasonal harvest weights from SEV157, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data."

Keywords: 
species
plant species
climate change
plant species composition
species diversity
productivity
net primary productivity
annual net primary production
biomass
plant biomass
aboveground biomass
climate
percent carbon
species composition
elevation
seasonality
carbon fluxes
carbon cycling
primary production
net primary production
carbon
ecosystems
terrestrial ecosystems
Personnel Involved
Owner: 
Data Manager: 
Geo Temporal Info
Date Range: 
Wed, 05/04/2011 - Wed, 09/04/2013
Methods
Methods: 

Data Processing Techniques to Derive Biomass and NPP:

Data from SEV253 and SEV157 are used used to calculate seasonal and annual production of each species in each quadrat for a given year. Allometric equations derived from harvested samples of each species for each season are applied to the measured cover, height, and count of each species in each quadrat. This provides seasonal biomass for winter, spring, and fall.

Seasonal NPP is derived by subtracting the previous season's biomass from the biomass for the current season. For example, spring NPP is calculated by subtracting the winter weight from the spring weight for each species in a given quadrat. Negative differences are considered to be 0. Likewise, fall production is computed by subtracting spring biomass from fall biomass. Annual biomass is taken as the sum of spring and fall NPP.

Bootleg Burn

Investigators: 
Peters, Debra
Drewa, Paul
Havstad, Kris
Herrick, Jeffrey
Cross, Anne

In this study, soil characteristics after a lightning-initiated fire were evaluated. Following the fire in July 1998, 25 experimental plots were established on the eastern edge of MacKenzie Flats at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge. Ten of these plots were located in a Bouteloua gracilis (blue grama)-dominated site, while 15 were established in another area dominated by Bouteloua eriopoda (black grama).

Burn Study Sites Quadrat Data for the Net Primary Production Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2004- )

SEV_ID: 
156
Dataset ID: 
156
Abstract: 

In 2003, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a prescribed burn over a large part of the northeastern corner of the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge. Following this burn, a study was designed to look at the effect of fire on above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) (i.e., the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and foliage, over time) within three different vegetation types: mixed grass (MG), mixed shrub (MS) and black grama (G). Forty permanent 1m x 1m plots were installed in both burned and unburned (i.e., control) sections of each habitat type. The core black grama site included in SEV129 is used as a G control site for analyses and does not appear in this dataset. The MG control site caught fire unexpectedly in the fall of 2009 and some plots were subsequently moved to the south. For details of how the fire affected plot placement, see Methods below. In spring 2010, sampling of plots 16-25 was discontinued at the MG (burned and control) and G (burned treatment only) sites, reducing the number of sampled plots to 30 at each.

To measure ANPP (i.e., the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and foliage, over time), the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, are sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at each plot. The data from these plots is used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV157, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." This biomass data is included in SEV185, "Burn Study Sites Seasonal Biomass and Seasonal and Annual NPP Data."

Keywords: 
communities
community patterns
plant communities
plant ecology
vegetation dynamics
successional dynamics
plant species composition
species richness
disturbances
fires
plant cover
net primary productivity
annual net primary production
long term
seasonality
permanent plots
plant growth
succession
disturbance
burning
recovery
plants
grasses
herbs
forbs
shrubs
vegetation
Additional Information: 

Other researchers involved with collecting samples/data: Megan McClung (04/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 09/2010-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2010-present), Amaris Swann (ALS; 08/2008-01/2013), Maya Kapoor (MLK; 08/2003-01/2005, 05/2010-03/2011), Terri Koontz (TLK; 02/2000-08/2003, 08/2006-08/2010), Yang Xia (YX; 01/2005-03/2010), Karen Wetherill (KRW; 02/2000-08/2009); Michell Thomey (MLT; 09/2005-08/2008); Seth Munson (SMM; 09/2002-06/2004), Jay McLeod (JRM; 01/2006-08/2006); Caleb Hickman (CRH; 09/2002-11/2004), Charity Hall (CLH; 01/2005-01/2006); Tessa Edelen (MTE, 08/2004-08/2005).

Maintenance: 

01/13/2011-Burn NPP quad data was QA/QC'd and put in Navicat. Matadata updated and compiled from 2004-2010. The mixed-grass unburned plot was moved to the south after the original plot burned unexpectedly in the fire of August 2009. (JMM) 11/28/2009-Burn NPP quad data was QA/QC'd and put in Navicat. Metadata updated and complied from 2004-2009. Mixed-grass unburned data (Fall 2009) was not collected due to unexpected fire at Sevilleta LTER in Aug 2009. (YX) 01/14/09-Metadata updated and compiled from 2004-2008 data. As of 2007, winter measurements are longer being taken. (YX) 12/20/2008-This data was QAQC'd in MySQL. I checked for duplicates and missing quads. (YX)

Station Acronym: 
SEV
Personnel Involved
Data Manager: 
Geo Temporal Info
Publication Date: 
10/01/2010
Date Range: 
Mon, 03/08/2004 - Wed, 10/13/2010
Methods
Methods: 

Collecting the Data:

Net primary production data is collected three times each year, winter, spring, and fall, for all burn sites. Spring measurements are taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals have reached peak biomass. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals have reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. Winter measurements are taken in February before the onset of spring growth and only creosote is measured.

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit. It is possible to obtain a total percent cover greater than 100% for a given quadrat because vegetative units for different species often overlap.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that can help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-The cover of forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs is measured as the horizontal area of the plant. If the species is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement if it increases cover. If the species is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest centimeter instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria vivipara, Schlerocactus intertextus, Echinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrub and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground.

Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat.

Creosote Measurements till 2013:

To measure creosote (i.e., Larrea tridenta) break the observations into two categories:

1.) Small, individual clusters of foliage on a branch (i.e., branch systems): Measure the horizontal cover of each live (i.e., green) foliage cluster, ignoring small open spaces (keeping in mind the 15% guideline stated above). Then measure the vertical "height" of each cluster from the top of the foliage to a plane created by extending a line horizontally from the bottom of the foliage. Each individual foliage cluster within a bush is considered a separate observation.

2.) Stems: Measure the length of each stem from the base to the beginning of live (i.e., green) foliage. Calculate the cumulative total of all stem measurements. This value is entered under "height" with the species as "stem" for each quadrat containing creosote. All other variable receive a default entry of "1" for creosote stem measurements.

Do not measure dead stems or areas of dead foliage. If in doubt about whether a stem is alive, scrape the stem with your fingernail and check for the presence of green cambium.

Creosote Measurements 2013 and after:

Each creosote is only measured as one total cover. Each quad that contains creosote will have one cover observation for each creosote canopy in quad.

Recording the Data:

Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). Finally, the site abbreviation should be added (i.e., mg, ms, or g). The final format should be as follows: npp_burn.mm.dd.yy.abc.xls. File names should be in lowercase.

August 2009 Burn:

On August 4, 2009, a lightning-initiated fire began on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge.  The fire reached the Mixed-Grass Unburned plots on August 5, 2009, consuming them in their entirety.  As a result, in the spring of 2010, the Mixed-Grass (MG) unburned plots were moved to a different area within Deep Well, southwest of the Warming site. 

Also, on August 4, 2009, some of the webs and quadrats within the unburned Black Grama (G) site were impacted by the fire.  Thus, webs 2 and 3 were abandoned and extra plots added to areas within webs 1, 4, and 5 that were not burned.  Changes were as follows:

Webs 1, 4, and 5: A plot was added to the northeast to compensate for the loss of all plots at webs 2 and 3.

Web 4: A plot was added to the northwest to compensate for the northern plot, which was burned.

Burn Study Sites Seasonal Biomass and Seasonal and Annual NPP Data for the Net Primary Production Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2004- )

SEV_ID: 
185
Dataset ID: 
185
Abstract: 

In 2003, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a prescribed burn over a large part of the northeastern corner of the Sevilleta NWR. This study was designed to look at the effect of fire on above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) within different vegetation types. Net primary production (NPP) is a fundamental ecological variable that measures rates of carbon consumption and fixation. Estimates of NPP are important in understanding energy flow at a community level as well as spatial and temporal responses to a range of ecological processes. While measures of both below- and above-ground biomass are important in estimating total NPP, this study focuses on above-ground net primary production (ANPP). Above-ground net primary production (ANPP) is equal to the change in plant mass, including loss to death and decomposition, over a given period of time. To measure this change, ANPP is sampled twice a year (spring and fall) for all species in each of three vegetation types. In addition, volumetric measurements are obtained from adjacent areas to build regressions correlating biomass and volume.

Three vegetation types were chosen for this study: mixed grass (MG), mixed shrub (MS) and black grama (G). Forty permanent 1m x 1m plots were installed in both burned and unburned sections of each habitat type. The core black grama site included in SEV129 was incorporated into this dataset as an unburned control, so an additional unburned G site was not created. The data for this site is noted as site=G and treatment=C (i.e., control). The original mixed-grass unburned plot caught fire unexpectedly in the fall of 2009 and was subsequently moved to the south.

Volumetric measurements are made using vegetation data from permanent plots collected in SEV156, "Burn Study Sites Quadrat Data for the Net Primary Production Study " and regressions correlating biomass and volume constructed using seasonal harvest weights from SEV157, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data."

Keywords: 
community patterns
plant communities
plant ecology
vegetation dynamics
successional dynamics
plant species composition
species richness
plant cover
net primary productivity
plant biomass
aboveground biomass
population and community properties
long term
seasonality
permanent plots
plant growth
succession
disturbance
harvesting
recovery
deserts
grasslands
plants
foliage
grasses
herbs
forbs
shrubs
vegetation
stems
Additional Information: 

Other researchers involved with collecting samples/data: Megan McClung (MAM; 04/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 09/2010-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2010-present), Amaris Swann (ALS; 08/2008-01/2013), Maya Kapoor (MLK; 08/2003-01/2005, 05/2010-03/2011), Terri Koontz (TLK; 02/2000-08/2003, 08/2006-08/2010), Yang Xia (YX; 01/2005-03/2010), Karen Wetherill (KRW; 02/2000-08/2009); Michell Thomey (MLT; 09/2005-08/2008); Seth Munson (SMM; 09/2002-06/2004), Jay McLeod (JRM; 01/2006-08/2006); Caleb Hickman (CRH; 09/2002-11/2004), Charity Hall (CLH; 01/2005-01/2006); Tessa Edelen (MTE, 08/2004-08/2005).

Maintenance: 

02/08/10 (JM) Metadata updated and data compiled from 1999 to 2009. All data put on-line and in navicat anpp table.02/03/09 (YX) Metadata entered and compiled from 1999 to 2008 based on a File info from Doug Moore (12/19/08).

Station Acronym: 
SEV
Personnel Involved
Data Manager: 
Geo Temporal Info
Publication Date: 
03/09/2011
Date Range: 
Sun, 02/15/2004 - Sat, 10/30/2010
Methods
Methods: 

Derivation of Biomass and NPP:

Data from SEV156 and SEV157 are used used to calculate seasonal and annual production of each species in each quadrat for a given year. Allometric equations derived from harvested samples of each species for each season are applied to the measured cover, height, and count of each species in each quadrat. This provides seasonal biomass for winter, spring, and fall.

Seasonal NPP is derived by subtracting the previous season's biomass from the biomass for the current season. For example, spring NPP is calculated by subtracting the winter weight from the spring weight for each species in a given quadrat. Negative differences are considered to be 0. Likewise, fall production is computed by subtracting spring biomass from fall biomass. Annual biomass is taken as the sum of spring and fall NPP.

August 2009 Burn:

On August 4, 2009, a lightning-initiated fire began on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge.  The fire reached the Mixed-Grass Unburned plots on August 5, 2009, consuming them in their entirety.  As a result, in the spring of 2010, the Mixed-Grass Unburned plots were moved to a different area within Deep Well, southwest of the Warming site. 

Also, on August 4, 2009, some of the webs and quadrats within the unburned Black Grama site were impacted by the fire.  Thus, webs 2 and 3 were abandoned and extra plots added to areas within webs 1, 4, and 5 that were not burned.  Changes were as follows:

Webs 1, 4, and 5: A plot was added to the northeast to compensate for the loss of all plots at webs 2 and 3.

Web 4: A plot was added to the northwest to compensate for the northern plot, which was burned.

This update supercedes the description of plot layout provided above and is applicable to the Black Grama site only.

Comparative Hydraulic Performance of Piñon and Juniper in a Rainfall Manipulation Experiment at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico

SEV_ID: 
255
Dataset ID: 
255
Abstract: 

From 2000-2003, extreme drought  across the Southwestern US resulted in widespread tree mortality: piñon pine (Pinus edulis) experienced up to 95% mortality while juniper (Juniperus monosperma) mortality was 25% or less at surveyed sites.  Field data have shown repeatedly that piñon typically exhibits isohydric regulation of leaf water potential, maintaining relatively constant leaf water potentials even as soil water potentials fluctuate, while juniper is anisohydric, allowing leaf water potential to decline during drought.  The goal of this study was to elucidate functional consequences of these two contrasting hydraulic strategies.  The study was conducted in the context of a rainfall manipulation experiment in piñon-juniper woodland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge and LTER in central New Mexico, USA, sampling trees in irrigation (~150% ambient rainfall), drought (50% ambient), cover control (ambient rainfall with similar drought infrastructure) and ambient control plots.  To quantify tissue and shoot level hydraulic performances we measured sapwood area-specific (KS, kg•m-1•s-1•MPa-1) and leaf area-specific (KL, g•m-1•s-1•MPa-1) hydraulic conductivity in similar sized distal branches, and we calculated AS:AL (sapwood area to leaf area ratio) to compare shoot level allocation.

Samples collected at predawn and midday both exhibited significant trends between species and across treatments.  Between species, juniper possessed significantly higher KS compared to piñon in all plots except irrigation, and higher KL than piñon in all plots.  Across treatments, irrigated juniper exhibited higher KS and KL relative to ambient and droughted plants, while irrigated piñon exhibited higher KS relative to ambient, drought and cover control plants, and irrigated and ambient piñon had higher KL than droughted and cover control plants.  Junipers did not modify AS:AL across treatments, while irrigated piñon had significantly lower AS:AL compared to all other plots.  Thus, under current climatic conditions in the Sevilleta, piñon and juniper achieve similar shoot hydraulic performances, but through different strategies: juniper maximizes xylem conductivity, while piñon maximizes xylem supply to leaves.  If climate change in the Southwest results in increased aridity, piñon could be vulnerable to extirpation from its current distribution in lower elevation PJ woodlands, as juniper demonstrates superior hydraulic capability at both the tissue and shoot level under drought conditions.

 

Keywords: 
droughts
measurements
leaf area
rain
hydraulic conductance
conductivity
irrigation
water
leaves
trees
Station Acronym: 
SEV
Personnel Involved
Geo Temporal Info
Date Range: 
Thu, 07/01/2010 - Fri, 10/01/2010
Methods
Methods: 

Shoot ΨW

One shoot from each target tree was harvested between 0430-0545h and between 1200-1400h, to get predawn and midday water potential (referred to hereafter as ΨPD and ΨMD, respectively). Samples were placed in plastic bags containing a small segment of moist paper towel to prevent further dessication, which were placed in coolers out of direct sunlight in the interim time between collection and processing (between 15-60 minutes). Water potential (ΨW) [u1]was measured using a pressure chamber (PMS, Corvallis, OR).

Stem Hydraulics

After ΨW was measured, shoots were placed in humid plastic bags and allowed to equilibrate for 24 hours in a refrigerator.  Shoots were then trimmed underwater to remove peripheral embolized tissue and inserted into a steady state flow meter to measure hydraulic conductivity, Kh, kg•m-1•s-1•MPa-1 (see Hudson et al. 2010 for a full explanation of method).  In brief, the steady state flowmeter operates on the Ohm’s Law analogy of hydraulic transport (Tyree 1997), and solves for Kh by knowing the pressure gradient and the flow rate of sap surrogate (20 mM KCl, Zwieniecki et al. 2001) through the flowmeter, and measuring the pressure drop across the sample stem segment.  Hydraulic conductivity was calculated as flow through the sample segment divided by the pressure gradient across the sample segment. Sapwood cross-sections and distal leaf areas were measured for each sample to normalize Kh at tissue level (KS, sapwood area specific hydraulic conductivity, kg•m-1•s-1•MPa-1) and shoot level (KL, leaf area specific hydraulic conductivity, g•m-1•s-1•MPa-1). AS:AL was calculated for each species by dividing each sample’s sapwood area by distal leaf area.


Instrumentation: 

Instrument Name: Pressure Chamber    

Manufacturer: PMS Instrument Company    

Model Number: 1505D    

 

Instrument Name:  Gage model pressure transducer (0-15 psig range)    

Manufacturer:  Omega Engineering, INC.

Model number: PX26-015GV

restricted: 
Access to Data is Restricted per LTER Data Sharing Policy. Contact SEV IM for more information.

Core Research Site Web Quadrat Data for the Net Primary Production Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1999- )

SEV_ID: 
129
Dataset ID: 
129
Abstract: 

This dataset is part of a long-term study at the Sevilleta LTER measuring net primary production (NPP) across four distinct ecosystems: creosote-dominant shrubland (Site C, est. winter 1999), black grama-dominant grassland (Site G, est. winter 1999), blue grama-dominant grassland (Site B, est. winter 2002), and pinon-juniper woodland (Site P, est. winter 2003). Net primary production is a fundamental ecological variable that quantifies rates of carbon consumption and fixation. Estimates of NPP are important in understanding energy flow at a community level as well as spatial and temporal responses to a range of ecological processes.

Above-ground net primary production is the change in plant biomass, represented by stems, flowers, fruit and and foliage, over time and incoporates growth as well as loss to death and decomposition. To measure this change the vegetation variables in this dataset, including species composition and the cover and height of individuals, are sampled twice yearly (spring and fall) at permanent 1m x 1m plots within each site. A third sampling at Site C is performed in the winter. The data from these plots is used to build regressions correlating biomass and volume via weights of select harvested species obtained in SEV157, "Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Weight Data." This biomass data is included in SEV182, "Seasonal Biomass and Seasonal and Annual NPP for Core Research Sites."

This dataset is designated as NA-US-011 in the Global Index of Vegetation-Plot Databases (GIVD). To aid tracking of the use of databases in this index, please also reference this number when citing this data. The GIVD report for SEV129 can be found in: Biodiversity and Ecology 4 - Vegetation Databases for the 21st Century (2012) by J. Dengler et al.

Keywords: 
communities
community patterns
community structure
plant communities
plant species
ecology
plant ecology
vegetation dynamics
biodiversity
plant species composition
species diversity
species richness
measurements
plant cover
productivity
net primary productivity
annual net primary production
population and community properties
temporal properties
long term
seasonality
field methods
permanent plots
growth
plant growth
production
primary production
net primary production
deserts
grasslands
plants
grasses
herbs
forbs
shrubs
vegetation
Additional Information: 

Other researchers involved with collecting samples/data: Megan McClung (MAM; 04/2013-present), Stephanie Baker (SRB; 09/2010-present), John Mulhouse (JMM; 08/2009-present), Amaris Swann (ALS; 08/2008-01/2013), Maya Kapoor (MLK; 08/2003 - 01/2005, 05/2010 - 03/2011), Terri Koontz (TLK; 02/2000 - 08/2003, 08/2006 - 08/2010), Yang Xia (YX; 01/2005 - 03/2010), Karen Wetherill (KRW; 02/2000 - 08/2009);  Michell Thomey (MLT; 09/2005 - 08/2008), Heather Simpson (HLS; 08/2000 - 08/2002), Chris Roberts (CR; 09/2001- 08/2002), Shana Penington (SBP; 01/2000 - 08/2000), Seth Munson (SMM; 09/2002 - 06/2004), Jay McLeod (JRM; 01/2006 - 08/2006); Caleb Hickman (CRH; 09/2002 - 11/2004), Charity Hall (CLH; 01/2005 -  01/2006), Mike Friggens (MTF; 1999 - 09/2001), Tessa Edelen (MTE, 08/2004 - 08/2005).

Maintenance: 

01/12/2010 - Data was QA/QC'd and put in Navicat. Metadata was updated and compiled for 1999-2010. (JMM) 11/29/2009 - Data was QA/QC'd and put in Navicat. Metadata was updated and compiled for 1999-2009. Note: In fall of 2009, data from site G, webs 2, 3, and& 4 (plot N) was not collected due to unexpected fire at Sevilleta LTER sites. (YX) 01/05/2009 - Metadata was updated and compiled for 1999 - 2008. (YX) 01/06/2009 - As of 2007, winter season was no longer measured except at site C (creosotebush only). (YX) 12/05/2009 - NPP data from 1999-2008 was QA/QC'd in MySQL. 2006 (krw). In 2003, site B was added. In 2004, the number of quads was reduced to 40 per site (quads 2 and 4 at each plot are no longer read). I checked for duplicates and missing quads. These most often happened when a recorder mislabeled a particular quad. I also checked every plant code against the USDA Plants database online at http://plants.usda.gov/. All plant codes that have had nomenclature changes were updated. All previously unknown plants that have since been identified were also updated. All unknown plants that will never be identified were left in the database. All types were corrected. A list of codes not in the USDA list that are still in the data are as follows NONE = no plants in quad, OPUN = opuntia seedlings, SPOR = lumped Sporobolus spp (SPAI, SPCO4, SPCR, SPFL2), STEM = bare stem measurements for LATR2, U2 and UKFO18 and UKFO57 = unknowns that will never be identified, UKFO80 = unknown that has not yet been identified. A list of updates and the reason for the changes are below along with comments where identification is uncertain:OLD CODE,NEW CODE,NUMBER_ROWS_AFFECTED,REASON_FOR_CHANGEPOOL,POOL,2,TYPO-999,BOER4,3,ERROR_IN_DATA_MANAGEMENT ALLI1,ALMA4,2,IDENTIFIED_UKFO AMAR2,AMPA,8,IDENTIFIED_UKFO AMAR3,ACNE,9,IDENTIFIED_UKFO AMAR4,AMPA,4,IDENTIFIED_UKFO APIA1,CYMO,2,IDENTIFIED_UKFO ARDR4,ARLUL2,45,BELIEVED_MISIDENTIFICATION ARLUA,ARLUL2,3,BELIEVED_MISIDENTIFICATION ASTE13,SCMU6,31,IDENTIFIED_UKFO ASTE5,UKSH5,4,STILL_UNKNOWN ASTE7,TOAN,1,PROBABLE_IDENTIFICATION_FROM_UKFO_DESCRIPTION ASTRA,ASMIM,1,BEST_GUESS_FROM_DESCRIPTION BRAS1,LEDED,1,PROBABLE_IDENTIFICATION_FROM_UKFO_DESCRIPTION BRAS2,DRGL5,54,IDENTIFIED_UKFOBR BR2,BRCA3,4,ONLY_CHANGE_TO_BRCA3_AFTER_NEW_PJ_PLOT_DESIGN BREU,BREUC2,1,TYPO BRIC1,BRBR2,1,IDENTIFIED_UKFO BRIC3,BREUC2,5,IDENTIFIED_UKFO BRIC4,BREUC2,1,PROBABLE_IDENTIFICATION_FROM_UKFO_DESCRIPTION BRIC5,UKSH5,1,"KNOWN_FROM_LOCATION,_STILL_UNKNOWN" CACT,OPUN,4,"IN_ROW_ID_13908,_13919,_AND_184 47_CHANGE_COVER_TO_1,_THESE_ARE_LENGTH_BY_WIDTH_MEASUREMENTS,_OPUTIA_SPP_SEEDLINGS" CACT1,CACT1,0,NEVER_TO_BE_IDENTIFIED CADR6,HODR,630,NAME_CHANGE CAJA6,POJA5,8,NAME_CHANGE CHAL2,CHAL11,2,CODE_REDUNDANCY CHAM,CHMI7,1,IDENTIFIED_UKFO CHCO2,CHCO,5,ONLY_AT_SITE_MS CHEN1,TECO,58,IDENTIFIED_UKFO CHGO2,CHCO2,1,TYPO CHLA2,CHLA10,127,CODE_REDUNDANCY COAR4,VINE,10,"BAD_IDENTIFICATIONS,_I_RECOMMEND_LUMPING" COAU,COAU2,1,TYPO COEQ,VINE,3,"BAD_IDENTIFICATIONS,_I_RECOMMEND_LUMPING" CONV1,VINE,3,"BAD_IDENTIFICATIONS,_I_RECOMMEND_LUMPING" CONV3,VINE,7,"BAD_IDENTIFICATIONS,_I_RECOMMEND_LUMPING" CONV4,VINE,6,"BAD_IDENTIFICATIONS,_I_RECOMMEND_LUMPING" CRAB,PAOB,2,IDENTIFIED_UKFO CYMO,HYFIC,4,ONLY_AT_SITE_B DAJA,DABR,7,ONLY_AT_SITE_P DEOBO,DEPI,675,BELIEVED_MISIDENTIFICATION DEWO?,DEWO,1,CONFIRMED_ID ECFEF,ECCOC,2,BELIEVED_MISIDENTIFICATION ECFEF2,OPUN,1,ONLY_AT_PIS4 ECFEF2,ECCOC,3,ONLY_AT_SITE_P ECFEF2,ECFEF3,2,NAME_CHANGE ERCI,ERCI6,11,ONLY_ON_5/26/04_SITE_P ERCI6,ERCI,21,ALL_SITE_B ERDI2,ERFL,17,BELIEVED_MISIDENTIFICATION ERDI4,ERFL,32,BELIEVED_MISIDENTIFICATION ERRO2,ERPO4,1,ONLY_AT_SITE_P ERPU8,DAPU7,2006,NAME_CHANGE SCIND,ESVIV,3,ONLY_AT_MG EUGL3,CHGL13,1,NAME_CHANGE FABA1,LUBR2,1,PROBABLE_IDENTIFICATION_FROM_UKFO_DESCRIPTION FABA3,LOPL2,4,IDENTIFIED_UKFOF ORB1,FORB1,0,STILL_UNKNOWN FORB3,DIWI2,3,IDENTIFIED_UKFO GARR1,GACO5,2,IDENTIFIED_UKFO HEOB,HENA,9,BELIEVED_MISIDENTIFICATION HIJA,PLJA,1350,NAME_CHANGE HOGL2,HODR,985,BELIEVED_MISIDENTIFICATION HYVE,MILI3,1,ONLY_AT_SITE_P IPCO2,VINE,116,"BAD_IDENTIFICATIONS,_I_RECOMMEND_LUMPING" IPCO3,VINE,5,"BAD_IDENTIFICATIONS,_I_RECOMMEND_LUMPING" IPLE,VINE,1,"BAD_IDENTIFICATIONS,_I_RECOMMEND_LUMPING" IPLO,IPLO2,3,TYPO JF1,GACO5,2,PROBABLE_IDENTIFICATION_FROM_UKFO_DESCRIPTION JF3,PLPA2,13,PROBABLE_IDENTIFICATION_FROM_UKFO_DESCRIPTION JF5,POOL,1,MOST_COMMON_PORTULACA JG1,ARPUP6,2,PROBABLE_IDENTIFICATION_FROM_UKFO_DESCRIPTION JG2,BOGR2,4,"GRASS_SEEDLINGS,_LIKELY_BOGR2" JUM0,JUMO,1,SPELLED_WITH_A_ZERO KRLA,KRLA2,5,TYPO_NO_KRLA_AT_SITE_MS LARER,LAOCO,204,BELIEVED_MISIDENTIFICATION LITH1,LIIN2,3,IDENTIFIED_UKFO MAGR10,MAPIP,24,"BAD_IDENTIFICATIONS,_I_RECOMMEND_LUMPING" MIMU,MIOX,5,ONLY_FOR_P2R6 MUMI,MUTO2,1,QUESTIONABLE MUSQ,MOSQ,97,CODE_REDUNDANCY NEIN,ECIN2,12,NAME_CHANGE NYCT1,BOSP,1,IDENTIFIED_UKFO NYCT2,MILI3,14,IDENTIFIED_UKFO OEAL,OECAC2,17,"BAD_IDENTIFICATIONS,_I_RECOMMEND_LUMPING" OECEC2,OECAC2,806,CODE_REDUNDANCY ONAG1,GASUN,16,IDENTIFIED_UKFO OPEN,OPEN3,31,TYPO OPMAC,OPMA8,10,TYPO OPUN,OPUN,3,"IN_ROW_ID_19570,_20831,_AND_21055_CHANGE_COVER_TO_1,_THESE_ARE_LENGTH_BY_WIDTH_MEASUREMENTS,_OPUTIA_SPP_SEEDLINGS" OPUN1,OPUN,1,"IN_ROW_ID_38109,_THIS_IS_A_SEEDLING,_CHANGE_COVER_TO_1" PEPA20,SCPA10,1,NAME_CHANGE PF1,DRCUC,24,PROBABLE_IDENTIFICATION_FROM_UKFO_DESCRIPTION PF2,ARLUL2,15,PROBABLE_IDENTIFICATION_FROM_UKFO_DESCRIPTION PF3,PF3,0,NEVER_TO_BE_IDENTIFIED PF4,PF4,0,NEVER_TO_BE_IDENTIFIED PG1,HENE5,8,PROBABLE_IDENTIFICATION_FROM_UKFO_DESCRIPTION PHHEF,SOJA,3,"BAD_IDENTIFICATIONS,_I_RECOMMEND_LUMPING" POAC1,POAC1,0,NEVER_TO_BE_IDENTIFIED POAC11,POFE,25,PROBABLE_IDENTIFICATION_FROM_UKFO_DESCRIPTION POAC12,PAOB,3,IDENTIFIED_UKFO POAC14,POAC14,0,NEVER_TO_BE_IDENTIFIED POAC7,LYPH,3,IDENTIFIED_UKFO POLY1,CHGR2,98,IDENTIFIED_UKFO PORT1,POOL,1,MOST_COMMON_PORTULACA QUGR3,QUTU2,1244,"BAD_IDENTIFICATIONS,_I_RECOMMEND_LUMPING" SAKA,SATR12,588,BELIEVED_MISIDENTIFICATION SC?,SCPA10,1,GRAMA_CACTUS SCIND,ECIN2,19,NAME_CHANGE SCINI,ECIN2,46,BELIEVED_MISIDENTIFICATION SCSCN2,BOCU,8,BELIEVED_MISIDENTIFICATION SEED2,BELY,6,PROBABLE_IDENTIFICATION_FROM_UKFO_DESCRIPTION SOLA6,SOJA,14,IDENTIFIED_UKFO SOLA7,SOJA,2,IDENTIFIED_UKFO_PHHEF_LUMPED_WITH_SOJA SPAI,SPOR,39,ONLY_IN_SITE_P SPCO4,SPOR,2288,"BAD_IDENTIFICATIONS,_I_RECOMMEND_LUMPING" SPCR,SPOR,3603,"BAD_IDENTIFICATIONS,_I_RECOMMEND_LUMPING" SPFL2,SPOR,2485,"BAD_IDENTIFICATIONS,_I_RECOMMEND_LUMPING" SPHAE,SPWR,5,MOST_LIKELY_SPHAERALCEA SPORO,SPOR,2,"BAD_IDENTIFICATIONS,_I_RECOMMEND_LUMPING" STNE,HENE5,6,NAME_CHANGE STNE2,HENE5,72,NAME_CHANGE U1,MAFE,3,IDENTIFIED_UKFO U2,U2,0,NEVER_TO_BE_IDENTIFIED U3,U3,0,NEVER_TO_BE_IDENTIFIED U4,U4,0,NEVER_TO_BE_IDENTIFIED U5,VUOC,26,IDENTIFIED_UKFO U7,SCLA6,3,IDENTIFIED_UKFO UKAS2,ERFL,7,BEST_GUESS_FROM_DESCRIPTION UKCA,CHFE3,2,MOST_COMMON_CHAEMACYSE_IN_AREA UKCA1,MAHEH2,1,LOOKED_IN_FUTURE__DATA UKFO,SEDI3,1,BEST_GUESS_FROM_DESCRIPTION UKFO10,UKFO10,0,NEVER_TO_BE_IDENTIFIED UKFO13,UKFO13,0,NEVER_TO_BE_IDENTIFIED UKFO15,ARLUL2,2,PROBABLE_IDENTIFICATION_FROM_UKFO_DESCRIPTION UKFO16,BRBR2,3,IDENTIFIED_UKFO UKFO17,UKFO17,0,NEVER_TO_BE_IDENTIFIED UKFO18,UKFO18,0,NEVER_TO_BE_IDENTIFIED UKFO19,GUSA2,3,IDENTIFIED_UKFO UKFO20,SPLE,2,BEST_GUESS_FROM_DESCRIPTION UKFO21,DAJA,1,IDENTIFIED_UKFO UKFO22,SEDI3,1,IDENTIFIED_UKFO UKFO23,MESCS,1,IDENTIFIED_UKFO UKFO31,UKFO31,0,"COULD_BE_BADI,_GLWR_OR_NECA3" UKFO32,SACYH2,1,IDENTIFIED_UKFO UKFO51,UKFO51,0,NEVER_TO_BE_IDENTIFIED UKFO57,UKFO57,0,NEVER_TO_BE_IDENTIFIED UKFO61,THWR,186,IDENTIFIED_UKFO UKFO62,THWR,34,IDENTIFIED_UKFO UKFO7,ZIGR,2,IDENTIFIED_UKFO UKFO72,MILI3,27,PROBABLE_IDENTIFICATION_FROM_UKFO_DESCRIPTION UKFO72?,MILI3,1,PROBABLE_IDENTIFICATION_FROM_UKFO_DESCRIPTION UKFO73,HYVE,4,PROBABLE_IDENTIFICATION_FROM_UKFO_DESCRIPTION UKFO75,UKFO75,0,NEVER_TO_BE_IDENTIFIED UKFO76,UKFO75,3,NEVER_TO_BE_IDENTIFIED UKFO80,UKFO80,0,NOT_YET_IDENTIFIED UKGR2,LYPH,1,BEST_GUESS_FROM_DESCRIPTION UKSH1,SPLE,2,BEST_GUESS_FROM_DESCRIPTION UKSH4,BREUC2,8,IDENTIFIED_UKFO UKSH5,UKSH5,0,NOT_YET_IDENTIFIED

Station Acronym: 
SEV
Personnel Involved
Data Manager: 
Geo Temporal Info
Publication Date: 
01/13/2011
Date Range: 
Mon, 02/01/1999 - Mon, 12/09/2013
Methods
Methods: 

Locating the Sampling Quadrats:

Three core sites (B, G, and C) contain five rodent trapping webs. Each web consists of twelve 100m transects radiating out from a central rebar stake marked #145. There are four permanently marked ANPP plots on each of the trapping webs. These plots are located 10 meters from the end of the transects extending in the four cardinal directions. Each plot consists of four quadrats oriented around a tall center stake. Each quadrat is marked by two short, orange fiberglass stakes. Quad 1 is northwest of the center stake followed in a clockwise direction by quads 2, 3, and 4. As of 2004, only quads 1 (northwest of center stake) and 3 (southeast of center stake) are read at each plot.

Note: Winter measurements of all sites except Creosote (C) ceased after 2006.

Note: On August 4, 2009, some of the webs and quadrats within the unburned Black Grama (G) core site were impacted a lightning-initiated fire.  Thus, webs 2 and 3 were abandoned and extra plots added to areas within webs 1, 4, and 5 that were not burned.  Changes were as follows:

Webs 1, 4, and 5: A plot was added to the northeast to compensate for the loss of all plots at webs 2 and 3.

Web 4: A plot was added to the northwest to compensate for the northern plot, which was burned.

Note: At the blue grama/grassland study site, webs four and five are oblong rather than round. Therefore, the west and east plots are only 100 m apart.

Collecting the Data:

Net primary production data is collected twice each year, spring and fall, for all sites. The Five Points Creosote Core Site is also sampled in winter. Spring measurements are taken in April or May when shrubs and spring annuals have reached peak biomass. Fall measurements are taken in either September or October when summer annuals have reached peak biomass but prior to killing frosts. Winter measurements are taken in February before the onset of spring growth.

Vegetation data is collected on a palm top computer. A 1-m2 PVC-frame is placed over the fiberglass stakes that mark the diagonal corners of each quadrat. When measuring cover it is important to stay centered over the vegetation in the quadrat to prevent errors caused by angle of view (parallax). Each PVC-frame is divided into 100 squares with nylon string. The dimensions of each square are 10cm x 10cm and represent 1 percent of the total area.

The cover (area) and height of each individual live (green) vegetative unit that falls within the one square meter quadrat is measured. A vegetative unit consists of an individual size class (as defined by a unique cover and height) of a particular species within a quadrat. Cover is quantified by counting the number of 10cm x 10cm squares filled by each vegetative unit.

Niners and plexidecs are additional tools that help accurately determine the cover a vegetative unit. A niner is a small, hand-held PVC frame that can be used to measure canopies. Like the larger PVC frame it is divided into 10cm x 10cm squares, each square representing 1% of the total cover. However, there are only nine squares within the frame, hence the name “niner.” A plexidec can help determine the cover of vegetative units with covers less than 1%. Plexidecs are clear plastic squares that are held above vegetation. Each plexidec represents a cover of 0.5% and has smaller dimensions etched onto the surface that correspond to 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% cover.

It is extremely important that cover and height measurements remain consistent over time to ensure that regressions based on this data remain valid. Field crew members should calibrate with each other to ensure that observer bias does not influence data collection.

Cover Measurements:

Grasses-To determine the cover of a grass clump, envision a perimeter around the central mass or densest portion of the plant, excluding individual long leaves, wispy ends, or more open upper regions of the plant. Live foliage is frequently mixed with dead foliage in grass clumps and this must be kept in mind during measurement as our goal is to measure only plant biomass for the current season. In general, recently dead foliage is yellow and dead foliage is gray. Within reason, try to include only yellow or green portions of the plant in cover measurement while excluding portions of the plant that are gray. This is particularly important for measurements made in the winter when there is little or no green foliage present. In winter, sometimes measurements will be based mainly on yellow foliage. Stoloniferous stems of grasses that are not rooted should be ignored. If a stem is rooted it should be recorded as a separate observation from the parent plant.

Forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-The cover of forbs, shrubs and sub-shrubs is measured as the horizontal area of the plant. If the species is an annual it is acceptable to include the inflorescence in this measurement if it increases cover. If the species is a perennial, do not include the inflorescence as part of the cover measurement. Measure all foliage that was produced during the current season, including any recently dead (yellow) foliage. Avoid measuring gray foliage that died in a previous season.

Cacti-For cacti that consist of a series of pads or jointed stems (Opuntia phaecantha, Opuntia imbricata) measure the length and width of each pad to the nearest cm instead of cover and height. Cacti that occur as a dense ball/clump of stems (Opuntia leptocaulis) are measured using the same protocol as shrubs. Pincushion or hedgehog cacti (Escobaria vivipara, Schlerocactus intertextus, Echinocereus fendleri) that occur as single (or clustered) cylindrical stems are measured as a single cover.

Yuccas-Make separate observations for the leaves and caudex (thick basal stem). Break the observations into sections of leaves that are approximately the same height and record the cover as the perimeter around this group of leaf blades. The caudex is measured as a single cover. The thick leaves of yuccas make it difficult to make a cover measurement by centering yourself over the caudex of the plant. The cover of the caudex may be estimated by holding a niner next to it or using a tape measure to measure to approximate the area.

Height Measurements:

Height is recorded as a whole number in centimeters. All heights are vertical heights but they are not necessarily perpendicular to the ground if the ground is sloping.

Annual grasses and all forbs-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the inflorescence (if present). Otherwise, measure to the top of the green foliage.

Perennial grasses-Measure the height from the base of the plant to the top of the live green foliage. Do not include the inflorescence in the height measurement. The presence of live green foliage may be difficult to see in the winter. Check carefully at the base of the plant for the presence of green foliage. If none is found it may be necessary to pull the leaf sheaths off of several plants outside the quadrat. From this you may be able to make some observations about where green foliage is likely to occur.

Perennial shrubs and sub-shrubs (non-creosote)-Measure the height from the base of the green foliage to the top of the green foliage, ignoring all bare stems. Do not measure to the ground unless the foliage reaches the ground.

Plants rooted outside but hanging into a quadrat-Do not measure the height from the ground. Measure only the height of the portion of the plant that is within the quadrat. 

Creosote Measurements till 2013:

To measure creosote (i.e., Larrea tridenta) break the observations into two categories:

1.) Small, individual clusters of foliage on a branch (i.e., branch systems): Measure the horizontal cover of each live (i.e., green) foliage cluster, ignoring small open spaces (keeping in mind the 15% guideline stated above). Then measure the vertical "height" of each cluster from the top of the foliage to a plane created by extending a line horizontally from the bottom of the foliage. Each individual foliage cluster within a bush is considered a separate observation.

2.) Stems: Measure the length of each stem from the base to the beginning of live (i.e., green) foliage. Calculate the cumulative total of all stem measurements. This value is entered under "height" with the species as "stem" for each quadrat containing creosote. All other variable receive a default entry of "1" for creosote stem measurements.

Do not measure dead stems or areas of dead foliage. If in doubt about whether a stem is alive, scrape the stem with your fingernail and check for the presence of green cambium.

Creosote Measurements 2013 and after:

Each creosote is only measured as one total cover. Each quad that contains creosote will have one cover observation for each creosote canopy in quad.

Recording the Data:

Excel spreadsheets are used for data entry and file names should begin with the overall study (npp), followed by the date (mm.dd.yy) and the initials of the recorder (.abc). Finally, the site abbreviation should be added (i.e., c, g, b, p). The final format for sites B, G, and C should be as follows: npp_core.mm.dd.yy.abc.xls. For site P, the file format should be npp_pinj.mm.dd.yy.abc.xls. File names should be in lowercase.

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